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Vol. 26, No. l\ 


Whole No. 151 

Foundry of the Jeanesville Iron Works. 

The Jeanesville Iron Works is the natural 
outgrowth of the mining conditions of the 
anthracite region. The plant was formerly 
located at Jeanesville, in the Hazleton region. 
The owners made a careful study of the min- 
ing conditions and designed pumping machin- 
ery especially suited to meet those conditions. 
The result was that Jeanesville pu:nps became 
noted the world over as a superior class of 
mining pumps. The business finally outgrew 
the old plant at Jeanesville and they cast about 
for a new building site. The most available 
and best located site to be found was in 
Hazleton, only a few miles from their old 

the architects constructed a tower in the center 
of the works. This tower is over the cleaning 
department. The story immediately above the 
cleaning department contains the engines and 
heating coils for use in connection with the 
American Blower Co.'s heating system. Above 
this room is located a 30,000 gal. capacity 
lank which contains the service supply for the 
entire works. There is always a sufficient 
volume of water on hand to fight any ordinary 
fire, but as a reserve they have constructed 
a 350,000 gal. capacity reservoir on the high 
ground back of the plant and. installed a large 
fire pump to be used in case of emergency. 


works. Desiring to have the most efficient 
plant possible they made a careful study of 
the best modern plants along their line, em- 
ploying Messrs. Ballinger & Perrot of Phila- 
delphia, as architects for the buildings, and 
Messrs. Dodge & Day, of Nicetown, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., as experts to look after the 
mechanical equipment. The plant has been 
designed in such a way that it is capable of 
expansion in all directions. The buildings are 
of concrete construction and either fire-proof 
or of slow burning construction for the in- 
terior works. Owing to the fact that they are 
located outside of the fire district of Hazleton. 

The water supply for the works is from an 
artesian well. 

Tfte iron foundry is located in a building 107 
by 192 feet. The central bay of the foundry 
is 50 feet wide and is provided with a travel- 
ing crane of 20 tons capacity, with 5 tons aux- 
iliary, also with two wall jib cranes and two 
pillar cranes arranged to swing around the 
entire circle of 5 tons capacity each. In ad- 
dition to this, there is a floor controlled elec- 
tric traveling crane over the core department 
of 5 tons capacity, and another over the side 
bay of 5 tons capacity. The crane in the main 
bay is so arranged that it can pass out through 


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March, 1905 



an opening in the end of the building and over 
a runway in flask yard equal to the length 
of the foundry. This runway is so constructed 
that if it was ever desired to continue the 
foundry the posts of the runway will form the 
main posts in the structural work for the 
additional building. 

In order to take care of their special work, 
tliey have provided two pits in the foundry 
floor, one for cylinders and the other for 
plungers. These pits are served by the pillar 
cranes, and are also under the runway of the 
•.nain traveling crane. Many of their molds are 
made in dry sand and require baking and 
hence two large mold-drying ovens have been 
provided at the end of the foundry. Adjoining 
tliese are located the cupolas, one of 60 inches 
diameter, and the other of 45 inches diameter 
inside the lining. Blast is furnished for the 
cupolas by a positive, motor driven blower in 
an adjoining room. The core department is 
located on the same side of the room as the 
cupolas, and there is a double core oven at 
the end of the department. The storage bins 
?nd department for preparing sand are also on 

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March, 1905 




this side of the foundry. The central bay is 
devoted to the heavy work, while a portion of 
the bay opposite the cupolas is devoted to 
light work and the balance to the brass foun- 
dry. The foreman's office is situated about 
midway in the length of the foundry and op- 
posite the cupolas. One thing that has been 
taken into special account in designing the 
plant has been to arrange it so that every- 
thing would move through in a continuous 
line. The pig iron, coal, etc., are brought in 
on tracks at the foundry end of the plant. 
An elevated track is provided, with bins be- 
neath it for the storage of various materials 
used in the foundry, and this track also runs 
over the coal bins at the power plant. The 
castings pass from the foundry directly into 
the cleaning department, which is equipped 
throughout with pneumatic tools, including 2 

10 ton pneumatic traveling cranes for handl- 
ing castings. From the cleaning department 
castings pass directly into the machine shop. 

Pneumatic tools are used throughout the 
shop in all cases in which they will facilitate 
the work. Among other appliances, a drop 
weight for breaking heavy scrap has been in- 
stalled in the yard and arranged to operate 
with a pneumatic hoist. The brass foundry is 
separated from the iron foundry by an ex- 
panded metal partition. 

The foundry is lighted by what might be 
called a double monitor roof. In the first 
place, there is a monitor roof over the central 
bay with windows along the sides, and above 
this, over the center of the main bay, there 
is a ventilator with windows along both sides. 
These windows, together with the side win- 
dows, afford ample light. 


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March, 1905 


N. W. SHED. 

What are blackings made of? 

The question is commonly answered by say- 
ing, black lead or plumbago. It is true that 
many blackings contain more or less black 
lead; but, on the other hand, it is true that a 
great many blackings contain no black lead at 
all. The question might be answered by say- 
ing, coal. This answer would be nearer right, 
for probably three-fourths of the blacking used 
in the United States is made out of hard coal 
pulverized. Hard coal is generally regarded 
as being quite uniform in composition, yet 
there is a marked difference in the various 
hard coal blackings. 

As an instance of this, the experience of a 
cast iron pipe maker may be valuable. This 
manufacturer had begun using a new lot of 
blacking and soon noticed that the sand stuck 
to the pipes, giving them a very rough appear- 
ance. He went to the blacking dealer and 
said : "Your last lot of blacking is not good.'' 
"I am sure it is all right," replied the dealer. 
"Just the same as we have been sending you." 
But the pipe man was not satisfied and sent 
samples of the old and the new blacking to a 
foundry chemist, with these results: 


Ash 10 percent 

Solid carbon 83 " 


Ash 18 percent 

Solid carbon 75 " 

This proved that there was a decided dif- 
ference in the blacking and also showed that 
the blacking with low ash and high carbon kept 
the sand from sticking to the casting. The 
poor blacking was made of a slaty, hard coal, 
what the miners call bone coal; this is the 
refuse of the anthracite breakers and can be 
obtained for little or nothing. The good 
blacking was made from a good quality of 
hard coal. 

For some classes of work, such as ingot 
molds, an inferior blacking will do very well 
and the saving in expense is considerable. A 
sample of ingot mold blacking recently an- 
alyzed in the Foundrymen*s Laboratory 
showed : 

Ash 24.70 

Solid carbon 72.90 

This blacking had very little volatile matter 
and this indicates that it is made not from 
hard coal, but from coke, ground very fine. 

For small castings, requiring a very smooth 
surface, a much finer quality of blacking is 
used. These blackings contain a large quan- 
tity of plumbago, yet the blacking maker is 
prone to put in as small a quantity of plum- 
bago as possible and yet have the blacking fill 
the bill. • 

• A plumbago blacking, called by the trade 
pure plumbago, had this composition : 

Ash 47 percent 

Volatile matter 7 " 

Solid carbon 46 " 

This is very far from pure plumbago, which 
should be 100 percent carbon or graphite. The 
graphite as mined has usually many mineral 
impurities and to this impure graphite a large 
amount of soapstone is added, making a prod- 
uct which masquerades as plumbago. It is 
very common to' find 50 percent soapstone in 
plumbago blackings. In fact, there is very 
little pure plumbago sold for foundry use. 

It would seem reasonable to demand that 
when pure plumbago is wanted it should be 
at least 75 percent pure. 

The pure graphite can be recognized by its 
occurring in little scales with a bluish black 
lustre. When dropped into water these scales 
tend to float. If the dry plumbago is rubbed 
upon a porcelain plate the streak will have a 
greenish hue. With a good lens or small 
microscope the flakes of graphite may be 
readily distinguished from the impurities. Feld- 
spar is often used as an adulterant and can 
be recognized by its cleavage. 

As there are white blackbirds, so there are 
white blackings. Under this head are the va- 
rious grades of talc or soapstone which can be 
used alone for some kinds of work. 

Among the white blackings are preparations 
of infusorial earth, which is very fine silica. 
Another light blacking is lycopodium, which 
is a pale yellow dust composed of the spores 
of a fern-like plant. The latter are used main- 
ly in fine steel and brass castings. 

A near relative of the hard coal blacking is 
the sea coal facing. 

In some foundries the blackings are called 
facings and the supply houses ship plumbago 
as a facing. The sea coal used with sand at 
the face of the mold is generally called facing. 
This facing, to be efficient, must give off con- 
siderable gas when the iron strikes it, and 
therefore bituminous coal, usually called soft 
coal, is used. , 

The name sea coal probably comes from 
the fact that the soft coal in England was corn- 

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March, 1905 


monly shipped by way of the sea. The name 
means nothing here for the soft coal used in 
foundries rarely visits the sea. 

An extremely gassy sea coal should be 
avoided. Some prefer the Pittsburg coal with 
about 32 percent of gas or volatile matter, 
while many like the semi-bituminous coals of 
Central Pennsylvania and Maryland, contain- 
ing about 22 percent volatile matter. 

Westmoreland County, Pa., has shipped a 
large amount of satisfactory sea coal. 

The best method of testing blackings and 
facings is by burning. 

A small quantity is weighed in a platmine 
crucible, the crucible is covered and heated to 
a red heat for three minutes. This will drive 
oflF the volatile matter. The crucible is cooled 
and weighed; the loss in weight gives the 
amount of volatile matter or gas. The residue 
in the crucible is now like coke. The crucible 
is placed on its side and heated to a bright red 
for several minutes, stirring the contents oc- 
casionally. The ash appears gray or white, 
When no black particles are visible, remove the 
crucible from the flame and weigh again. The 
last weight gives the amount of ash. The solid 
or fixed carbon is found by adding the percen- 
tage of volatile matter to the percentage of ash 
and subtracting from 100. 

In many of the adulterated plumbago black- 
ings the ash will melt, owing to the adulterant 
present making a flux with the silicious matter 
of the impure graphite. 

The volatile matter will usually decide 
whether the blacking is made of ground coal 
or ground coke. A ground hard coal will 
usually show 7 percent volatile matter. A 
ground coke shows usually less than 3 percent. 
The method of testing shown above is short 
and inexpensive. It would pay every foundry- 
man to test what he calls a good blacking and 
when he buys a new supply hold the manufac- 
turer to this test. This would avoid the loss 
and annoyance caused by poor blackings 
which are now being floated on the unsuspect- 
ing foundryman. 

Eoundrymen's Laboratory, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Henry Robertson, of Wadena, Minn., has 
leased a foundry and machine shop at Long 
Prairie, Minn., and expects to place it in op- 
eration before long. 

The iron foundry of Geary & Powell, of 
Jersey City, N. J., is now being equipped and 
they expect to have it completed by March 
1st. The shop is 50 by 100 ft. They expect 
to do machinery and general jobbing work. 



The alloys of copper, classed under the gen- 
eral heads of brasses and bronzes, may, be- 
sides copper, contain tin, lead or zinc in any 
combination up to 40 percent of the total 
formula. Antimony, iron phosphorus and sul- 
phur may also be present, but usually in small 
amounts. There are also brasses contain- 
ing 2 to 3 percent of aluminum and what 
are known as aluminum bronzes, carrying gen- 
erally about 10 percent of aluminum with 90 
percent of copper. 

For practical purposes it is generally suf- 
ficient to determine any or all of the first four 
metals mentioned and therefore only the meth- 
ods applicable to these will be considered here. 

If the metal is what the foundryman calls 
yellow, the copper content will be between 60 
and 75 percent; if it is what is known as red 
or steam metal, it will be between 75 and 90 
percent. The tin content may be as low as a 
few tenths of a percent in yellow metal for 
rolling purposes, or as high as 10 to 15 percent 
in gun metal or bell metal for casting purposes. 
The lead content varies similarly from a few 
tenths of a percent in rolling metal to 15 or 
even 30 percent in metal suitable for bearings. 
The average lead content in red metal is be- 
tween 3 and 5 percent. Zinc varies from 
2 percent in the familiar 88r-io-2 gun 
metal mixture to 40 percent in Memtz 
metal for rolling purposes. The average con- 
tent for yellow metal is between 25 and 30 
percent and for red metal 5 to 10 percent. 

Methods of Analysis. 

The procedure is as follows: 

Weigh out 2.5 grams of the sample into a 
250 cc. beaker, add sufficient water to cover it, 
cover the beaker with a watch glass, add 10 cc. 
of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.42) and warm until all 
metallic particles are dissolved. Now add 
hot water to make the volume of the solution 
40 cc. and boil five minutes to insure the com- 
plete precipitation of the tin. If no white 
residue appears at this point it shows absence 
of tin. Antimony would appear here also if 
present. If a white residue is formed, filter 
and wash with 2 percent nitric acid to insure 
the complete removal of copper, dry, ignite in 
a porcelain crucible and weigh as stannic 
oxide (Sn. O2). From this calculate the per- 
centage of tin present. Stannic oxide gener- 
ally carries down a small amount of the other 
metallic salts present in the solution, which 

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March, 1905 

causes the results to come about o.i percent 
high for every percent of tin present. If very 
«iccurate results are desired, the precipitate may 
be purified by fusion and reprecipitation, but 
this is seldom necessary. 

To the filtrate from the tin, which should be 
m a porcelain dish or casserole, add 10 cc. of 
sulfuric acid (sp. gr. 1.84), and set on the 
steam bath until all the nitric acid has evapo- 
rated. An indication of this is a change of 
color from a deep to a pale blue. The best way 
is to arrange the work so that this evaporation 
will take place over night as then no time is 

Some prefer to evaporate off the nitric acid 
over a naked flame, but it is the writer's ex- 
perience that the time gained is more than off- 
set by the danger of loss by spurting. 

Then add 125 cc. of water to the casserole 
and boil until the sulfates of copper and zinc 
are dissolved. Allow to cool, then filter 
off the lead sulfate and wash with di- 
lute sulfuric acid i :20 to remove the 
copper and zinc. Remove the beaker 
containing the filtrate and finish the washing 
with a mixture of alcohol and water i :i to re- 
move the sulfuric acid. The latter washing is 
necessary because any sulfuric acid remaining 
in the filter will char it and make it difficult to 
handle during ignition. Dry the lead sulfate 
on the filter, then remove it to glazed paper 
by means of a spatula and camel's hair brush. 
Suspend the filter over a porcelain crucible, by 
means of a platinum wire, ignite it, allowing 
the ash to fall into the crucible. Now add two 
drops of nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.42) and one drop 
of sulfuric acid (sp. gr. 1.84) and heat gently 
until the white fumes of sulfuric anhydride are 
expelled. This changes any lead that may have 
been reduced by the burning paper, back to 
sulfate. Replace the main portion of the pre- 
cipitate in the crucible and ignite it at a red 
heat for a few minutes. Weigh as lead sulfate, 
from which calculate the percentage of metallic 

*A volumetric method for lead using am- 
monium persulfate has been carried out by 
Walters and Affelder, which cuts down the 
time very materially, but the writer's experi- 
ence with it has been that low results are liable 
• to be obtained through incomplete oxidation of 
the lead by the persulfate. More exact condi- 
tions for precipitation may remedy this defect. 

Make the filtrate from the lead sulfate up to 
500 cc. in a volumetric flask. If several 
analy ses are being carried on at once it is gen- 

•Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc, June, 1903, XXV. 632. 

erally convenient to put this solution into a 
bottle to be taken out as needed. 

For the determination of copper the method 
used is that of Low.* 

"Standardization of the Thiosulfate Solution. 
— Prepare a solution of sodium thiosulfate 
containing about 19 grams of the pure crystals 
to the liter. Standardize as follows: Weigh 
accurately about 0.200 gram of pure copper foil 
and place in a flask of about 250 cc. capacity. 
Dissolve by warming with 5 cc. of a mixture 
of equal volumes of strong nitric acid (sp. gr. 
1.42) and water and then dilute to about 50 cc. 
Boil for a few moments to partially expel the 
red fumes and then add 5 cc. of strong bromine 
water and boil until the bromine is thoroughly 
expelled. The bromine is to ensure the com- 
plete destruction or removal of the red fumes. 
Remove from the heat and add a slight excess 
of strong ammonia water. Ordinarily it suf- 
fices to add 7 cc. of ammonia water of .90 sp. 
gr. Again boij until the excess of ammonia is 
expelled as shown by a change of color of the 
liquid and a partial precipitation of the copper 
hydroxide or oxide. Now add strong acetic 
acid in slight excess, perhaps 3 or 4 cc. of the 
80 per cent acid in all, and boil again for a 
moment if necessary to redissolve the copper. 
Cool to room temperature and add about 3 
grams of potassium iodide, or 6 cc. of a solu- 
tion of the salt containing 50 grams in 100 cc. 
Cuprous iodide will be precipitated and iodine 
liberated according to the reaction 

2(Cu.2CaH,Oa) -f 4KI = 

Cua I, -f 4 (K.C, H3 O,) -h 2I. 
The free iodine colors the mixture brown. 
Titrate at once with the thiosulfate solution 
until the brown tinge has become weak and 
then add suflficient starch liquor to produce a 
marked blue coloration. Continue the titra- 
tion cautiously until the color due to free 
iodine has entirely vanished. The blue color 
changes towards the end to a faint lilac. If 
at this point the thiosulfate be added drop by 
drop and a little time be allowed for complete 
reaction after each addition, there is no diffi- 
culty in hitting the end-point within a single 
drop. I cc. of the thiosulfate solution will be 
found to correspond to about 0.0005 gram of 
copper. The reaction between the thiosulfate 
and the iodine is 

2 (Na, S, O3) -f 2 I = 2 Nal -f- Na, 84 Ob. 
Sodium iodide and tetrathionate are formed. 
The starch liquor may be made by boiling 
about 0.5 gram of starch with a little water 

•Jour. Amer. Chcm. Soc.. Nov., 1902, XXIV. 1082. 

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March, 1905 


and diluting with hot water to about 250 cc. 
The liquor should be homogeneous and free 
from lumps or grains. It should be used cold 
and must be prepared frequently, as it does 
not keep well. The thiosulfate solution made 
from the pure crystals and distilled water ap- 
pears to be quite stable, showing little or no 
variation in a month under reasonable con- 

Treatment of sample. — Take an aliquot por- 
tion of the 500 cc. solution equivalent to 0.2 
gram of copper, generally 50 cc, add* ammonia, 
boil off excess, add acetic acid and titrate ex- 
actly as described for the standardization. Cal- 
culate the percentage of copper from the vol- 
ume of the thiosulfate solution used. Zinc 
does not interfere with the method. 

If the sample is being analyzed to check the 
furnace man, or to get the approximate mix- 
ture used either for the foundry chemist or a 
customer, it is sufficient, as all the methods 
used are very accurate, to add the results for 
tin, lead and copper and obtain the zinc by 
difference. If, however, the analysis is being 
made to determine the loss of zinc by volatili- 
zation in order to figure out a formula to use 
in connection with either a crucible furnace 
or one of the many forms of oil furnaces which 
are now on the market, it becomes necessary 
to determine the zinc exactly. 

The method used is gravimetric and depends 
on the precipitation of zinc as zinc ammonium 
phosphate and its subsequent ignition to zinc 
pyrophosphate. It is carried out as follows: 
Take an aliquot portion of the 500 cc. solution 
from which the portion for copper was taken 
equivalent to o.i to 0.2 gram of zinc, generally 
250 cc. To remove the copper add 25 cc. of 
sulfurous acid, heat to boiling and add 5-6 
grams of ammonium sulfocyanate. If the pre- 
cipitate of copper sufocyanate is not white or 
cream color, add more sulfurous acid. Allow 
the precipitate to settle, then filter off and 
wash with hot water. Use a fine filter or some 
paper pulp, as the precipitate sometimes has a 
tendency to run through. To the filtrate from 
the copper sulfocyanate add 25 cc. of ammonia 
water (sp. gr. .90) or enough to make it strong- 
ly alkaline, and 50 cc. of a 10 per cent solu- 
tion of ammonium phosphate. The presence 
of an excess of ammonium phosphate de- 
creases the solubility of the zinc ammonium 
phosphate. Make up to approximately 500 cc, 
heat to boiling and cautiously neutralize with 
nitric acid (sp. gr. 1.20) added from a dropper, 
until a slight permanent turbidity is produced. 
Then discontinue the addition of nitric acid 

and add dilute acetic acid (1:25), i cc. at a 
time from a dropper. Continue the addition 
until only a faint odor of ammonia is percepti- 
ble. Heat the solution up again to boiling and 
stir until the precipitate is granular. If the 
precipitate does not become granular after con- 
siderable stirring, it sometimes will do so by 
dissolving it in ammonia and reprecipitating in 
the manner described. Filter off the precipi- 
tate of zinc ammonium phosphate, wash with 
cold water, ignite carefully in platinum, and 
weigh as zinc pyrophosphate (ZnaPOr). 
From this weight calculate the percentage of 
zinc present. 

The copper may also be removed, before 
precipitating the zinc, by hydrogen sulfide, but 
the separation by ammonium sulfocyanate and 
sulfurous acid is much the neater of the two. 


While the methods are all standard, the de- 
tails have been given in full so that the man 
with an occasional analysis of brass to do will 
not have to work them out for himself. 

These methods are published in the hope 
that the. results coming from their use may 
show how important it is to regulate the com- 
position of the metal and how many economies 
may be practiced, if an accurate knowledge 
of its composition is at hand for reference from 
day to day. It is the firm belief of those who 
have made the matter a close study that chem- 
ical analysis can do as much for the brass 
foundry as for the iron foundry and the sooner 
we realize the fact, the sooner will the brass 
foundry occupy the place which its history and 
usefulness demand. 



The story of the Dismal Swamp Foundry 
was enjoyable reading, although the experi- 
ence itself might not have been. 

It reminded me of a shop that also had a 
few peculiarities. This foundry was located 
in a southern state, and the class of work vv.\s 
stoves, sash weights, columns, sidewalk lights, 
castings for windmills, and in fact any old 
thing, even engine brasses when they could get 

Amongst their peculiarities was a human 
traveling crane. This "crane" was composed 
of colored persons, and poor white trash, and 
was used to carry the metal for comparatively 
heavy castings to distant parts of the rambling 
old building. 

Digitized by 



March, 19Q5 

Probably these comparatively heavy castings 
never weighed a ton, but the "crane" had a 
staggering and most profane time, carrying 
half that quantity of metal, from the cupola 
to the mold, arrived at which the ladle was 
placed on horses and filled up with bull ladles. 
When we started out, the ladle did not look 
so big, but the way it grew, on its progress to 
the mold, and the number of ladles of iron it 
swallowed, when there, was astonishing. 

The heaviest work was made within reach 
of the jib crane, which of course included the 
cupola within its sweep. It was a wooden 
affair equipped with a rope, said rope being 
more or less frayed. I was more afraid of 

the occasion by installing a private gas plant. 
He procured a dome of heavy sheet iron about 
three feet in diameter, in the center of the 
dome was a hole, in the hole was screwed 
about four feet of i-inch gas pipe, which ter- 
minated in a common burner minus the tip. 

The gas plant was operated by placing this 
dome over a hole dug in the floor, the hole 
contained a wheelbarrow of soft coal. The 
first ladle of iron was dumped into this hole, 
through an opening left for the purpose, which 
opening and all other openings around the 
dome were then stopped up with sand in the 
same manner and with the same ceremonies 
that are observed in "stopping up" a leak in 


the jib crane than of the traveling crane, 
and I think of the two it was the noisier and 
most decrepit. 

There was a small machine shop connected 
with the plant, six p. m. was the machinists' 
quitting time, and was supposed to be ours, 
only our foreman mistook the whistle as the 
signal for putting on the blast so we were too 
busy to think of going home, until from 7 
to 8 o'clock, long before which time it was 
dark, and as it had never occurred to the 
proprietors to provide any kind of illumina- 
tion in the foundry, it was up to the foreman 
to do something in that line, and he arose to 

a mold. A light was then applied to the 
burner and a flame flared up that made an 
effective torch, while it lasted. 

This illuminated the scene around the cu- 
pola, the more remote corners of the shop 
being "lighted" by bits of waste burning in 
shallow tins of oil. 

The roof of this shop was propped up by 
pieces of old rails from a convenient railroad 
and in the smoke, steam and gloom of casting 
time, these rails were invisible and collisions 
not unfrequently occurred. 

It was one of these collisions in which I 
figured, together with a bull ladle of iron. 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



which convinced me my health was too deli- 
cate for the job. So when through that night, 
I tumbled out of a window, for I could not 
find any door and gathering together my pieces 
from amongst the flasks, boards and things 
that had gently broken my fall, I wiped the 
tears from my smoke-blinded eyes and shook 
the sand of that "foundry" from my shoes 


The firm of Rowland Priest, of Cradley 
Heath, Eng., has developed a method of over- 
head traction for shops and foundries. The 
system has been especially designed to meet 
the requirements of those desiring as simple 
and inexpensive a construction as possible. 
The company has made a flat bar runway 
which is devoid of levers, springs, switches or 
cords at the cross-over points. The arrange- 
ment consists of a pair of flat iron bars run- 
ning parallel and on edge with sufficient space 
between for the carriage, the latter being sus- 
pended by two rollers running side by side on 
the top edges of the rails. The rolls are fitted 
with ball bearings and easily twisted around 
in a horizontal plane by a corresponding turn- 
ing of the load beneath. This slight twist — 
and in practice it is said to be almost im- 
perceptible—of the load operates on two guide 
rollers acting between the rails. These guide 
rollers are fixed fore and aft of the two main 
rollers and thus direct the carriage to any 
desired angle for running smoothly over the 
junctions of the rails without jerking or 
cramping of the carriage. The makers claim 
for the device: Easy handling of the load 
along the rails which being flat ensure a 
smooth motion; moving over rail junctions 
merely by slight twisting of the load in the 
direction it should travel ; freedom from stick- 
ing at junctions or impediment to motion by 
rollers dropping into openings as the support- 
ing rollers are of sufficient width to avoid any 
danger of this kind and the carriage will run 
readily around a 2-ft. curve. 


James Cunningham, of Florence, Mass., has 
a patented pin connection for aligning the cope 
and drag of a flask and clamping them to- 
gether. The pin can be inserted from above 
or below the bracket lugs and may be with- 
drawn and used for other flasks, etc. 

The three first views show the pin applied 
to the two sections of a flask. A bracket com- 

prising a plate and ear A is fastened by screws 
to the cope and a similar bracket is attached 
to the drag, both brackets being in the same 
vertical plane. The ears project forward from 
the plates and have slots B. On the side of 
the ears near the supporting plates are cam 
surfaces C, one of them starting from the side 
of the forward slot B and ending at the corre- 
sponding side of the rear slot B, increasing in 
thickness from front to back. A similar cam 
surface is around the other side of the open- 
ing through the ear. Flanges are formed on 


Jf'uj, » 


rig. 3 

JFig, 4 


the ears as at D as bearing surfaces for the 
head of a pin E. These flanges bound oppo- 
site sides of the holes and slots in a similar 
manner to the cam surfaces C. 

The pin E has the head at one end and 
oppositely disposed lugs F intermediate of the 
head and the other end of the pin. The pin E 
fits the hole in the lug and the projections F 
slide through the slots and when the pin is 
turned ride on the cam surfaces C. The ro- 
tation of the pin locks the ear between the 
lugs and the head. 

In addition to providing means for aligning 
the halves of a flask it may be necessary to 
fasten the sections together so that the cope 
cannot be lifted from the drag. In Fig. 4 
two additional lugs G extend from the pin E 
between the lugs F. These lugs are arranged 
to engage the flanges D on the ear through 
which the pin last passes when the latter is 
turned to bring the projections F into engage- 
ment with the cam surfaces. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

The Pouisdry. 


The Penton Publishing Co. 


OHIOASOi ll«4Moii«dnoek Blk^ 

PITTSBUBOi 4»9 ParkBIdc., 

NEW TOKK I ISO Nssmii Bt. 

The subscription price of Thb Pounsrt is $1.00 a 
year to points in the United States, Canada and Mexico. 
To Great Britain : Bight shillings. Single copies 15 cents. 

When sending in articles be sure to place your name 
and address on the article and on the drawings. 

Practical articles pertaining to the trade in all its 
branches are solicited and will be paid for. 

oiAtler M th« Post-Offloe at Gtereland, Ohio. 


Foundry of the Jeanesville Iron Works. ... i 

Foundry Blackings 4 

Practical Methods of Analysis for Brasses 

and Bronzes 5 

A Foundry Experience 7 

Overhead Traction for Foundries 9 

A Patent Flask Pin 9 

Trade Outlook 10 

Education of Foundrymen 10 

Car Wheel Casting Difficulties 12 

Molding Sand ! 12 

Casting Round Flasks in Cores 14 

Bells 15 

Automatic Core Ovens Using Oil as Fuel. . 16 

Melting Scrap Aluminum 19 

An Old Man*s Kick 20 

Souvenir Number of The Blacksmith and 

Wheelwright 21 

Foaming Slag 21 

Making a Spiral Drum in Loam 22 

High Silicon Pig Iron 29 

A Casting Difficulty 29 

Reviews 30 

A New Air Compressor 32 

Associations and Societies 33 

Mold Drying Methods for Steel Castings . . 37 

Metals in Foundry Practice 38 

Cast Iron Notes 38 

Notes on Malleable Cast Iron 39 

Brass Foundry Notes 39 

A Whiskey Bottle Cupola 41 

Shot Iron 42 

New Books 43 

A Grate Bar Difficulty 43 

Trade Publications 44 

Personals 46 

Deaths 46 

Fires 47 

New Construction 47 

General Industrial Notes 48 


The pig iron market has not changed great- 
ly during February. There have been a num- 
ber of quite large sales of iron, including one 
of 40,000 tons of Southern No. 2 foundry, at 
$13.50 Birmingham, and another sale of 15,000 
tons of Northern No. 2 foundry at $16.00 at the 
furnace, and several other large sales, at about 
the same price. The United States Steel Cor- 
poration has purchased qyiite heavily, includ- 
ing the purchase of 30,000 tons of basic for the 
Pencoyd works. A number of founders who 
purchased iron quite heavily a few months 
ago have been reselling the surplus, and these 
re-sales have tended to keep the price from 
going high, and in fact, in some cases sellers 
have shaded slightly under the market price. 
The pig iron situation, however, seems to in- 
dicate a firm market. The production at pres- 
ent is at the rate of over 21,000,000 tons per 
year, and this will probably be increased to 
21,500,000 tons within a very short time. In 
this case it is interesting to note that the larg- 
est production ever made during any calendar 
year in the United States was 18,000,000 tons. 

The railroads are placing orders for cars 
more freely and this results in the placing of 
orders for a considerable amount of work 
with the malleable foundries. Other lines of 
malleable iron have also been more active 
than for some time. The gray iron foundries 
all over the country report an increase in busi- 
ness, and unless business conditions are dis- 
turbed in some way the year 1905 bids fair to 
be a record breaker. 

Selling prices for castings, however, are 
still pretty close to production costs and it 
will take careful management on the part of 
the foundrymen to make profits even with the 
increased volume of business. 


No matter what angle we approach the 
problem from, all interested in foundry mat- 
ters are agreed upon one thing, and that is, 
that the continuation of American foundry 
practice on its present high plane necessitates 
the education of a large number of men as 
skilled molders; and second, that from these 
skilled molders or from some other source, 
must be recruited a body of men to act as 
foundry superintendents, foremen, and assist- 
ant foremen. The foundry probleirr has been 
seriously complicated of late years by the 
introduction of many methods, devices and 

Digitized by 


March, 19O5 



processes hitherto unknown. These have come 
from within the foundry. From without have 
come the. demands on the part of manufactur- 
ers for castings made according to rigid speci- 
fications on the one hand, and the ever in- 
creasing variations in the composition of pig 
iron on the other hand. To meet these con- 
ditions, it has become necessary for some 
one connected with each foundry to under- 
stand the mixing of iron by analysis, either 
chemical or mechanical, in order to control 
the foundry mixture and enable the foundry- 
men to fill specifications. 

Another point upon which there can be no 
disagreement is that no education is complete 
without a knowledge of the actual work itself, 
that is, without the doing of the work. If a 
man is to be a foreman, in the fullest sense 
of the word, he should primarily be a molder, 
or at least have had sufficient experience in 
molding to be able to judge good work, both 
as to quality and output 

To furnish the technical knowledge neces- 
sary in connection with our modern foundry 
practice, those interested in foundry subjects 
have put forth their efforts along several dif- 
ferent lines. First there are the trade papers, 
which have published practical articles upon 
the subjects. Second, there are the foundry- 
men's associations for technical purposes, such 
as the American Foundrymen's Association, 
together with the Foundry Foremen. Third, 
there are the correspondence schools, with 
their courses in shop and foundry practice. 

Thus far, no residence schools have attempt- 
ed to impart foundry practice with the idea 
of fitting men to follow the foundry business. 
Practically all technical schools of the higher 
grade have pattern shops, machine shops and 
foundries in connection with their equipment 
but the object of these is to familiarize the 
student with the processes carried on in these 
departments of the manufacturing concerns so 
that they may become more intelligent de- 
signers and draftsmen. Such shops are usu- 
ally more in the nature of laboratories than in 
the nature of manufacturing establishments. 

Realizing that the present channels were 
apparently not providing the future supply of 
foremen and skilled workmen as rapidly as 
the demand was increasing, many prominent 
manufacturers and others have been interest- 
ing themselves in the subject of technical edu- 
cation as applied to practical subjects. Prof. 
Sweet read a paper on this subject before the 
Engineers' Club of Syracuse recently, in which 
he advocated a scheme by means of which 

the school would own a factory and manu- 
facture some line of goods. At the start a 
large number of journeymen would be em- 
ployed in each department to act both as 
journeymen and instructors. After the school 
had been running three or four years, the 
young men in their third or fourth years 
would be sufficiently advanced to fill all the 
positions as journeymen, as far as the work 
was concerned, but it would be necessary to 
maintain a small force of journeymen to act 
as in.structors. Prof. Sweet's idea was to have 
a four years' course which would include cer- 
tain hours of study and certain hours of work. 
The exact line which a man would follow 
would be left for him to decide at the end of 
the first year, or at some time during the early 
portion of the course. All men would be 
given some experience in each department of 
the shoo. That is, in the foundry, the pattern 
shop and the machine shop. They would then 
be given an opportunity to choose the depart- 
ment which they would prefer to follow and 
the balance of their experience would be in 
connection with it. 

Prof. Sweet's idea was that this school 
would turn out especially high grade journey- 
men, with a sufficient amount of technical 
education to enable them to become foremen 
or superintendents after a few years of prac- 
tice in actual manufacturing establishments. 

The Carnegie Institute of Pittsburg also 
proposes to devote a considerable portion of 
its equipment for use along foundry lines and 
is planning to give instruction, especially along 
such lines as the foremen would require. 
They seem to be aiming more to fill defects in 
education by drawing their recruits from men 
who have had some experience in the shop 
and then giving them a sufficient amount of 
information to enable them to handle the 
problems of modern foundry foremen. 

The Winona Institute, of Indianapolis, Ind., 
is a school which has recently moved to In- 
dianapolis and taken the old buildings which 
formerly constituted one of the United States 
arsenals. It is the plan of those in charge 
of the school to introduce courses in various 
trades and crafts. The lithographers have al- 
ready opened a school for instruction in lithog- 
raphy which bids fair to do very creditable 

A call has been sent out to foundrymen 
throughout the country to come to the assist- 
ance of this institution by furnishing the means 
necessary to equip and maintain the foundry. 

Digitized by 




Manrh, 1905 

the object being to educate men as molders 
and also as foremen. 

One great fault that seems to have been 
present in practically all attempts which have 
thus far been made along this line, seems to 
be that the educational institution was con- 
ducted along theoretically educational lines 
more than along practical educational lines, 
that the shops were run too much like labora- 
tories and that the boys never learned to do 
work for work's sake, but got an idea in their 
heads that they wanted to get out of doing 
the actual work and rise to positions where 
they would be in charge of the work. In other 
words, they wanted to wear a boiled shirt and 
not a pair of overalls. It is certainly a laud- 
able ambition for any one to have a desire to 
rise as high as possible, but many a good 
workman has been spoiled in the attempt to 
make a poor foreman, draftsman, or designer 
out of him. 

We cannot help but feel that Prof. Sweet's 
plan bids fair to produce tire best workmen. 
Prof. M. J. Higgins, now of the Norton Emery 
Wheel Cc, of Worcester, Mass., who form- 
erly had charge of the department of mechani- 
cal engineering in the Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute, of Worcester, Mass., has long ad- 
vocated the idea of a half time school, in 
which the boys would work one-half the day 
in the shop and spend the other half in the 
school room. This idea is not very different 
from that advocated by Prof. Sweet. 

What seems to be necessary for the carrying 
out of Prof. Sweet's or Mr. Higgins* idea, 
is not only the endowment of a school and its 
equipment with the necessary machinery, but 
the securing of a man to administer the affairs 
of the school who will be able to outline its 
policy and conduct its work in such a way 
that it will be primarily, if not a manufactur- 
ing establishment, at least a manufacturing 
school in which the young men will be im- 
bued with the spirit which should exist in 
manufacturing plants. 


The United States Geological Survey are pre- 
paring a report on the molding sand deposits 
of the United States, and wish to obtain the 
addresses of all parties owning or operating 
molding sand deposits, or those dealing in 
molding sand, so as to enable them to locate 
all the deposits, including molding sand for 
all classes of gray iron, malleable iron, steel, 
brass and bronze castings. 

It would be a great favor, both to the Geo- 
logical Survey and The Foundry, if all the 
foundrymen throughout the country would 
notify either this office or the department at 
Washington as to their source of supply for 
molding sand, and we hope that our friends in 
the foundry business will understand that this 
notice is intended for them and respond with 
a hearty good will which will make the collec- 
tion -of this data easy and insure reliable sta- 


The writer is connected with a jobbing foun- 
dry, our specialty being railway, car and en- 
gine castings. We often have logging truck 
wheels and mine car wheels to make, with 
which we have been having varying success, 
the trouble being mostly the cracking of the 
spokes. One wheel which we make is a 16- 
inch flange lumber truck wheel, weighing 66 
pounds, having six spokes and a light hub to 
bore i?/^ inches. The metal in the rim and 
arms is about 7-16 of an inch thick and three 
inches deep. The pattern for this wheel was 
made from dimensions taken from a sample 
wheel furnished by a customer, who obtained 
it from a foundry making a specialty of this 
work, and hence we suppose that the design 
is correct. When we use No. 3 Southern pig 
in casting this wheel, there is little trouble. 
If we use car wheel scrap and pig the spokes 
crack. A customer recently ordered a lot ot 
these wheels and insisted that they have chilled 
faces. We objected, as we had never chilled 
these faces before and feared cracked spokes. 
He insisted and agreed to pay the expense of 
the pattern for the chill, etc. We tried the 
experiment, using No. 3 pig and with the re- 
sult as expected, that is, cracked spokes. The 
spokes and the hub were uncovered as soon 
as possible to equalize cooling, but the thin 
rim chilled too quickly. I should like to know 
if this could reasonably be expected to chill 
successfully when so thin a rim is used. 

Another wheel is a 22-inch plate wheel, 
straight ribbed, and having a heavy hub, being 
used for a logging car. The axle is 3^ inches 
in diameter, to be pushed on with not less 
than 15 tons nor more than 30 tons pressure. 
The dimensions for this were also taken from 
a standard wheel. At first we made this 
from No. 3 pig, but the chill was not deep 
enough. We then added car scrap and hubs 
of car wheels and built a pit in which we built 
a fire to dry and warm it before depositing 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



the wheel in it. As we only cast one or two 
at a time, they retained their heat but a short 
time. In order to protect them still further 
a plate was placed over them while they were 
still hot, and they were covered with warm 
sand and other castings. These wheels were 
a little better in chill, but very hard to bore 
and still cracked. Sometimes the cracking oc- 
curred in pressing on the axle and sometimes 
shortly after when they were hit a slight blow. 
We also have the same trouble with our 14 
and 16-inch solid plate wheels. 

Now for the mine car wheels. The kind we 
make are 14, 16 and 18-inch spoke wheels. 
These are known as self -oiling mine car wheels 
and are made by almost all foundries in the 
mining districts. The accompanying sketch, 
Fig. I, shows a cross section of the hub and 
one side of the rim. Our first experience in 
making these wheels was a total failure. The 
dimensions and drawings were furnished by a 

JFig, t «« ^«* 

mine company, and the rim and arms were about 
% inch thick. The metal in the hub was about 
y2 inch, the arms straight and the weight of 
the wheel about 150 pounds. Nearly every 
wheel had cracked spokes. We tried No. 3 
pig alone, also pig and scrap, also pig, scrap 
and car wheels. We then changed the wheel 
pattern so as to use curved spokes, and made 
the metal }^ inch in the hub and ^ inch in the 
rim and arms. By using No. 3 pig alone these 
were cast very successfully and bored well. 
They were also strong, but the chill was not 
satisfactory, as it was only J^ of an inch or 
less in thickness. A short time ago we ran 
entirely out of pig iron, and had an order for 
quite a lot of these wheels on which the mines 
were pushing shipments. The management in- 
sisted that we make them out of scrap, re- 
gardless of my protest. The wheels were 
cast and could hardly be bored. When they 
were tested by a light blow from the hammer, 
all cracked. 

Another wheel which is giving us trouble, 
and which is the one that has made me decide 
to throw up my hands and ask for advice, was 
sent to us from a mining company, with the 

information that if we could make them sat- 
isfactorily, we could have their trade, there 
being no patent on the wheel. We attempted 
to compete for the trade. The wheel was 
similar in design to that shown in Fig. i. The 
metal in the rim was 11-16 inch thick, the 
arms 11-16 inch and the metal in the hub 
Yz inch. The wheel had eight straight arms. 
We first tried making it with No. 3 pig iron, 
and the result was that all the spokes cracked. 
We next tried No. 3 pig iron and scrap, and 
still all the spokes cracked. 

Next we tried 75 percent No. 3 pig and 25 
percent car wheel scrap, and still the spokes 
cracked and the chill was only ^ of an inch 
or less. I then reduced the metal in the hub 
to ^ of an inch with no better results. We 
also tried uncovering the arms and hub, but 
to no purpose. 

Now I believe the trouble is with our mix- 
ture, for the sample wheel furnished had a 
chill of about ^ inch and we could pound it 
witTi a sledge without breaking the spokes, 
in fact, we broke the rim first. It is evident 
that the trouble is not in the design, but either 
in the mixture or in the method of handling 
in the foundry. These wheels all require a 
chill of about % inch for work on railroad 
rails. They must also be tough, so as to 
withstand shocks, and the hubs soft enough 
to bore easily. These mine car wheels are 
made in many foundries, and are never an- 
nealed, so far as I know. I should mention 
that our chills are about 2^4 to 3 inches thick. 
We have also tried using chills from 15^ to 2 
inches thick, but these thin ones crack too 
often. I wish that some one could tell us 
what core materials and treatment should be 
used to produce a perfectly clean hub, inside^ 
as the least sand left in is loosened by the 
oil and grinds the axle. 

"A Subscriber." 

The Union Iron Works, of Portland, Me., 
have elected the following officers for the en- 
suing year: Chas. V. Lord, president; Lin- 
wood C Tyler, clerk; Chas. A. Walters, gen- 
eral manager. 

The National Scale Co., of Boston, Mass., 
is to build an iron foundry at the junction of 
East First and Second streets. So. Boston, 

The National Steel Foundry Co., of New 
Haven, Conn., is to increase its working force, 
on account of a contract for castings for an 
underground railroad in London, England. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 



The accompanying illustrations show one 
method of casting round flasks of large diam- 
ter in cores which has given very satisfactory 
results, and a saving in pattern expense, as 
well as in the floor space required for pat- 
tern storage. A plan and cross section of 
a portion of the required flask is shown in 
Fig. I. It will be noted that there are two 
lines of cored bolt holes about the flask and 
a sand strip on the inside of the top and bot- 

cores is governed by the diameter of the flask. 
The circle formed by the offset is divided by 
four equidistant lines, and the centers of the 
four cores containing the trunnions are set to 
these lines. At the completion of the setting 
of the remaining cores, sand is banked and 
firmly rammed around the inside cores, as 
well as in the space between the outside of 
the cores and the wall of the hole or pit. 
To avoid the banking of sand around the in- 
side of the cores, a flask of convenient diame- 
ter and height can be placed within the en- 

|~ -^■:^:' 

I Br 

r.'~. . , 

tom. In most cases, four trunnions are cast 
on each flask, one of these being shown in 
Fig. I. A cross section through one side of 
the assembled cores is shown in Fig. 2, illus- 
trating the manner in which the cores are 
placed together. In making up the mold a 
hole is dug in the floor to a depth equal to 
the height of the cores and with the aid of 
straight edges a level bed is struck off. With 
the segment attached to and revolving about, 
the stake as shown in Fig. 3 an offset shown 
at A, Fig. 2, is rammed up to assist in setting 
ores. The number of separate pieces or 

closure formed by the cores and the space be- 
tween the flask and the cores rammed firmly 
with sand. The core box used in forming the 
outer cores is shown in Fig. 4. The trunnion 
and rib portions are loose from the box, al- 
lowing these parts to be removed when the 
plain cores are being made. The bolt holes 
are spaced off accurately, and taper prints are 
set to receive the separate cores for these 
holes. By giving the core prints ample taper. 
they can be rigidly attached to the box. A 
covering core is used in connection with this 
box to form part of the trunnion, this portion 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



of the box being parted as shown with the 
core print above and extending to the bottom 
of the box. 

When the print has been withdrawn the 
core made in the core box shown in Fig. 5 
is placed in this impression so as to close 
the opening and form the flange or outer end 
of the trunnion. The core box used in form- 
ing cores is shown in Fig. 6, and it will be 
noticed that loose wedge pieces are used to 
form the radial ends of the cores. To sim- 
plify the construction of the box and facilitate 
the drying of the core, the open side of the 
box is made flat in place of conforming to the 


r;;.S'A N D 

Fig. 2 fe^SANp:^^ 




^ w | | ^ ^^^^ 

diameter of the mold. Gates are filed in the 
tops of these cores at different points, and 
runners built up as shown in Fig. 2. 


One of our friends on the staff of The Iron- 
monger, of London, has sent us a clipping 
from a London paper, telling of the casting of 
the new bells for the Rochester Cathedral. 
These bells were to be rung on the last Mon- 
day of November, which was St. Andrew's 
day. Of the eight great bells of the cathedral, 
which weigh altogether nearly four tons and a 
quarter, six have just been cast, partly with 
old metal from the former bells, and partly 
with new by Messrs. Mears & Stainbank, of 
the famous Whitechapel Bell Foundry. This 
foundry was established in 1570, in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. The other two bells, the 
great tenor and the mediant, were re-cast in 
the same foundry in 1834, and these two are 
almost as good as ever. 

Of the six which were worn out and have 
just been replaced, the oldest was dated 1635, 
unless it be that one of the bells which bore no 
date was older. One of the other bells which 

was cast in 1635 was re-cast in 1770, at the 
Whitechapel foundry. Another bell bore the 
date of 1 7 12, and the last one of 1683. 

The foundry which has done this work has 
passed through the hands of a half dozen pro- 
prietors since its foundation 334 years ago. 
Generally the changes have come about from 
the succession of a foreman or manager to 
his master's position. In 1762, Chapman, who 
was foreman for Lester and Pack, went to 
Canterbury to cast a bell for the cathedral. 
Seeing a young man who took a very deep in- 
terest in the work, he said: "Come to Lon- 
don with me and I will teach you the busi- 
ness." So the youth, whose name was Mears, 
went and became an apprentice under Chap- 
man. In due time Chapman became a partner 
and later Mears joined him. Eight genera- 
tions of the family of Mears have since owned 
the old foundry, the name still appearing in the 
title of the firm. 

The reporter stated that when he visited the 
foundry he saw the six new bells just out of 
the molds and being cleaned with scratch 
brushes. The other two bells were there also, 
— the tenor, to which all others must conform, 
and the sixth of the series, which was being 
tuned down by having some of the metal cut 
from its inner surface. The six bells which 
were re-cast were all poured from metal of a 
single melting, so as to have them uniform in 
composition, which would result in more uni- 
form tone. 

The article goes on to state that the metal 
used for a bell is three parts copper and one 
part tin and that this composition is almost 
as old as the known history of mankind, for it 
has been discovered that the bells of old Nine- 
veh were made of this mixture. 

Concerning the breaking or cracking of bells, 
he states that sometimes an enthusiastic ringer 
bumps the bell against the wooden stay above 
and thus cracks it, and sometimes the long con- 
tinued falling of the clapper on one particular 
spot will make a crack. A bell for continuous 
use should be turned every generation or so 
in order to make the clapper fall in a new- 
place. Clock hammers a^e the bells' greatest 
enemy, for they strike it sidewise and not in 
the direction of its swing, and besides they 
sometimes catch it as it swings past. . The 
ringer who, to save his muscles, rings by a 
rope attached to the clapper, will destroy the 
bell in next to no time. 

Silver has now and then been tried for 
bells, but strange to say, is almost as unmu- 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

sical as lead. In the Middle Ages, when a 
great bell was to be cast, crowds of the faith- 
ful would sometimes make sacrifices of their 
gold and silver ornaments and plate by casting 
them into the melting pot, but the only effect 
was to depreciate the tone of the bell. 

In China and other Eastern lands, bells are 
rung to frighten away devils, and some of 
the biggest bells in the world are in Buddhist 
temples. Even in Christian England it was 
long believed that bells would dissipate storms 
and when they were cast there was a solemn 
ceremony at which they received names. This 
was called by the common people the baptism 
of the bell. Many old bells had quaint and 
curious inscriptions. A bell in Sherborne in 
Dorsetshire, dated 1652, was evidently intended 
chiefly as a warning in case of fire, for it was 
inscribed : 

"Lord, quench this furious flame; 
Arise, run, help put out the same." 

The greatest bell in the world is that of 
Moscow, weighing about 190 tons, but appar- 
ently there was some accident at its birth, for 
there is no record of its ever having been rung. 
In England the greatest bells are the Great 
Paul, of London, made in 1881, and weighing 
nearly 17 ton^ ; Big Ben, of Westminster, made 
in 1858, and weighing 13^^ tons, and Peter of 
York, made in 1845, and weighing 10^ tons. 
Big Ben and Great Peter were both cast by 
the Whitechapel foundry. Great Peter cost 
about $10,000 and is over 12 ft across. When 
it was cast at the Whitechapel foundry it was 
allowed 12 days to cool before it was taken 
from the mold. 

The above is of especial interest to Amer- 
icans, on account of the great age of the 
foundry. In this country we rebuild and 
change with such rapidity that it is impossible 
for any foundries to grow old and hoary, and 
if a foundry has run through two or three gen- 
erations it is a decided exception. Of course 
there are a few exceptions of foundries which 
were started in the early part of the last cen- 
tury, but they are few. It would be interest- 
ing to look up the history of some of these 
older American foundries. 

The Columbus Brass Co., Columbus, O., has 
increased its capital stock from $75,000 to 
$200,000. The officers of the company are 
Chas. H. Linden berg, president; Frank H. 
Lindenberg, vice president and general man- 
ager; Geo. W. Lindenberg, secretary, and 
Paul Lindenberg, treasurer. 



Natural gas is the only proper fuel for the 
core oven, when it can be had. But when gas 
can not be had, it becomes necessary to 
choose between coal, coke and oil. Of these 
three articles of fuel, coal is the least desir- 
able for the average core oven, on account of 
the uncertain quaHty of fire to be obtained by 
the draft of a core oven, the time required to 
get a fire when wanted in a hurry, as is often 
the case, and the ashes which have to be 
cleaned out and hauled away each day. The 
price of coal is fully as high as any other 
fuel. Coke is some better than coal, as the 
fire to be, obtained from it is sure to be good, 
when you get it. Coke requires less draught 
than coal, the result of which is a hotter oven. 

But there still remains the want of fire in a 
hurry many times, when it is not to be had, 
and the handling of ashes and coke. While 
these two fuels have served well in the past 
and will continue to do so in the future, I feel 
certain that they must give way in time, to 
some extent, to a more modern and con- 
venient fuel. By invitation of your secretary, 
I am here to describe to you a system for 
burning oil, which I consider absolutely safe, 
economical and convenient. In order that the 
points claimed for this system may be fully 
understood it will be necessary for me to give 
a brief history of my experience in burning 

About three years ago, the management of 
the shop at which I am employed, decided to 
do something to help the coremakers along, 
as they were very busy and crowded into small 
space, as coremakers usually are. The result 
was the use of oil instead of coke in two large 
ovens and the purchase of oil burning torches. 
At the time that these changes were made, 
the writer did not consider them of any great 
importance. But as we became better ac- 
quainted with the use of oil, results began to 
appear in the way of convenience. In many 
cases where it had previously been neces- 
sary to put large cores in the oven the second 
and third times to dry blackening and joints, 
the torch does this work in double-quick time, 
and does it well. 

Large patches can be made by the use of 
the torch, by putting on thin layers at a time 
and drying each one in turn, which would re- 

* Paper wad before the Philadelphia Foundry 
men's Association, Jan. 4, 1905. 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



quire much more time and cost by drying in 
the oven. The torch is also useful to skin- 
dry molds, thaw the ice and snow from flasks 
* and boards in quick time, and for light and 
heat in cases of emergency. 

At the time we started to use the oil in the 
ovens the machine shop was very busy, re- 
quiring the engine and air compressor to run 
all day and night, thus furnishing air for the 
burners at any time except Sunday. When 
the machine shop became slack, and they ran 
the engine only in the day time, the small air 
compressor that was run by steam in the night 
for the ovens did not furnish enough air; and 
besides it was always getting out of repair, as 
well as consuming about as much coal in the 

of the furnace. I then connected the city 
water to one end of the ^ in. opening and the 
other end to the air or steam end of the 
burner, and turned on the air for a few min- 
utes to heat the generator, when the air was 
turned oflf again. 

Now to get the steam by the new system, 
turn on the water by means of a needle point 
valve, which allows a very small stream of 
water to enter the generator; thus instantly 
generating very dry, hot steam at any pressure 
that may be required by a slight turn of the 
valve either way. 

Thus we have the steam to run the fire con- 
tinuously; but when there is no air there is 
nothing to feed the oil to the burner, as the 

jrioor v<'--vv^^\<:;^' ^^;^s^v^l^^^-vi.^^:S^ 

night as would be required to run the ovens 
with coke, not to mention the cost of oil. 

It soon dawned upon me that these condi- 
tions could not continue long, and being anx- 
ious to continue using the oil, I decided to try 
another way to burn it. Having read of oil 
being burned to advantage with steam as the 
blowing force, I tried it in this way. I had 
often observed the rapidity with which steam 
is generated by throwing a small amount of 
water on a piece of hot iron, or into a hot 
pipe. I acted on this principle and made a 
cast iron return pipe about three feet long, 
with a ^ in. hole from one end to the other 
and back and placed it in the fireplace, leav- 
ing the open end flush with the outside wall 

steam is only used to spray the oil into the 
furnace after both have been brought together 
by different pressures. The pressure for the 
oil is obtained by simply connecting the city 
water to the bottom of the oil tank, thus forc- 
ing the oil, which is lighter than water, out 
through the top of the tank to the burner. 

This system was used for a time, bringing 
the cost of fuel down to the actual cost of 
the oil. But I soon discovered that to com- 
plete this system, it would be necessary to 
regulate the oil, so that it would flow in pro- 
portion to the steam pressure, which may 
range from i lb. to 40 lb., as needed for the 
amount of heat required. An old damper 
regulator was taken from the boiler room and 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

remodeled so that it opened and closed the 
oil valve automatically, with the rise and fall 
of the steam pressure. This completed the 
most perfect and economical arrangement for 
burning fuel oil. 

This way of burning oil is the safest, be- 
cause oil is dangerous only when it is thrown 
into a hot furnace without sufficient steam or 
air to spray it properly; then it will instantly 
explode with some force. 

The oil regulating valve prevents the above 
conditions, because it is impossible to get any 
oil through the burner until after the steam 
has been turned on, and then only in exact 
proportion to the steam pressure. Should the 
steam pressure, by any accident or otherwise, 
cease, the oil valve will be closed at the same 
time, and locked so that it can not be opened 
again, should the steam pressure return with- 
out the aid of the operator. 

This system is the simplest, requiring only 
one valve to operate, start, raise or lower it. 
This is the water valve, by opening which 
steam is generated instantly, the steam blowing 
through the burners and the pressure opening 
the oil valve, all other valves being secondary 
and precautionary. The system is the cheap- 
est, because it is maintained only by a very 
small amount of city water or any other water 
pressure. The whole cost for this oil for core 
ovens, two torches and large Babbitt*s kettle, 
which is used almost continuously during the 
day, is just equal to the cost of coke for the 
core ovens. It is the most convenient system, 
because a fire can be had at any time, Sunday, 
Monday, night or day. There is one thing 
that is not quite as perfect as I think it might 
be, and that is the generator. It will only 
last about two months, when it has to be re- 
placed. But the job is small. 

I have done it many times with the aid of 
one helper in half an hour. But I think by the 
use of different metal, and some protection 
from the blaze of the fire, the generator can 
be made to last much longer. 

The last thing I have to mention, but not 
the least, is the filter. The water passes 
through a fine gravel filter, to prevent the rust 
and dirt of any kind from stopping the flow 
through the small needle valve. This filter is so 
connected with valves at top and bottom that 
the water can be run through it backward, 
cleaning it out as often as may be required. 
The oil filter is an ordinary check valve with 
screw cap, the valve of which is replaced by 
a perforated plug screwed into the valve 

"^t. This can be cleaned out at any time by 

removing the cap, about one minute's work. 
This filter will catch all pipe scales or other 
dirt that would be large enough to interfere 
with the oil valve or burner. The air filter* 
is the same as the oil filter, and its purpose is 
the same. 


The method explained in the paper which 
has developed into a very successful core oven, 
was devised entirely by Mr. Barnes and is 
in practical use. In the discussion of the 
paper the following points among others were 
brought out: 

Q. What size are the pipes? 

A. Half inch ; you can have them larger 
if you want. Various sizes have been used, 
simply as a matter of convenience in erect- 
ing at the time. 

Q. How much oil will the tank hold? 

A. About ninety gallons. We burn just 
about eighty or eighty-five every day. 

Q. What is the size of the oven? 

A. We have two, about 9 x 16 x 12 ft. 
high. Both are the same size. 

Q. Is it crude oil you use? 

A. Crude oil at 4 cents a gallon. We burn 
less than 100 gallons a day, including every- 
thing. It amounts to about $4. We average 
about three or four tons of sand in one oven 
over night. The oil used covers everything— 
kettle and torches. 

Q. What method do you use to light the 

A. A piece of paper or anything of that 
kind. There is only a small flue, 8x8, and 
sometimes a little smoke is created but not 
any more than by using wood in starting coke 

Q. How long has it been in use? 

A. I have been burning oil about three 
years, and with the steam system for about 18 
months. I have only had the regulating valve 
about five or six months. The regulator is the 
proper thing to have on any oil burner. No 
matter how much the pressure ranges you 
can get enough oil, according to the amount 
of steam or air pressure. We use a three 
deck car and put large cores on the top, medi- 
um size in the middle and small at the bot- 

Q. Do you have oil in the small ovens? 

A. No, because there is a certain amount 
of small coke waste that they wish to burn. 

Q. What sort of burner do you use? 

A. An ordinary burner, furnished by Gil- 
bert Parker of Springfield. 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



Q. Does the steam pressure vary? 

A. It keeps very steady. 

Q. You depend on the water valve to regu- 
late the fire? 

A. Yes; and to put th^ fire out you close 
the water valve. After running two or three 
hours it is hotter than when it was first 

Q. Have you ever had any explosions? 

A. I had my hair singed a couple of times 
before I got thoroughly acquainted with it, 
but that is now impossible. You cannot get 
any oil in the ftirnace. 

Q. Do you ever run the generator to de- 

A. There is nothing to it. You lose the 
steam pressure and the oil shuts off. 

Q. How long does the generator last? 

A. Two months. You can put one in in 
half an hour. It burns four gallons an hour 
or at the rate of sixteen cents an hour. 

Q. Did I understand you to say that coke 
costs 50 per cent more than oil, in addition 
to the labor and more trouble? 

A. Probably not quite so bad as that, but 
coke costs $6.25 a ton. We get more fire out 
of the oil than we do out of the coke and 
there is less labor required. 



I remember once hearing a story about a boy 
who said he was not going to school one day 
and some one asked him : "What is the matter? 
Don't you know your lesson?" He said: 
"That's just the point. I know my lesson. 
It's when I don't know my lesson that I want 
to go for an explanation." I am afraid that the 
writer is somewhat in the fix of the afore- 
said boy on the days that he went to school. 
In other words, he has gotten far enough into 
the problem to come to the conclusion that he 
does not know much about it and hence he 
wants to tell what he does know in the hope 
that some one else will give the rest of the 

There is a lot of scrap aluminum of various 
classes on the market. Some of it is in the 
form of borings and turnings, and some in 
the form of sheet aluminum scrap from which 
punchings have been cut. It is all good high- 
grade metal, but when it comes out of the 
melting pot something is wrong with it. If 
an attempt is made to press or roll the cast- 
ing it will be sure to crack. Now the follow- 

ing are facts which we know. It is not diflS- 
cult to melt scrap brass and produce a casting 
which can be bent, pressed or rolled as well 
as the original metal, but we also know that 
if the attempt is made to. taRe the best kind 
of sheet copper roiled from good lake metal 
and melt the scrap in crucibles, the result- 
ing castings cannot be bent or rolled without 
more or less of a tendency to crack. In the 
case of the copper, we know that the difficulty 
arises from the fact that copper oxidizes very 
readily and that the red oxide of copper is 
absorbed by the metal without changing its 
color or appearance in any way, but that when 
the metal is worked the oxide makes it brittle, 
just as the presence of so much sand in its 
composition would. If the above mentioned 
scrap copper be melted with a liberal charcoal 
covering somewhat better results are usually 
obtained. If, in addition to the charcoal cover- 
ing, the metal be poled with a green pole, that 
is, if a green pole or stick be introduced into 
the molten metal, which is well covered with 
charcoal, and used for stirring the metal, it 
will often reduce the oxide and result in pure 
metal. The addition of a little phosphor cop- 
per will produce the same result, on account 
of the f^ct that the phosphorus is oxidized and 
removes the oxide from the metal. 

Now with the above facts in mind, if we 
turn to the aluminum problem we are con- 
fronted with the following conditions. The 
copper oxide was lighter than copper, but was 
soluble in copper. When this oxide was re- 
duced with phosphorus, it formed a dross 
which could easily be skimmed oflF. In the 
case of aluminum, we are not so fortunate, as 
the specific gravity of aluminum oxide is near- 
ly 3-9, while that of aluminum is only 2.5. It 
will be seen, therefore, that the aluminum 
oxide would settle into the metal as fast as 
it was formed and we would expect it to go to 
the bottom so that we could pour off the 
metal and leave the oxide in place of skim- 
ming the oxide and leaving the metal, but this 
is another case where the metal does not do as 
it ought to do, for the oxide becomes en- 
trapped in the metal and will go neither to the 
top nor to tlie bottom. The color of the oxide, 
as in the case of the copper oxide, is such that 
it does not show in the resulting castings, but 
if we attempt to roll or form the castings, the 
metal will break. 

We know that aluminum oxide is not reduced 
by charcoal, and hence a covering of char- 
coal will have no effect whatever on the cru- 

Digitized by 




March, 1Q05 

cible, except that it may maintain a layer of 
carbon dioxide gas over the surface of the 
aluminum and thus exclude the air. In other 
words, it protects, but does not reduce. The 
aluminum sheet or scrap is so thin and light 
that no ordinary amount of flux will protect 
it from the air. A small amount of scrap can 
be disposed of by plunging it in a crucible of 
melted metal just as it comes from the fur- 
nace, but beyond this the writer knows noth- 
ing as to how to get rid of this scrap, and we 
would like to know if some one cannot go 
ahead with this story and bring it to a suc- 
cessful finish. 


What is the matter with the foundry busi- 
ness? I see the poets are now butting in. 
It seems to me these fellows have missed their 
vocation. The question which exists between 
the chemist and the foundry foreman, as to 
which shall be the whole thing in the foundry, 
it seems is a hard case of the green bug on 
both sides. I will pass a few remarks in 
reference to both and a few other things 
which the writer has observed in his travels, 
trying to get what the chemist calls salary 
and F. F. calls wages. Now, I have seen 
some of the worst iron possible produced by 
some of the best foundry men in the country, 
both from furnace and cupola, and I have 
been in another neck of woods, where two 
first class chemists had full charge of furnace 
and pot, with the help of a furnace man at 
$30 per week and the iron produced was a 
great deal worse. So you see there is no use 
for the kettle to call the pot black. A great 
many foundry foremen are mad because they 
don't understand C-CC and high and low S 
and P. In other words they are not chemists, 
and if they have been in the foundry twenty- 
five or thirty years they are too blamed old to 
learn and the chemist is just as mad as the 
F. Foreman. So I will say to the young man 
going in the foundry, get a gait on and learn 
both before the film under your hat gets too 
thick, and you will get the salary, when both 
the other fellowS are writing poetry, at a 
penny a verse. 

If the foundry foreman will only broaden 
his gauge and get the idea out of his head 
that he must go out the back door when the 
chemist comes in the front, he will rest better 
at night, and be better able the next a. m. to 
produce castings at a profit to his employer, 
and a credit to himself. I will say to you 

foundry foremen, be loyal to your employer, 
honest with the men under your charge, and 
don't forget to be alwaj'S pleasant and nice 
to the apprentice boys, for you know what 
their parents told you when they asked to 
have them taken in the foundry to learn the 
trade: That they were the only good boys in 
the world. Of course they are all good boys 
for the first sixty hours they reside in the 
foundry, and after that they change from 
mother's pet to an inventive genius of devil- 
try. But we like the boys for all that. . 

One word with the apprentice boys. Try 
and keep your mind on your work; do as your 
foreman advises you to do. If he don't know as 
much as you do, he is older than you, and 
you should respect old age, for you know the 
old man has to get out soon, for the young 
chemist wants the easy chair; and, boy, don't 
stop work and wait for the whistle at 11:45 
for she won't toot until 12 noon. Do your 
best while at your trade, for you have a long, 
hard road to travel if you want to get as good 
as the best of them who pound sand. 

My brothers of the craft, right here is the 
chestnut burr under the horse's tail which has 
caused the kick in the factory where they 
make iron castings and cast iron scrap. The 
chemist makes his by using one to ten, the 
other fellow makes his any old way. We have 
with us now. in the foundry, the young man 
of affairs, of course not in every foundry, but 
in some, and he is there all right. He is the 
young man who fell heir to his father's foun- 
dry, stock and fixtures, reputation and mil- 
lion or so, which the old man made when he 
was running the foundry fifty years ago, and 
up the last few years. Some of the old man's 
early day castings are doing business at the 
old stand yet. Now, Mr. Chemist, don't jump 
on the grand old man of the foundry. The 
young man of affairs takes a stroll through 
his foundry and his chemist is standing to 
meet him with one foot on a very nice cast- 
ing made under the supervision of the F. 
Foreman and the chemist gets a nice bunch 
of flowers after their chat. The heir to the 
foundry strolls on a little farther and sees a 
rough casting and perhaps bad. iron mix by 
chemist, and casting made under the super- 
vision of same foreman. The chemist has left 
the earth, he don't live down here only at 
such times as above. The F. F. gets ripped 
up the back and a bunch of garlic over the 
long distance phone from the young man of 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



Now the old man that used to run the 
foundry and does yet, and will for some time 
to come, comes down and has it out most 
any place and tells you what is what; he 
gives you neither flowers nor garlic but talks 
good common sense. The chemist will tell 
you that a few points of the different ele- 
ments in iron will make a vast difference in 
the quality of your castings. I will give you an 
experience of mine with a few of them. We 
melt four or five hundred tons per month 
and get most of our iron from one concern. 
Two carloads did not come up to standard, 
did not find it out by analysis, only by horse 
sense, so sent in our kick. The furnace peo- 
ple sent analysis of the two cars to prove that 
it could not be the fault of iron, of course 
not. Well, the writer took four pigs hap- 
hazard and sent drillings from same to dif- 
ferent chemists, the result was that none 
agfreed with furnace report and differed as 
much as 20 to 30 points with each other in 
the different elements, so that the result de- 
sired proved useless, and led the writer to 
believe that some chemists must lie — ^and 
some don't know their business any better 
than the F. F. does his and some are too lazy 
to go through pow wow. Cost of analysis, 
$15.00; information gained from chemists, 
none. Two car loads used by using more or 
less strong No. 2, a little scrap (remelt) and 
a few pounds of other iron on each charge. 
Result, good tough casting machined readily. 
Transverse test, i in. sq. bar 2.760 common rule 
measure, ij^ in. run 2.670. The above has 
made me consider whether it would be advis- 
able to mix iron by long distance phone. Some 
of the chemists should tell the old men of the 
foundry some things they have done for the 
foundry. The writer knows of a foundry the 
chemists run to a standstill. There are a 
couple of old foundrymen getting a move on 
it now. 

If the publishers will permit me at some 
future time I will state my reasons for think- 
ing why the chemist should be at the furnace 
and give the foundrymen an honest count 
and also some things in reference to cupola 
practice and a few other things seen while 
passing through the foundry. An old man's 
kick, but not the last. 

Messrs. Albert and Robert Fitzgerald, of 
Albany, N. Y., are preparing to open a brass 
foundry at 19-23 Lawrence street, Albany, N. 


This special number has been gotten out 
to commemorate the 25th anniversary of 
the starting of the Blacksmith and WheeU 
wrighi. The paper with its regular cover has 
been enclosed in a special souvenir cover, witb 
a suitable picture on the front. This number is 
gotten up very neatly indeed, one novel feature 
being that they have printed the advertise- 
ments of the firm which have advertised in the 
paper for ten years or over on colored paper 
and called them their roll of honor. The read- 
ing pages of the number contain especially in- 
teresting matter. One of the features is a 
page devoted to an illustrated rendering of 
the poem, "The Village Blacksmith." We cer- 
tainly wish to congratulate this paper on its 
success in the past and on its souvenir num- 
ber, and wish it a long and successful career 
in the future. 


A very interesting case of foaming slag has 
recently been brought up by one of the sub- 
scribers of The Foundry. After melting about 
754 tons of iron, the slag hole of the cupola 
was opened, and remained open during the 
balance of the heat. There was about one-half 
as much slag as usual flowed out and after 
that, although the slag hole was open for the 
balance of the heat, no more slag was run out 
but the slag remained in the cupola and foamed 
up through the charge clear to the charging 
door. All of the iron required for the bal- 
ance of the heat had been charged and the 
charging door closed. The next morning, 
when they came to open the charging door, 
they found the cracks about the doors and 
about the door frame full of slag, and that 
the portion of the door frame which extended 
beyond the edge of the brick work was all 
burned off. Also one course of brick at the 
melting zone was burned of. The lining was 
a new one, this being the third heat. The 
iron mixture was the one that had been used 
for a week without giving any bad results. 
The writer has had experience with a number 
of different cupolas, and this is the worst case 
of foaming slag that he ever saw, and he 
would like to know if some one can enlighten 
him on the subject and explain it in any way. 


The Bellefontaine Foundry & Machine Co., 
of Bellefontaine, O., has increased its capital 
from $50,000 to $75,000. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 



I propose in this article to give a detailed 
description of the molding of a large spiral 
drum, or screw barrel, for a powerful Titan 
crane. It is a class of job which is hardly 
ever done outside the crane shops, and is an 
excellent example of heavy loam molding. 

Figs. I and 2 show the casting of the barrel 
complete, Fig. i, to the right, being a half ex- 
ternal elevation, the view to the left a half 

E from the shaft bosses to the plated ends, 
to stiffen and support both. Holes are cast at 
F to act partly as supports to the central main 
core, partly to carry off the air from that 
core. Larger holes are cast at G to permit the 
pins to be passed through to anchor the wire 
ropes in A, and they are big enough to allow 
free access for the workman's arm, and they 
also help to support the core. 

A job of this kind is necessarily struck ver- 
tically, that is on end, with the shaft bosses 

Fig. 1 

longitudinal section. Fig. 2 is a transverse 
section taken through the plane a-a in Fig. i. 
The barrel has two single-threaded screw 
grooves, right and left handed, respectively. 
In these lie two divergent wire ropes, for lift- 
ing the load in unison, the ropes passing from 
the barrel to a suitable snatch block. They 
are attached to lugs A cast within the barrel, 

Fig. 3 
Figs. I and 2. An eye splice is made at each 
rope's end, which is slipped between the 
double lugs A A and held with a pin fitting 
in the holes in the lugs. Each rope passes 
thence through its hole in the lugs B oppo- 
site, and so out into its groove. 

The toothed wheels by which the barrel is 

revolved are keyed upon the plain portions 

C C. An annular rib or ring D is cast inside 

the drum midway in the length, to stiffen the 

"ntral portion of the body. Ribs are cast ai 

FJg. 2 
SECTION a-a pig. 1 

above and below. The first portion of the 
mold to be made therefore is that which forms 
the boss and flat face at one end. This, like all 
the main portions of a loam mold, is built upon 
a massive cast iron plate, made in open sand, 
and rigid enough to stand hoisting about with 
its load of bricks, without springing or buck- 
ling out of truth. The springing of a light 
plate would cause the mold to crack, and risk 
a waster casting. 

This plate, shown at H. Fig. '^, is about 3 
inches thick, large enough to carry the bricks, 
and is furnished with lugs to be lifted and 
lowered by. Upon it the bottom part of the 
mold, the skeleton of which in this case con- 
sists of three layers of bricks, is built. The 
figure shows the bottom of the mold as it ap- 
pears on completion. First, the plate H is 
leveled on timber blocking on the floor, three 
blocks to the circle, the spindle J is stepped 
vertically in its socket, with a plumb level, and 
a plain striking board is fastened to it, as 
shown, by means of the strap. Being planed 
parallel on top and bottom edges its truth is 
tested witl^ a spirit level. Then the plate is 
daubed over with loam a little deeper than the 
prods, and the first course of bricks bedded 
down on it. Spaces are left, being filled with 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 


fine sifted ashes mixed with the loam, for the 
exit of air. The two following courses are 
next laid on, also with joints well open, and 
filled in with loam and fine ashes similarly. 
Qear spaces are left for the striking of the 
central boss, and also for the bedding in of 
the four ribs £, Figs, i and 2, which are also 

Fig. 4 

well laid in thin loam, i^ or 2 inches of 
the latter between the pattern ribs, and the 
nearest bricks. These do not appear in Fig. 
3, the plane of the view being taken at a 
position about midway with the plane of the 

After the mold is roughed up, the bricks 
aU laid, and coarse loam swept over the whole 
surface, it is left for a few hours to stiffen. 
Then the final coat of loam, thin, and passed 
through a fine sieve, is swept over smoothly 
with the board shown in Fig. 3. Finally the 
entire bottom is lifted and put into the core 
stove to dry and hardened preparatory to the 
next stage, shown in Fig. 4. 

On this bottom, when dried, p ring plate J 
is now laid, with parting sand strewn between 
the bottom of the plate and the top face of the 
mold just finished. This plate has to carry 
two courses of bricks to give a joint face b-b, 
Fig. 4, coinciding with the bottom of a print 
that has to carry the core for making the open- 

ing B, Figs. I and 2, through which the wire 
rope passes to the outside of the barrel. The 
plate J has to be turned over once, being laid 
first with its lower prodded face uppermost, 
to have a coat of loam swept over. When this 
is driedj the plate is turned over into the 
position seen in Fig. 4, to receive the bricks 
bedded in coarse loam. On the 
second course, a coat of fine 
loam is strickled off smoothly 
on the joint b-b, and dried. 
Upon this face is then laid a 
third plate K, which has to 
carry the whole superstructure 
up to the cope. This plate is 
shown in plan in Fig. 5. A re- 
cess is cast out of it at c, and 
the metal thickened up around 
that The recess is provided 
to afford space in which to lay 
the print d, that has to carry 
the core for B in Figs, i and 
2. The reason why it is neces- 
sary to break the continuity of 
the bricks by the plate K at 
the joint b is that the mold 
must be divided in that plane 
to permit of the insertion of 
the core for B. 

The plate K having been thus 
laid upon the joint face, built 
up to the plane b, parting sand 
intervening, numerous courses 
of bricks are built upon it, 
as shown in Fig. 4. Befor" 
commencing to build, the striking board L is 
fixed in position on the striking bar. This 

board is framed together with half lapped 
joints. Two of the horizontals are secured by 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

means of strips to the central bar; the middle 
horizontal serves only as a strut or distance 
piece, abutting against the bar to resist the 
tendency of the board to yield inwards under 
the pressure of the loam. 

The edge e of the board forms the checked 
joint for fitting the cope concentrically by. 
The edge f, which is the actual edge of the 
board L, forms no part of the mold. It is 
cut to a radius of about an inch less than that 
of the finished mold. So that the vertical 



FI9. 6 

member of L forms simply a means of attach- 
ment for the actual boards by which the spirals 
are struck, as follows. 

In the first place, a board M with one 
straight edge chamfered, is screwed upon L. 
The edge g of M comes within ^ or 
3-16 in. of the bottom edges of the grooves in 
Fig. I. With this board screwed on thus, the 
whole of the interior of the mold from the 
bottom to the cope joint is roughed up; that 
is, courses of bricks are built one above an- 

other with overlapping joints, having coarse 
loam between vertical and horizontal joints, 
no ashes, however, being necessary in this 
portion of the mold, and the inner faces arc 
swept with coarse loam, and struck roughly 
circular, but not smoothed much with the edge 
g of the board M. Only the upper face e of the 
checked portion of the mold is finished. with 
fine loam at this stage, and the belts h, h, corre- 
sponding with the smooth belts C, C, in Fig. 
I for the bores of the wheels. The mold is 
then allowed to stand to be- 
come partly set for the space of 
a few hours. In the course of 
this stage of the work certain 
bricks have to be omitted, but 
it will be better to consider 
this presently in connection 
with Fig. 6. 

The board M is next re- 
moved, and preparation made 
for striking the screw thread 
that comes uppermost in the 
mold. If the lower screw 
were struck first, and the up- 
per one afterwards, the loam 
would tumble down from the 
latter, and mess up the bottom 
screw. Striking the upper one 
first, this trouble is avoided. 

The board that strikes the 
top screw is shown at N in Fig. 
6 attached to the board L, at 
the exact radius required to 
make the diameter of the 
thread right. The extreme por- 
tion of the board stands J^ or 
3-16 in. within the roughed up 
surface of the loam struck by 
the edge g of the board M in 

Fig. 4. 

To strike the screw, a spe- 
cial apparatus has to be rigged 
up, comprising a templet or 
former screw, O, enlarged in Fig. 7, cut to the 
pitch of the screw that has to be struck. It is 
made from a solid piece of pitch-pine, or of 
red deal. The diameter of the outside is 
made only as a matter of convenience to fit 
into the boss struck in the bottom of the mold 
by the board in Fig. 3. In cases where there 
is no boss, or only a very shallow one, or one 
small in diameter, a special recess is struck 
large enough to take the former screw, and is 
filled up afterwards, or made good to the 
proper dimensions by bedding in a suitable pat- 



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March, 1905 



tern boss. The former screw should never 
be less than 10 in., and is better if 12 or 14 in. 
in diameter. 

To the bottom of the board L, in Fig. 6, a 
piece of wood k carrying a small roller 1 
(compare with Fig. 7) is bolted. The roller runs 
between two plates m, m, screwed to the sides 
of k, holes being drilled in the plates to re- 
ceive small journals turned on the roller ends. 
As the molder draws the board round, the 
roller runs up the incline of the former, and 
the board strikes the upper screw. But the 

board and bar are heavy, and the friction of 
the small roller is considerable. A counter- 
balance weight. Fig. 6, is therefore attached 
to the top of the bar, at the top, with a 
shackle, and swivel, from which a rope passes 
upwards, and over light pulleys having bear- 
ings on a beam overhead. Without this 
counterweight the pulling round of the board 
would be a work of considerable difficulty. 

The loam for the spiral is first thrown 
against and daubed on and pressed against the 
roughed-np surface with the hands, swabbing 

being first done, and the board is swept round 
until the rough semblance of a screw is ob- 
tained. In places where the loam is deficient 
in quantity, it is made good with the hands, 
until after about half a dozen good sweepings 
good outlines are obtained. At the termina- 
tion of each revolution the board is dropped 
down from the highest to the lowest position 
of the screw O in readiness to commence 
another rotation. The swept up screw when 


Fig. 8 

brought well into shape is allowed to remain 
for about an hour to stiffen, and then about 
half a dozen final sweepings round the board, 
using fine loam, complete the outlines. 

Since the board is dropped on the templet 
screw at the termination of each revolution, 
the thread is destroyed in the loam at that 
location, in a width exactly equal to the thick- 
ness of the board. This space is doubled with 
loam on the completion of the sweeping up, 
and when dried is filled to the screw shape. 

But before this stage is reached the provi- 
sion will have been made, as mentioned in con- 
nection with Fig. 4, for carrying the top 
print d* for the recess B, corresponding with 

the similar one d below, and which we will 
now consider. 

At P in Figs. 6 and 8 there is shown a re- 
cess with beveled edges, formed in the bricks, 
and a plate n is inserted in the recess. Upon 
this plate the top print d*, corresponding with 
the bottom print d, is bedded in loam, in its 
appropriate position. This does away with 
the necessity for a large plate like that, K, 
used in the bottom. The top print is set ver- 
tically over the bottom one with a straight- 
edge and spirit level. When the print is set 
the loam can be swept up and finished. 

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March, 1905 

After the top spiral has been struck, the 
board N is removed and screwed to the lower 
portion of the board. Another templet screw 
of the other hand is substituted for O, and 
the bottom spiral is struck up in the same 
manner as the first. The mold is then dried, 
either in a stove or by means of devils or open 
cages containing coke, lowered down within 
the mold. In the meantime other portions of 
the mold will be going on. 

The cope is carried on the plate Q, Fig. 9, 
prodded all over to assist in holding the loam. 

cast in it. The bricks are loamed over with 
a board R attached to the striking bar. The 
finished cope, when dried, fits by its check 
into the checked portion of the top part of 
the mold, shown at Fig. 6, and must conse- 
quently be concentric with it. 

We now consider the main or central core 
for the drum. This is built upon a plate 
S, Fig. 10, the outside diameter being made 
a little smaller than that of the core, and 
beveled round the edge. The diameter of the 
central hole must be large enough to admit the 

Fig. 10 

In the case of a perfectly level surface, or even 
one that is not much out of level, as say, slight- 
ly curved, or recessed, nothing more than loam 
would be requisite in any plate that has to be 
turned over. But in this case as there is a 
rather deep top boss, the necessary thickness 
has to be made by bricking up, similarly to the 
bottom. To prevent the bricks from tumbling 
off when the plate is turned over into position, 
a number of the bricks, at intervals, are se- 
cured with stout binding wire to the plate, 
the wire being passed round the bricks (this 
is not shown), and through numerous holes 

shaft core. Eyes are cast at o (compare with 
Fig. 12) to lift the plate by, and holes at p 
for bolting the top and bottom portions of 
the core together by — compare with the plan 
view of the plate, shown separately in 
Fig. II. 

The bottom of the plate is first loamed over 
and dried, to form a joint face later on with 
the bottom of the mold. When dry it is placed 
upon any level bed, usually a loamed plate T, 
as shown in Fig. 10, and the bricking up com- 
menced on the top face. 

The striking board U, Fig. io» is strutted at 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



r, and an overhanging end, screwed on, takes 
a counterweight to relieve the weight of the 
board itself. 

Before commencing work, note must be 
made that the lugs A, B, in Figs, i and 2, have 
to be built into the core. The position of these 
are indicated by the letters A and B in the plan 
view, Fig. 11, which shows the pattern lugs 
imbedded in place. A kind of cage of vertical 
bars s is cast in the plate, standing up around 
each of these spaces, to help support the loam 

cooled down to the black heat. The bricks are 
built up similarly to those in the outer mold. 
Wider spaces filled with fine sifted ashes are 
left here and there. Through these the vents 
escape into the central hollow portion of the 
core,* which is left open and destitute of 

The board U is carried straight up to the 
full depth of the core. But the core itself is 
made in two portions, divided on the line t-t 
corresponding with one face of the internal 
rib D, Fig. i. This rib and the joint face are 

>; ( 

g r—i L- 


; ;; \ 

\,'- ' 



rig. 12 

As metal will shrink around a core, this 
shrinking involves the risk of a fractured cast- 
ing, unless provision is made to permit of such 
contraction. As hard bricks will not yield, 
loam ones must therefore be inserted all 
down the core on three or four sections. These 
become crushed by the shrinkage, and allow 
the core to yield inwards. But in addition 
to this provision it is usual and necessary to 
break up the core by dislodging the bricks 
with the crowbars before the casting has 

struck with a suitable tongue piece u, screwed 
upon the board, indicated by dotted lines in 
position in Fig. 10, and separately to the 
right of that figure. After the rib D and 
joint face t-t are swept, the piece u is un- 
screwed from the board. When the core is 
finished thus far it is lifted by the eyes o, and 
put into the drying stove. 

On removal from the latter the portion D is 
filled up with ordinary sand level with t-t, and 
the remainder of the core is built up similarly 

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March, 1905 

to the lower portion. The lugs A and B are 
bedded in the loam at their proper height, and 
plumb over the corresponding bottom lugs, 
being checked in the same manner as the 
prints were in Fig. 8. The core is again put in 
the stove; when dry the lugs are withdrawn, 
the core scoured over with glasspaper and is 
then ready for trying in the mold. 

A great deal of care is required in putting 
the various parts of the mold together, and in 
making due provision for pouring and venting. 
The mold is put in a casting pit, so that its 
top is brought about on a level with the foun- 
dry floor. First, then, the lowermost plate H, 
Fig. 12, is well bedded on the bottom of the 
pit. The middle core. Fig. 10, is then put in, 
and centered, being supported on cores F and 

Fig. 11 

G, which form the holes F and G in Figs, i 
and 2, and the core v for the central shaft is 
also inserted. The latter, Fig. 12, v, fits in 
the print impression struck by the board in 
Fig. 3. The others, F, G, are simply set in by 
measurements, being of the same thickness as 
the metal in the end of the barrel. 

Next the portion of the mold carried by plate 
J is lowered, and the cores A and B are placed 
in position, followed by the upper portion of 
the mold carried on plate K from the joint b-b, 
then the upper cores A and B are inserted, and 
the filling-in cod-piece P put back into place. 
The details of this work call for a little ex- 

The cores A and B are made from boxes 
shown in Figs. 13 and 14, respectively. It 
will be seen in Fig. 12 that the cores A, B, 
have to be inserted in the print impressions 
in the main central core before the outer ring 

is lowered into position, in the case of three 
of the cores, the fourth being covered by the 
cod-piece P. And unless the outside were 
jointed at b-b the lower core B could not be 
inserted and supported in print impressions at 
each end. This is an important detail, because 
if the core were supported at one end only 
thus, and with chaplets elsewhere, there might 
be risk of displacement, or of blowing. There 
is no difficulty of this kind with the cores A A, 
which All up and are steadied in their pocket 
print impressions, hence these are inserted 
in the main core without requiring any fur- 
ther support. 
Lastly, the cope. Fig. 9, is lowered down 






"' i 





\ -: 


V .^ 

\ "^ 

X V 

sQ ■ 





Fig. 14 

Fig. 18 

and the pouring basin and runners made. But 
there are many points to be attended to dur- 
ing these operations. Thus, after the central 
core is put in position, the whole of the in- 
terior which was left destitute of bricks is 
filled with cinders. This is done to prevent an 
explosion of gas, since it must be remembered 
that the air from the core all strikes inward 
between the joints of the bricks. If there were 
no cinders in the central portion, this gas would 
accumulate in a large body, and mingling with 
oxygen would ignite and cause a blow up. Be- 
ing diffused, however, among the cinders it es- 
capes and does not ignite until it reaches the 
vent holes. 

Then, further, there is enormous liquid pres- 
sure in a deep mold, and this necessitates se- 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



cure bolting of the top and bottom parts to- 
gether. Bolts p pass from the top to the bot- 
tom plates in the core, and clamps b pass 
from the cope plate Q to the bottom plate H, 
being slipped over ^e lugs cast upon the 
plates and wedged. 

To resist pressure tending to bulge the 
outer mold, the space between the walls of 
the pit and the bricks of the outer mold is 
filled up with 'floor sand shoveled in, and 
pressed down hard with hand rammers. If 
the pit is very much larger than the mold it is 
usual to form a temporary wall round the 
mold with a series of iron rings, and ram 
sand between the mold and the rings. 


There has been considerable discussion in 
The Foundry at different times concerning the 
composition of various irons and the statement 
has been made repeatedly that a chemical 
analysis sometimes fails to reveal all of the 
properties of the iron. For instance, it is 
stated that an iron made from one of the 
southern ores which may apparently be identi- 
cal in composition with the northern iron will 
frequently have very different physical prop- 
erties, especially in regard to its chilling prop- 
erties. It is probable that these qualities may 
be due to varying amounts of elements which 
are not ordinarily determined in the chemical 
analysis of pig iron, but the fact remains, 
nevertheless, that these unexplained differ- 
ences do exist. This matter was brought to 
our attention recently in some correspondence 
concerning a high silicon pig iron sold under 
the name of Globe pig iron, Chas. G. Shepard, 
401 Ellicott Square, Buffalo, N. Y., being the 
agent This pig iron is peculiar, in that it is 
manufactured from an iron ore occurring in 
Jackson county, O., and containing only about 
25 percent of metallic iron. In order to pro- 
duce the high silicon irons made at this fur- 
nace, it is necessary to use a very much greater 
proportion of coke than is required for melt- 
ing the ordinary ore to produce an ordinary 
grade of pig iron. 

They have grades ranging from 6 to 10 per- 
cent in silicon and with the carbon ranging 
irom a little less than 3 to less than 2 percent, 
iuis grade of iron has been made and placed 
on the market for a great many years and it 
is used by many stove manufacturers and 
others to counteract the bad effects which 
result from the necessary melting of a large 
proportion of sprues or remelt. As is fre- 

quently stated, this iron will take the "sting" 
out of the mixture, which would otherwise 
result from the large proportion of remelt. 

Many of the users of the iron claim that 
better results can be obtained by introducing 
a certain proportion, that is, from 5 to 10 per- 
cent of this brand, into their mixture, and 
thus avoid the changing of the quality of the 
iron greatly, but at the same time increasing 
its strength by counteracting the effect of tne 
sulphur. It would be interesting to know 
whether or not this result is due wholly to 
tne high percentage of silicon present, or 
whether or not it is due to other elements not 
ordinarily determined. It is probable, how- 
ever, that the principal secret lies in the fact 
that this iron is remarkably pure and serves 
to introduce a considerable proportion of sili- 
con without introducing other and undesirable 
elements. Another point is that while this 
iron costs considerably more than ordinary 
pig iron, it is uAdoubtedly cheaper to introduce 
a certain amount of silicon in this Way than 
it would be to buy an iron of the desired grade 
of silicon in the first place. 

It would be interesting to hear from others 
who have had experience with southern irons 
which are said to have quite different proper- 
ties, even though the analysis may be appar- 
ently identical. A. Reader. 



In the December number of The Foundry 
there is an article with the above title, by G. 
L. B. If he will heat his shaft to a red heat 
before putting it into the mold it will help 
matters. It does not have to be red hot when 
put into the mold, but should be heated to a 
red heat just previous to this time. It should 
also be anchored in the cope side, the same as 
they would' with a dry sand core, for the 
molten metal flowing along the under side or 
drag half, expands one side, causing the ends 
to move out of center. He should also build 
a flow off gate and flow 50 or 75 pounds of 
iron through the mold, which will remove all 
tendency to produce honeycombed or spongy 
iron. I hope that this will help the brother 
out of his difficulty. 

The H. E. Hessler Co., of Syracuse, N. Y., 
have secured additional property in what is 
known as the North Side of Syracuse, and will 
build a plant there to work in conjunction with 
their other stove foundry. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 



Eisenseitung, Oct. 6. — Another discussion on 
this question. Care should be exercised in 
the selection of the molding sand. If not open 
enough, gas pockets are sure to result. If 
too open, the metal will tear away particles 
and cause scabs. Drying the mold suitably 
may overcome defects in the molding sand 
somewhat. Thus a gummy sand must be 
dried with a pretty sharp heat; while a lean., 
open sand must be handled cautiously, and 
with low temperatures. Furthermore, suffi- 
cient new sand must always be well mixed 
with the old before new molds are made. 

If at all possible, the mold should be place 1 
in such a position for pouring that the cope 
side receives any machining to be done subse- 
quently. This removes the portions likely to 
be unsound, as well as shotted places and 
other surface defects. 

The gates must be just large enough to pass 
the necessary amount of iron, and no larger. 
Pouring the castings with dull iron is apt to 
give sounder castings than with very hot 
metal, as the latter keeps on disengaging gases 
which may be held under the skin. 

Pouring from the bottom with whirl gates 
gives cleaner iron than top pouring, a fact 
readily seen in roll making. Specially good 
molding maiterials must be used in this case. 
as the cutting action of the stream is severe 
Plenty of risers are recommended as a paying 

Finally, it is necessary to use the right kind 
of metal. At least 2% of silicon, and as little 
manganese as possible, is essential. To gjve 
good wearing qualities, add 10% steel to this 


Eisenseitung, Dec. 29. — Under this caption 
the various materials going to make up a mold 
are discussed. We take therefrom the main 
points which are of interest at the present 
time, inasmuch as the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey is now engaged in studying the natural 
molding sands of the country. 

Molding sands in general must have the fol- 
lowing characteristics: They must allow 
themselves to be molded up, retaining their 
shape well. Must be able to resist the pres- 
sure of the metal as well as its cutting action. 
They must be porous enough to allow the 

gases to escape through them readily. They 
must be refractory enough to stand the tem- 
perature of the metal without burning on or 
disintegrating. They must be free from sub- 
stances which give off gases, as for instance 
carbonates ; as well as fluxes, such as lime and 
iron oxide. Finally the molding sands must 
crumble easily after shaking out, so that they 
may be readily tempered up again. 

To go into more detail. In order that the 
molding sand may be suitable for foundry- 
work, the particles of sand must possess cer- 
tain required properties. They must be as 
rough and angular as possible, and not round 
or smooth. The water used for tempering acts 
as a binder to some extent, and must be re- 
plenished as it evaporates. The molder judges 
this by the feel of the sand. If the sand is not 
porous enough, this water on being brought in 
contact with the molten metal, and turning to 
steam, is forced to pass through the body of 
the metal, causing it to boil, and always makes 
trouble. Hence the necessity of copious vent- 
ing occasionally with some sands. 

The two properties of sand, to be plastic 
enough to mold up well, and at the same time 
to be quite porous, are really diametrically op- 
posite, and hard to combine in the same sam- 
ple. The property of molding up well is due 
to a large amount of clay in the sand, making 
it plastic. This in turn makes the sand denser, 
and less permeable to gases. Experiments 
have demonstrated that very fat sands, that 
is with less than 85 percent silica, and 10 to 
15 percent clay, are impervious to the passage 
of gases, and only when heated up to 575 to 
625 degrees R, or in other words, "bunit." 
will they pass the gases in the iron. The finer 
the sand the greater this difficulty. If fine 
sands must be used the microscope should be 
taken to sec that the grains are rough and 
angular. The size, while hard to designate 
absolutely, should be about one sixth of an 
inch in diameter (which would seem a little 
large). Finally the sand should be as uni- 
form as possible in the size of the grains and 
be free from dust. To test the permeability 
of sand for gases, the samples should be put 
into suitable receptacles, pressed equally hard, 
and then brought to equal dimensions. Water 
is then dropped on with a graduate or burette. 
The sand which takes up the most water will 
be the one which passes the gases best. 

A sand must keep its shape when the hot 
metal strikes it. If the sand cracks up in 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



its grains and goes to dust there will be 
trouble. Thus the sand may contain car- 
bonate of lime, which decomposes under heat. 
Or there may be hydroxides which disengage 
water and destroy the integrity of the ma- 
terial. Finally there may be hair cracks in 
the grains of quartz which have moisture in 
them. When the hot metal strikes these, 
they fly apart. In any of these cases the pres- 
ence of the proper amount of clay will not 
give the desired results otherwise obtained. 

For heavy pieces of work, or for steel, a 
sand is used which has more clay in its make- 
up. In fact it is a clay which would shrink 
too much on heating, and hence has added to 
it quartz, burnt clay, ground crucibles, and the 
like. Here the shrinkage of the clay portion 
creates hair cracks which, however, are not 
continuous, as the grains of sand or other 
material breaks their continuity. The result is 
that no trouble is experienced from that 
source and the gases can pass off all right. 

For loam work, the material used shrinks 
very much, and hence it is necessary to add 
some organic matter as a binder to counteract 
the deleterious shrinkage effects. Short straw, 
cow-manure, calfs hair, increase the binding 
power and when baked the mold will pass off 
gases all right. Sea-coal dare not be used as 
a facing, as the gases formed are too volumi- 
nous, and could not get away. Hence graphite 
or coke dust is used for the wash. The more 
sand is found in the loam, the less graphite or 
coke dust may be used, and vice versa. 

Among the substances which may be used 
for binders in coremaking, we note potatoes, 
boiled and mashed, then being mixed with 
the core-sand. 


Giesserei-Zeitung, Dec. 15, contains an ar- 
ticle by F. Eckert, from which we take a few 
points of interest. Swedish and English char- 
coal irons with 3 to 3.5% total carbon, and as 
little sulphur and phosphorus as possible, are 
recommended, the silicon and manganese being 
1q3V. For the steel additions old files are spe- 
cially included. For annealing purposes the 
spathic iron ores are used, as well as hammer 
scale, rusted wrought iron turnings, and occa- 
sionally oxide of zinc. The last mentioned 
medium is certainly ^ new one to us. After 
giving some molding directions of a general 
nature, which agree with our American prac- 
tice, Mr. Eckert presents a table of mixtures 

to be used for malleable castings of thicknesses 
ranging from ^ to ij4 inches. In the first 
case he gives 75% gray pig iron with 25% 
steel scrap ; and in the last, yj% gray pig iron, 
8% white pig iron, and 55% steel scrap. These 
figures are astonishing to us here, for with so 
much steel it is a question of how much 
shrinkage we would have to contend with, 
what the percentage of cracked castings would 
be, and the certainty of a very poor anneal. 
In Germany, however, they anneal for a longer 
period, and at comparatively higher tempera- 
tures. The fracture of their castings is not 
black, as ours, but of a steely nature. 

For comparison with our costs those in Ger- 
many are given herewith, converted to a ton- 
nage basis (2,000 lbs.). 

Iron $2841 

Coke (crucible process) 9.09 

Crucibles 6.82 

Labor, melting 3.41 

Molding cost 22.73 

Molding material 2.27 

Cleaning 2.41 

Annealing labor ." 4.54 

Annealing fuel 2.82 

Annealing material 3.41 

Supplies 2.73 

Interest, depreciation 1.82 

Total $90.46 

or about 4.5c a lb. 

While these figures are claimed to be high, 
and the process is the antiquated crucible one. 
which seems, however, to be the standard for 
Germany, yet a few of the cost items can be 
compared with our practice. Thus the mold- 
ing cost would seem excessive, as also the an- 
nealing labor, remembering that wages are 
very much less in Germany. 

As we are selling malleable castings between 
2.2 and 3 cents a pound at the present writing 
over here, the above cost figures, even conced- 
ing a high pig iron price, would indicate that 
we are a trifle ahead in the gam«. 


Stahl und Eiscn. Oct. i. — Prof. Wuest and 
P. Schloesser experimented with practically 
pure iron to which additions of the elements 
named in the title had been added while in 
the crucible. The results were as follows: 
Carbon (made from sugar) added to the cold 
charge, in an old crucible, brought the metal 
up to 4.4 percent. The silicon was about 0.03, 

Digitized by 




Matx:h» 1905 

manganese 0.03, phosphorus 0.014, ^^^ sulphur 
0.008. The test pieces were cast into iron in- 
got molds, and afterwards packed in cast iron 
borings in a crucible, and then annealed in an 
electric furnace. Temperatures were taken 
with the Le Chatelier Pyrometer. The con- 
clusion reached was that the higher the car- 
bon contents, the greater the tendency to 
separate out the temper carbon. The reaction 
begins suddenly at about 1,800 degrees F. and 
keeps throwing out the carbon heavier as the 
temperature gets higher. (Unfortunately this 
does not quite agree with daily malleable prac- 
tice, where the slow heating up of an oven 
shows the separation out of the temper carbon 

contents goes below 0.50, the castings must be 
annealed twice to be of good quality. The 
very best malleable should contain below 
045 percent silicon, and even with 0.28, only 
one anneal is amply sufficient. 

The addition of manganese, made by metal 
produced in the Goldschmidt method, proved 
what most of the malleable people here have 
gone through, that it is very bad to have in 
quantity, for it obstructs the annealing pro- 
cess. While the presence of silicon allows a 
very sudden and marked change to take place, 
when too much manganese is there, the de- 
position of the temper carbon is so gradual 
that it may be called very slow. 










completely beginning with 1,250 degrees F., and 
not running higher than 1,350. Silicon 0.35, 
which would indicate that laboratory experi- 
ments do not always go hand in hand with 
actual experience.) Silicon has a great part 
to play in this reaction, as it has been found, 
and the tables given show that with higher 
silicon the annealing temperature comes down 
considerably. This comes more nearly to 
actual conditions. Our experience in America 
goes one step further in that we notice quite 
a distinction between metal made by the cupola 
process and that from the air furnace, or the 
open-hearth. The former anneals at a tem- 
perature several hundred degrees higher than 
the latter two methods. 

One statement is made which we cannot 
agree with either, and that is when the silicon 

Sulphur acts similar to manganese and is 
also known to be very injurious to the ma- 
terial. Phosphorus, if not present in too great 
a quantity, has no special effect either way. 


The accompanying illustration shows one of 
the air compressors recently furnished the 
Penna. R. R. Co. for their new shops at Al- 
toona, Pa. These machines were designed and 
built by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., at 
their compressor plant at Franklin, Pa. They 
are designed to run non-condensing, with a 
boiler pressure of 100 pounds, and the capacity 
of each compressor is 700 cubic feet of free 
air per minute when running at the speed of 
100 r. p. m. The steam cylinders are pro- 
vided with Meyer adjustable cut-off valves, 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



and the air cylinders with mechanically 01^- 
rated inlet valves of the Corliss type and with 
poppet valves for the discharge. All parts 
are designed to give ample working surface 
and to insure continuous cool running. An 
intercooler, which is not shown in the illustra- 
tion, is provided, and located between the high 
and low pressure air cylinders. The cylinders 
have comparatively small bore and long stroke, 
so as to reduce the clearance volume to the 
minimum. The governor is furnished with a 
pressure regulator, which stops the machine 
when the pressure in the receiver exceeds the 
desired amount. The governor is also pro- 
vided with a safety device which stops the 
machine in case of any accident to the gov- 
ernor belt 


Philadelphia Foundrymen's Association. 

Howard Evans, Secaretary, care J. W. Paxson Co. 

The Philadelphia Foundrymen's Association 
held its 144th meeting at the Manufacturers' 
Club, Philadelphia, on Wednesday evening, 
Feb. I. Thomas Devlin, president, occupied 
the chair, and the meeting was called to order 
at 8:15, with 65 members and visitors in at- 
tendance. The treasurer's report showed a 
cash balance of $2,129.09, all bills being paid 
to date. 

Secretary Evans stated that several of the 
members accepted the invitation and attended 
the annual meeting and dinner of the New 
England Foundrymen's Association at the Ex- 
change Club, Boston, Mass., on Jan. 11. He 
then called upon Mr. Brown, who was one of 
the party, to make a report. Mr. Brown said 
that the members from Philadelphia were roy- 
ally received and entertained, the meeting be- 
ing quite largely attended. In presenting a 
neatly framed etching of the Old North 
Church, the hearty wishes of the New England 
Foundrymen's Association were extended to 
President Devlin and the members of the 
Philadelphia association, and special attention 
was called to the Historic Association of Bos- 
ton, and in particular the history of the Old 
North Church. In closing his remarks Mn 
Brown made a motion to the effect that the 
secretary be instructed to formally acknowl- 
edge the receipt of the etching referred to, and 
that he endeavor to have the same placed upon 
the wall of the meeting room at the Manufac- 
turers* Club, provided satisfactory arrange- 
ments could be made with the board of gov- 

The members were invited to attend a meet- 
ing of the Franklin Institute on Feb. 2 and 
hear a lecture to be delivered by Mr. Richard 
Moldenke on "Testing of Cast Iron." 

Edwin A. Moore, president of the American 
Coke & Gas Construction Co., Camden, N. J., 
was then called to read his paper on the sub- 
ject of "By-Product Coke as Made by the 
Coke Oven Plant of the Otto-Hoffman and 
United-Otto Types, Camden, N. J." 

Pittsburg Foundrymen's Association. 

F. H. Zimmers, Secretary, care Union Fonndry & 
Machine Co. 

At a meeting of the Pittsburg Foundrymen's 
Association, held at Pittsburg, Monday, Feb. 
6, J. S. Robeson, president of the American 
Glutrose Co., Philadelphia, read an interesting 
paper on "Core Binders." Much information 
with reference to core making was given and 
the low percentage in mixtures of some of 
the binders used was a surprise to many. Most 
of the foundrymen agreed with Mr. Robeson 
that the sand for making cores was of first 
importance, and that the binder was of sec- 
ondary consideration. While different binders 
were used by many of those who took part in 
the discussion, it was generally agreed that for 
overhanging cores flour must be used as a 
binder. One of the foundrymen showed a 
core to the visitors in which glutrine was used 
as a binder in the ratio of 50 to i and even 
this core was too hard for general practice. 
The proper proportion in this instance should 
have been 75 to i. It was claimed that this 
substance was used by some of the foundry- 
men in the ratio of over 100 to i with excellent 

New England Foundrymen's Association. 

Fred F. Stockwell, Secretary, care of Barbonr- 
Stockwell Co., Cambridgeport, Mass. 

The regular monthly meeting of the New 
England Foundr3mien's Association was held 
at the Exchange Club, Boston, on Wednes- 
day, Feb. 8. Report of progress was re- 
ceived from the committee on pig iron stor- 
age warrant system, and it was announced that 
the committee expected to have Geo. H. Hull, 
president American Pig Iron Storage War- 
rant Co., present at the next meeting to give 
further information relative to this subject. 

After a short intermission the meeting ad- 
journed to dinner, after which the president 
introduced Mr. Henry Souther, of the Henry 
Souther Engineering Co., Hartford, Conn., 
who gave a very interesting address on the 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

"Physics of Cast Iron Practically Considered." 
At the conclusion of the address a unanimous 
vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Souther. 

Cleveland Foundry Foremen. 

W. H. Nicholls, 608 Gordon Avenue, District Vice 

The Cleveland Foundry Foremen have had 
two meetings recently. On January 30th they 
met at their usual meeting place and then pro- 
ceeded in a body to the power block occupied 
by the Berkshire Mfg. Co., where there was a 


motor, and also a grinding machine for point- 
ing the cores. The Berkshire Mfg. Co. ex- 
hibited two of their automatic molding ma- 
chines fitted up for different classes of work. 
One of the machines was fitted up for making 
car brasses, and certainly showed remarkable 
results as to the time occupied in making the 
mold, and as to the number of pounds of 
castings which could be obtamed from a 

There were two papers read before the 
members went to the power block. These pa- 




combined exhibit of molding and coremaking 
machinery by the Berkshire Mfg. Co., and Mr. 
Wadsworth, of Cuyahoga Falls, O. Mr. Wads- 
worth brought down a car load of machinery 
from the Falls Rivet & Machine Co., Cuya- 
hoga Falls, O., including several different 
types of molding machines made by different 
manufacturers. These were exhibited to illus- 
trate the different methods of securing the 
patterns to the machines. He also exhibited 
one of his core machines driven by an air 

pers set forth the advantages of some of the 
machinery and explained it. Mr. Wadsworth 
read a paper on molding machines and pre- 
faced his remarks with a statement concern- 
ing the object of the Foundry Foremen's Club. 
He urged every foundry foreman to attend 
the club and to make it a place where the 
foundry foremen could obtain help in the 
solving of their various problems. He also 
pointed out the fact that with our modem 
foundry conditions, including as they do the 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 




molding machine, it would be necessary to 
have the foremen patternmakers associated 
with the foundry foremen, as the solution of 
the molding machine problem is one in which 
both the molder and the patternmaker are in- 
terested. He pointed out the fact that the 
different molding machines were suitable for 
different classes of work and that when a 
foundry was to be equipped with molding 
machinery, it was often best to have the fore- 
man visit other foundries and also to discuss 
his problems with the foundry foreman of 

other plants. He then stated some of the 
points of interest concerning the exhibits 
which he had brought to Cleveland. Among 
the machines exhibited there was a squeezer 
machine intended for light work where small 
or medium quantities are required. A match 
plate machine of the old type made about 15 
years ago, which, on account of the great ex- 
pense of the match plates, is not used exten- 
sively at present, was exhibited, and Mr. 
VVadsworth stated that they were now making 
but few patterns for these machines. 


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March, 1905 

The match plate machine originally had a 
ratchet vibrator attached to it, but about 
twelve years ago it was removed and an air 
vibrator Substituted for it There was also a 
hand ram and stripping plate machine, which 
was arranged partly as a stripping plate and 
partly as a vibrator machine. 

Mr. Wainwright, of Cuyahoga Falls, also 
read a paper on core room practice, in which 
he pointed out the difference between past and 
present practice in the core room. He made 
a plea to the foundrymen to allow their fore- 
men to go about and see what was being done 
in other foundries, and also for the introduc- 
tion of more modem methods and tools in the 
core room, his own core room being equipped 
with modern drying ovens, core machines, etc., 
he stated the advantages which his company 
derived from them. He also pointed out the 
advantages of machines for riddling and mix- 
ing sand. 

The accompanying illustrations show a flash 
light group of a few of the foundry foremen 
and their friends who were present, together 
with some of the machines which were on ex- 
hibition. After spending an hour and a half 
looking over the machines and exhibits, the 
loundrymen adjourned to the office of The 
Foundry, where a discussion on molding ma- 
chines and core making took place, in which 
many interesting and useful points were 
brought out. 

On February 14th there was a lecture on 
thermit at the Case School of Applied Sciences, 
by Mr. Stutz, vice president of the Gold- 
schmidt Thermit Co., of New York City. The 
arrangements for the lecture were made joint- 
ly by the Civil Engineers* Club of Cleveland 
and the Foundry Foremen's Club. There was 
a large attendance and every one reported hav- 
ing had a good time and having learned a good 
deal about the application of thermit. Some 
of the foundry foremen came in from distances 
varying from 100 to 200 miles to attend the 

On the afternoon of February 15th there 
was a demonstration of the use of thermit in 
the foundry at the Interstate Foundry Co.*s 
plant, which was attended by many of the 
foundry foremen, foundry managers and 

Titanium thermit was introduced into a 
ladle to show its effect in purifying the iron, 
and several test bars made from the metal 
both before and after the introduction of the 
thermit. The use of thermit on the riser for 
reviving dull iron was also demonstrated. 

Erie Foundry Foremen. 

W. F. Gninaa, Dist. Vice Pres., care Erie City Iron 

The Erie Foundry Foremen held their reg- 
ular monthly meeting in Marquette Hall, Feb. 
6th. President Grunau presided and there 
was a full attendance. After reading the 
minutes of the previous meeting and trans- 
acting the routine business, a very interesting 
talk was given on "Chemistry as Apphed in 
the Foundry," by Mr. Jas. A. Evens, Chemist 
of the Erie City Iron Works, and Mr. Henry 
C. Pritham, who conducts a laboratory in the 
city, also spoke on the same subject. The 
talks were most interesting and appreciated 
by all present. A vote of thanks was tendered 
the chemists and a hearty invitation extended 
to them to meet with us regularly. 

Philadelphia Foundry Foremen. 

W. p. Cunningham, Secretary, Pencoyd, Pa. 

The Fifth regular meeting of the Associa- 
tion was held at their new meeting place, 
1425 Filbert St., Wednesday evening, Feb. 
15th. President A. T. William was in the 
chair and in the absence of Mr. Cunningham, 
the secretary, W. O. Steele, acted as secretary. 
There was a good attendance in spite of the 
intensely cold and stormy weather. The sub- 
ject of the evening's discussion was shrink 
holes and feeding heads, and it was very 
ably handled. Pieces of defective work or 
descriptions of different difficulties along this 
line which were brought in by the members 
were examined and discussed to the mutual 
advantage of all. The chemical end of the 
problem was discussed and the effects of the 
various elements of the "mix" were argued 
pro and con to the profit of all present. 

Some new core compounds also came in for 
their share of discussion and the results which 
some of the members were obtaining with 
them were reported. 

After the meeting a good social time and a 
fine luncheon were thoroughly enjoyed by 
every one. Meetings will be held regularly on 
the third Wednesday of each month at the 
new meeting place, where a large and well 
lighted room has been set apart for the use 
of the Association on its regular meeting 


Frank C. Everitt, Secretary, 2413 Third Ave., New 
York, N. Y., care The J. L. Mott Iron Works. 

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March, 1905 




S. M. Williams, Diat. Vice Pros., 221 Third St., 
Elizabeth, N. J. 


W. H. Holmes, Dist. Vice Pres. , care American 
Foundry Co. 


David Spence, Dist. Vice Pres., 142 Bunker St. 


Thomas Glasscock, Dist. Vice Pres., care Pawling & 
Hamischfeger Co., Milwankee, Wis. 


Forgings are gradually being replaced by 
cast steel in the construction of locomotive 
frames not only on account of the lower cost 
of the steel but because the steel suitable for 
frames shows a tensile strength of about 75,- 
000 lb. per sq. in. as compared with 53,000 to 
54,000 lb. per sq. in. for the best hammered iron. 

Owing to the length of the frames, vary- 
ing up to nearly 40 feet, considerable difficulty 
has been experienced among steel casting man- 

is baked, leaving the main body easily friable, 
so that the mold will readily break down 
under the strains due to the shrinkage of the 
In drying the mold the cope is superimposed 



on the drag shown in Fig. i, and a perforated 
gas pipe is introduced between them, the gas 
being burned in the mold cavity between the 
cope and the drag. A flask section is placed 
between the cope and the drag to hold them 
some distance apart, and to prevent the drying 


ufacturers in producing them without shrink- 
age cracks and the consequent loss of an un- 
duly high percentage of castings. C. C. 
Smith of the Union Steel Casting Co., Pitts- 
burg, has a patented method of drying molds 
in his plant by which this difficulty has been 
entirely overcome. The common practice of 
drying the molds throughout is objectionable 
in the manufacture of large steel castings, not 
only on account of the danger of injuring the 
mold in its removal to the drying oven but 
also because the baked mold does not break or 
disintegrate under the shrinkage of the cast- 
ing, and as a result the latter becomes strained 
and frequently full of shrinkage cracks. By 
the new method only the face of the molds 

of the cope to a greater extent than the drag 
a baffle wall of thin metal prevents the flame 
from coming in contact with the cope face. 
The heat can be continued for any length of 
time so as to get thoroughly dry mold faces. 
While the face of the mold will become dry 
and hard the greater portion of the mold body 
will still be moist and will easily disintegrate 
or break down. In the drying of molds for 
locomotive frames two perforated gas pipes 
are used as in Fig. 2. This method of drying 
can be carried out on the molding floor, not 
necessitating the removal of the drag or cope 
to a drying oven, the cope receiving a min- 
imum amount of handling, while the drag is 
not moved at all. 

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March, 1905 


Devoted to InquirleH from l*nictioa1 Foundry' 
men on snl^eotii relating to the Melting and 
UsIniT of Caet Iron, Steel, Brass and Bronse. 

The fi>llowlng experts answer qnestions In this 

W. J. Keep, Cast Iron. 

J. B. Nan, K etallurgy of Steel and Steel Castins:s. 

Dr. Richard M oldenke, K alleable Castings. 

C. Tickers, Brass Castings. 

We have also made arrangements with several 
others to act as special contributors upon Brass, 
Bronze and other subjects. All inquiries ithonld 
be addressed to the Editor of THB FOUNDRY, 
and they will then be forwarded to those in 
charge of the different suhJects. 



Aluminum in Iron. 

Question. What is the proper way to use 
aluminum when mixing it with iron? 

Answer. As the influence of aluminum in 
cast iron is the same as silicon, it is cheaper to 
use silicon for changing combined carbon into 
graphite; but as it takes only one-sixth as 
much aluminum as silicon to produce a given 
eflFect it is used to make a mixture of cast iron 
and steel scrap fluid enOugh to fill a mold and 
to prevent blowholes about one-tenth of one 
percent of pure aluminum is placed in the ladle 
before it is filled with molten iron. The mix- 
ture is instantaneous. 

Trouble with Sulphur. 

Question. Our coke has never contained 
over .90 percent of sulphur in any case ; in this 
particular case it analyzed .64 pe»*cent. The 
iron charged should produce a casting with 
.093 percent sulphur, but the analysis showed 
.114 percent. We used limestone for a flux. 

Answer. The limestone evidently contained 
pyrites. This can be seen by wetting the stone, 
when they will appear as bright golden spots. 

Blowholes In Castings. 

Question. We are having trouble with our 
gray cast iron foundry mixture on account of 
blowholes. These are clean, i. e., show no 
graphite deposit in the blowholes. We thought 
that the proportion of graphite to combined 
carbon was at fault, but on getting opinions 
they differ so that we are no better oflf than at 
the beginning. The composition seems good, 
viz., Si. 2.00, S. 0.08, P. 0.49, Mn. 0.60, Total 

C. 3.75» Graphite 3.00 to 3.30. We do not 
dare to make the silicon any lower. 

Answer. There is nothing wrong with the 
iron, but with some condition connected with 
melting or not sufficient venting of the mold. 
This will disappear in time and it might be im- 
possible to locate the trouble. The amount of 
silicon must depend upon the quality of cast- 
ings that you desire, but increasing the silicon 
would be likely to decrease the blowholes. 
Melting the iron hotter would also be likely to 
get rid of the blowholes. For immediate rem- 
edy add to the ladle about one ounce of com- 
mercially pure aluminum to one hundred 
pounds of iron (not "casting aluminum"), or 
place in the ladle before filling it with iron 
about one-half a pound of granulated ferro 
manganese. The increase of silicon or the 
addition of aluminum will make the castings 
softer while the manganese will not affect 
hardness or will slightly increase it. It is 
usual to lay all trouble with blowholes to 
sulphur in coke. 

To Pi jure a Cupola Mixture. 

Question, I want a mixture for ingot molds 
for brass of the following composition : G. C 
2.21, C C. 1.06, Si. 1. 16, P. .39» S. .10, Mn. .38 
percent. I want to make the mixture from the 
following six pig irons. 

Answer. He gives complete analysis of the 
six irons. Silicons are 2.30, 2.50, 1.76, 2.42, 0.75, 
1.60. Phosphor in all but two are twice that de- 
sired and Mn. in all but one is nearly double. 
Evidently these are not actual analyses of the 
irons. Irons must be purchased that can be 
mixed to produce the proportions desired. It, 
however, seems foolish to make so expensive 
a mixture for this purpose; and why all pig 
iron? What are you going to do with your 
remelt ? 

Suppose that you purchase three pig irons 
with as low P. and Mn. as you desire and with 
silicons that will produce the desired percent- 
igt in the mixture. To have 1.16 in the cast- 
ing it should be 1.40 percent in the mixture. 

Suppose you purchase A pig iron with i.oo 
percent Si., B pig with 1.25, and C pig with 
2.00 percent silicon and good machinery scrap 
with about 1.50 percent silicon. Your home 
r.crap will contain 1.16 percent silicon and we 
will suppose that you must use 600 lbs. to 
a charge of 3,000 lbs., so as to use it all up 
each day. Let us use 1,200 lbs. of the foreign 
scrap and say that we do not care about the 
proportions of A, B and C. 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



lb. in Mix. % Si. tb. Si. 

Home Scrap 600X1.16= 6.96 

Foreign Scrap 1,200 X i-50 = 18.00 




3,000 X 1.40 


Needed 1,200 X 142 = 17.04 


A pig iron i. 001 — .421 58 
C •• •• 2.00.4-.58' 42 17 

Total parts 

1,200 -J- 175 = 6.86 lbs. to one part. 
58 X 6.86 = 397.88 lbs. of A. 

58 X 6.86 = 397.88 lbs. of B. 

59 X 6.86 = 404.74 lbs. of C. 

Proof using even weights: 

Home Scrap 600X1.16= 6.96 

Foreign Scrap 1,200 X i-SO = 18.00 

A Pig Iron 400 X i-oo 4.00 

B Pig Iron 400X1.25 5.00 

C Pig Iron 400 X 2.00 8.00 

3,000 X 1.40 = 41.96 

If it had been desirable to use a large quan- 
tity of any of the pig irons on account of a 
shortage of some others, figure the quantity 
of such pig iron in with the home and for- 
eign scrap and balance only two pig irons. 

The usual way is to estimate all of the 
quantities and then figure the silicon in such 
mixture as in above proof. If too small or 
too great a percentage is found vary irons and 
figure again as in proof, and so on until you 
get the correct mixture. 

To make a success of mixing by analyses 
you must first get a correct analysis of each 
iron used. If you guess at the analyses of the 
different irons you might almost as well guess 
at the amounts to use in the first place. 

You must in any case guess at the composi- 
tion of foreign scrap and to find whether your 
mixture is satisfactory you had better measure 
the shrinkage of a test bar from the same iron 
as the casting and compare it with the shrink- 
age of a test bar from an iron that has proved 

If the shrinkage of your mixture is less you 
can decrease silicon by using more A pig; 
if the shrinkage is greater increase the sili- 
con by using more C pig iron. This saves all 
analyses and saves all figuring, is inexpensive 
and the result is obtained as soon as the test 
bar is cold. This is mechanical analysis. 

E. K., of Sheffield, England, writes as fol- 
lows: We are using ordinary draught and 
clay pots for melting our white iron for mal- 
leable castings. Ours is a small shop em- 
ploying six molders, and we have a variety of 
work from ounces to 100 lbs. Can we use 
a small cupola to advantage? 

In answer to this I would say that for so 
small an output, by all means stick to the cru- 
cible process. In any case the use of the cu- 
pola for malleable castings weighing 100 lbs. 
is not to be recommended, as the product will 
be inferior to your present castings. If you 
desired to increase your capacity, and had the 
bulk of it in very small castings, the cupola 
would be all right, provided you can get 
pig iron with lower sulphur than seems to be 
the rule in England. When your output 
reaches two or three tons daily,, you can pur 
in a small air furnace to advantage. This air 
furnace, by the way, is not a reverberatory 
with crucibles; but for direct melting on the 

E. K. writes further that his iron requires 
at least six days for the complete annealing 
process, and asks would "black heart" iron 
take less. In England black heart metal is 
the name given to our malleable castings, their 
own product being annealed until the carbon 
has all passed out of the metal leaving it 
nearly like steel. While our black heart cast- 
ings can be annealed in less time, we never 
take less than six days for this purpose, un- 
less pressed on deliveries. And then the work 
is bound to suflfer. Black heart malleable 
ings will therefore be not cheaper than the 
white castings of England, in fact they might 
be dearer, for the pig iron used must be of 
good quality to get the black heart at all. Pig 
irons with sulphur oVer 0.07 are apt to give 
trouble in that respect. 



Lead in Alloys. 

We should like some practical information 
relative to the best method of treating brass 
and bronze mixtures containing a large per- 
centage of lead and zinc so as to secure a 
uniform mixture, or in other words, prevent 
their separation at the time of cooling without 
having to plunge the castings in water. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

Answer. Copper alloys with zinc in all pro- 
portions, it is a perfect alloy, and the zinc 
never separates from the copper. 

Copper and lead do not form a perfect al- 
loy, the lead always has a tendency to separate, 
but the copper will retain the lead much better 
if no zinc be present in the alloy. When zinc 
is added in large amount to a copper-lead 
alloy, the copper alloys with the zinc to form 
brass, and lets go of the lead which oozes out 
of the castings. Small quantities of lead and 
zinc, will, however, form an alloy with cop- 
per; for instance, two ounces each of lead 
and zinc alloy with sixteen ounces of copper 
to form a variety of red brass. 

But when it is desirable to alloy a large 
amount of lead with copper as in the pot met- 
als, zinc should never be present, as it will 
promote a segregation of the lead. 

No method of treatment will compel the 
copper to retain the lead in large amounts; 
it will always ooze out more or less. This is 
why an alloy of eight ounces lead to sixteen 
ounces copper is known as "wet pot metal." 

The retention of lead may be promoted by 
the addition of tin in small quantities by the 
use of antimonial lead in place of soft lead, 
and by constantly stirring the alloy while cast- 

Brass Mixtures. 

Question. I am an iron molder, but at times 
am called upon to make brass castings ranging 
from I oz. to 1,200 lb. The heavier castings 
I make out with all right, but it seems impos- 
sible for me to turn out small castings with a 
clean skin and a good color, and that will 
file easily. Have tried many mixtures of cop- 
per, tin and zinc. The nearest I have come 
to getting what I want is to use a composition 
of 85 copper, 5 tin, 5 zinc, 5 lead and J4 lb. 
metallic phosphor. This gives me a good 
working metal for lathe work, but does not 
file very easily, and if knocked out hot the 
color is not good, but if left to cool in the 
mold it has a very nice color. Now, I would 
like to get some information on this subject. 

My sand is Philadelphia sand and I do not 
think it is fine enough for light work and it 
contains a grit that gives trouble in cutting 
gates. It works nicely on castings weighing 
from 10 to 100 lb. The metals I have are 
copper, tin, zinc, lead and metallic phosphor. 

AnsTver. I must say this correspondent is 
very fortunately situated with regard to met- 

With copper, tin, zinc and lead at his dis- 
posal, not to speak of "metallic phosphor/' he 
ought to turn out brass castings with a color 
like a sunflower. 

The mixture given is pretty near an "ounce 
metal." It is a good alloy, but not quite suit- 
able for small castings that must machine 
easily. Try the following alloy: 

Copper so pounds. 

Zinc s « 

Lead 5 " 

Tin I " 

The tin may be omitted in castings desired 
very soft. 

The sand is evidently too coarse for small 
castings; get some fine brass sand, or if that 
is not obtainabfe, take the coarse sand, strew it 
on the floor and let it get trampled on and dry 
as dust; screen this dry sand through a fine 
sieve. The one I use I call a No. 60, but I 
never counted the mesh. This sieve will take 
out all the grit and by constantly screening all 
dust, a pile of fine sand will be gradually ac- 
cumulated, which can be kept to itself and 
used for small work. New sand may be added 
as required by drying and screening. 

Do not get any iron molders' facings mixed 
up with this sand, if you want a color on the 
castings; dust flour only on the molds for 
small brass work. 

Also keep iron out of the metal. Too 
much enthusiasm in stirring with an iron skim- 
mer has spoilt the color of many a heat of 

Another thing, do not cut huge gates on 
small brass castings; experiment to see how 
small they can be made and not "draw," 
"shrink" or run "cold shut." Where there are 
small chunky castings put a feeder near them, 
in the shape of a boss, in the cope of runner or 

Shake out the castings; as soon as the red- 
ness has cooled from the sprue tap the sand off 
and quickly dip them in water ; get them under 
water before the orange color fades to green. 
My remarks at the beginning were called forth 
by the fact that many founders do not fur- 
nish the component parts of the alloys, deem- 
ing them too expensive. All you get is a pile 
of junk, a pig of lead and a slab of zinc, out 
of which one is calmly expected to make "nice 
red brass," "bell metal," "steam metal," "gun 
metal," "yellow brass," "phosphor bronze" and 
so forth, so that any one who has access to 
copper, etc., is indeed fortunate and only needs 
a little perseverance in experimenting along 
the lines laid down to make a grand success. 

Digitized by 


MarQh, 1905 





A writer in the January Foundry in an ar- 
ticle on a Dismal Swamp Foundry happily 
alluded to a certain style of cupola designed 
after the fashion of a wine bottle. It was 
rather an appropriate name for the several 
monstrosities that are scattered over the 
country. Some of them melt iron well, but 
they are all without exception killers of men, 
and several costly losses have been recorded 
against them on account of the men being 
suffocated on the charging scaffold, by the vol- 
umes of gas discharged through the door that 
should be carried up the stack. I well remem- 
ber one evening having a 15 ton heat which 
was a little larger than the average and hav- 
ing a large job to pour after the small work 
was done. I had my large ladles ready and 
one of them filled, when to my dismay I dis- 
covered the cupola was empty. On investiga- 
tion I found my two cupola men lying out 
full length in the snow where they had man- 
aged to crawl after they were suffocated on 
the cupola platform. This same thing hap- 
pened on several occasions afterwards, and 
was of such frequency particularly in the 
winter that I had a bell rope suspended from 
the scaffold in a convenient place so that the 
men could give an alarm when they found 
they could not stand the gas and heat any 
longer, and I then sent a relay of fresh men to 
finish charging. 

Some years ago this contracting of the 
cupola above the door seemed to be a sort of 
a fad among the desig^ners of cupolas, al- 
though most of what I have seen of them was 
the handiwork of foundrymen themselves or 
some of the engineering profession who 
thought they knew something of foundry prac- 

The idea of course was to keep the heat as 
much as possible in the cupola and use less 
coke or other fuel. How the heat is to be 
kept in while the door is open is more than 
I could ever figure out, as the door is open 
seven-eighths of the time while the stock is 
being charged. The flame and gases instead 
of going up the stack partly come out the 
door, the amount depending on the amount the 
cupola is contracted, in other words- the 
smaller the area of the stack above the door 
the greater the volume of gas that will come 
through it to cause suffocation and oftentimes 

I believe something in the way of sheet iron 
and bricks could be saved by contracting the 
shell a couple of mches above the door, but 
in all cases it is the best practice to have the 
inside lining straight. This is not meant to 
attack the excellent practice of leaving the 
lining project a few inches above the tuyeres. 
Acting upon the theory that the contraction of 
the cupola above the door kept in the heat 
and probably figuring on surprising the whole 
engineering world by melting at the hitherto 
impossible ratio of i to 20 or even more, a 
central western mechanical engineer who 
owned a foundry took off his coat and jingled 
both his pocketbook and his powerful intellect 
in the interests of the foundry fraternity. The 
whisky bottle was his model. His first at- 
tempt took the form of the hip pocket variety, 
oval cupola, but his latter-day designs were all 
after the common form with which Kentucky 
and all those living adjacent to its shores are 
so familiar. 

It was rather a laughable circumstance to 
visitors to see a small pipe sticking through 
the roof which they always took for the core 
oven flue. On being told it was the cupola 
they invariably indulged a good hearty laugh. 

When the blast was on, a little smoke issued 
through it, but at the door it was a sight to 
see. A huge tongue of flame illuminated the 
whole surroundings, while from behind a cool 
corner a faithful workman constantly played 
a hose. 

It had one redeeming feature, the scaffold 
was high, and nearly always the amount of 
the heat could be got in before putting on the 

If any more had to be put in, the blast had 
to be shut off, for a man dressed in Harvey- 
ized armor plate could not approach it No 
door would last more than two heats, so all 
hands got tired of making any. The cupola 
floor, the tracks and the iron walls were all 
warped and twisted out of shape. 

Someone may ask why don't they remove 
the trouble? Well, the people are easily satis- 
fied, then they are well used to that and other 
troubles, and then again such mistakes as 
contracting a 54-inch pulley to 16 inches above 
the door was costly in the first place and 
would be doubly costly to have it righted 

Then again some people don't like to have 
to admit the making of blunders, particularly 
those who like to save at the spigot and lose 
at the bunghole. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 



This subject is an old one, but it has been 
brought right home to us lately, as we have in- 
stalled a wet grinder for crushing and washing 
our daily cupola dump. The product from this 
grinder has been a surprise. The amount of 
clean iron reclaimed daily is so great that we 
feel assured it pays for the expense of grinding 
it. During April of this year the amount of 
clean shot, with many good sized nuggets in 
each barrowful tVat we reclaimed daily, was 
over 1,200 pounds. 

This is too much iron to throw away, al- 
though it is being done by a large number of 
our foundries. While it seems an easy matter 
to just charge it into the cupola as scrap, our 
experience and perhaps that oi everyone else is 
that it is a hard problem to solve. 

At first we began to use the shot iron this 
way : On each of the last two charges of the 
daily melt we put 500 pounds shot iron. We 
put it in loose on top of scrap iron, in addition 
to the regular charge, without any change of 
kind or amount of pig iron or scrap in the 
charge. We added extra coke to mdt the ad- 
ditional weight. 

The result was without any apparent effeci 
on the looks of the castings. For several days 
we began to think it an easy matter, but from 
reports that came to us from the machine shop, 
our first conclusion was dispelled, and before 
we were through, we found it about as hard a 
nut to crack as were some of the castings to 

We then cut out of the last two charges 500 
pounds of scrap iron; in its place we put 500 
pounds of shot iron, and on top of this we put 
500 pounds of soft silicon pig iron. We took 
care to pour this mixture into heavy work, 
with better results, but the shot would show 
itself, although it apparently melted, and we 
poured it without trouble. A singular result 
during this stage was apparent in some wheels 
poured with iron in which was some of this 
shot mixture. One wheel 10 feet in diameter, 
14 in. face, with rim 4 in. thick, 11,000 in 
weight, poured through hub and arms, was a 
good sound casting in every way, but when face 
of rim was turned off, groups of bright spots 
the size and shape of the shot iron, were 
bunched at and near the middle of the rim, 
mostly opposite the arm of the wheel, with a 
few stray spots above and below the center. At 
top and bottom of rim no spot appeared, and 
«■ Paper read at A. F. A. Convention, June, '04. 

the iron there was our regular blue color. The 
wheel was soft enough to turn off easily and 
no difference in cutting qualities was noticed 
between the bright spots and the regular blue 
iron. I can not explain why these spots were 
bunched in that manner. 

We now began to use more shot iron. W^e 
made an extra charge above our daily wants 
of soft pig and shot iron — equal parts of each 
— which we poured into pigs. In following 
heats we used this "shot pig" in our cylinder 
mixture. The result was better, but castings 
poured from same ladle would sometimes be of 
different grades of softness. 

From the trials we have made of this side 
issue, we have found the following to produce 
the most satisfactory results: It is best to 
charge shot iron in center of the cupola with 
pig or scrap piled around it forming a nest. 

Shot reclaimed from dump in which there is 
a large proportion of slag, is not worth the 
trouble to use. It reproduces so much slag in 
cupola that it is extra work to overcome its 
effects. We cart away all the slag we can pick 
out of the daily dump. 

It pays to riddle the shot iron. We use a 
No. 6 riddle — the smallest pieces we put with 
the machine shop turnings for sale and we use 
only the larger shot. 

We find that to put on top of the shot charge 
of 1,000 pounds, about 40 pounds of carbide of 
silicon helps to reduce the hard and non-mixing 

We had the best results pouring heavy work 
with this shot mixture. In small work it 
seems to chill so quickly when it comes in con- 
tact with the damp mold, and runs hard in 
lugs and projections reaching into the cope of 

As yet we do not charge the shot iron into 
the cupola with the assurance we would like. 
That there is a way to do it we feel certain, 
but we have not yet solved the problem to our 
entire satisfaction, and we would be very glad 
to hear from some of the older and more sci- 
entifically equipped foundrymen. 

Since the collapse of the United States Ship- 
building Co., the old Moore Foundries, of 
Elizabeth, N. J., have had rather a checkered 
career, but under the wise direction of the 
Sheldon Co., which now has charge of the 
property, things are picking up and a large 
number of new employes have been put to 
work. The company has a number of con- 
tracts, which will keep it busy for several 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 




"A Treatise on Tooth Gearing." by J. H. 
Cromwell, published by John Wylie & Sons, 
New York, N. Y., price $1.50. The author 
of this book states that he is aware that he 
is treading on well worn ground and that 
the subject is about as old as the hills, but 
that in his experience as mechanical engineer 
he has sought often and urgently, but always 
in vain, for a terse, compact, yet complete and 
comprehensive work on the subject of tooth 
gearing. So that, after having made the sub- 
ject a study for years he has attempted to 
boil down the results of these studies into 
just such a practical work as he himself 
wanted, and hence he hopes that it will be of 
interest to other busy men. 

Algebra has been used in the book in a 
number of cases, but parallel with the alge- 
braic solution a rule is always stated, so as to 
enable a man who does not understand alge- 
bra to solve the problems, and the author 
states that any problem in the book can be 
solved by any man who has a knowledge of 
arithmetic. He first takes up the underlying 
principles of gearing, showing how they may 
be applied, and how the theoretically perfect 
form of tooth is developed. He also shows 
the effect of different sizes of rolling circles 
upon the character of the • teeth, and many 
other points which will be of interest to those 
dealing with gearing problems. 

In addition to the ordinary spur wheels, he 
takes up many special forms, such as lantern 
gears, gears having very small numbers of 
teeth, bevel gears of all classes, including ex- 
ternal and internal, screw gears, including 
worm and worm wheel and hyperbolic gears. 
Succeeding this portion of the book there is 
a section treating on trains of gearing, giv- 
ing numerous examples of the calculation of 
such trains. He also takes up the subject of 
the strength of gear teeth, the strength and 
design of rims, arms and hubs and other parts, 
both for plain and curved arms. These de- 
sign problems are illustrated by examples 
worked out in detail, showing the complete 
design of spur, bevel and worm gears, also of 
internal gears and of gears and racks. The 
work also contains a treatment of special 
forms of gears having elliptical, spiral and 
other special curved outlines. The author also 
treats intermittent and mutilated gears. The 
main body of the work treats of epicycloidal 
gearing, but there is an appendix which treats 
of involute gearing. This work should cer- 

tainly be of interest to all patternmakers. 

"The Credit Man and His Work," by E. St. 
Elmo Lewis, published by The Bookkeeper 
Publishing Co., Ltd., Detroit, Mich. Price, 
$2.00. This book certainly stands in a class 
by itself and it would be very difficult indeed 
to give a review which would furnish even a 
fair insight into its valuable and interesting 
contents. In this age we are beginning to look 
more closely to profits and to figure to see 
what can 'be done to produce our product at a 
lower cost, so that we will continue to make a 
profit in the face of the ever declining market. 
The element of credit is one to which very few 
business men have given serious thought and 
yet when we consider that 90 per cent of the 
world's trade is carried on credit, the im- 
portance of the subject cannot help but make 
itself felt. 

Experts in credit are now found among 
those employed by large concerns and are 
considered essential to any large enterprise, 
but the average business man has not had 
time or has thought he did not have time, to 
give this matter serious thought. The volume 
under consideration will certainly give to such 
a man a very instructive and interesting piece 
of reading, dealing as it does with all phases 
of the subject. The author first takes up the 
subject of "what is credit" and then proceeds 
to discuss its relation to various forms of bus- 
iness and enterprise, as for instance, the care 
of the business, the organization of the busi- 
ness, the personal character of the manage- 
ment, and so on through a long list of factors 
which enter into the problem. 

Among some of the chapters we may men- 
tion at random "Cost of Production," 'The 
Salesman and the Credit Man," "The Slow 
Pay Customer," "Going to Law," etc. We be- 
lieve that this work is certainly entitled to 
the serious consideration of every business 

A Grate Bar Difficulty. 

The writer had trouble with a grate bar 
diffiailty similar to that which has been de- 
scribed in The Foundry, and finally got around 
it by having the center bar or bars, when 
there were more than two, swabbed so as to 
make this part of the mold a little damper 
than the outside part. This chilled the center 
bars more quickly and equalized the cooling. 
"A. Subscriber." 

Lloyd & Son will start a new brass foundry 
at Rock Falls, 111. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 


The Colbum Machine Tool Co., of Franklin, 
Pa., are sending out a 4-page circular entitled 
Bulletin No. 17. This is devoted entirely to 
the work. of their Colbum saw table and the 
work which can be produced upon it. The 
illustrations show examples of screw cutting 
and a large variety of practical work for joints, 
ornamental work, etc. 

Baldwin, Tuthill & Bolton, of Grand Rapids, 
Mich., are sending out a 192-page catalogue, 
entitled "Saw and Knife Fitting Machinery." 
While this catalogue is intended primarily for 
the users of large saw and knife machinery, 
such as saw mill?*, planing mills, veneer cut- 
ters, etc., the paier nevertheless contains a 
large amount of information which will be of 
value to all patternmakers. As a rule pattern 
shops do not pay sufficiently close attention to 
the care of saws and also to the care of knives 
for surfacers and planers. In cases where 
these tools are taken care of as well as they 
can be with the facilities at hand, the cost of 
their maintenance could be very greatly re- 
duced by installing some of the special ma- 
chinery described in this catalogue. 

The Star Shovel & Range Co., of Vincennes, 
Ind., have issued a catalogue 6x9 in., describ- 
ing the various classes of shovels manufac- 
tured by this company. The catalogue covers 
all classes of foundry shovels. 

The Hancock Inspirator Co., of 85-89 Lib- 
erty street, New York, N. Y., have issued a 
small catalogue which is a miniature of their 
large catalogue, and is intended especially for 
pocket use. It is 4 by 6 in. and covers their 
line of goods, being simply a reduced size of 
their regular standard catalogue. 

The Hayden & Derby Mfg. Co., of New 
York, N. Y., have issued a miniature catalogue 
of their Metropolitan injectors, this catalogue 
being 4 by 6 in. and intended for pocket use. 

The Electro Dynamic Co., of Bayonne, N. 
J., have issued three circulars, describing their 
inter-pole variable speed motors, as applied to 
different classes of work. 

The Model Heating Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., 
have issued a very useful blank entitled "Model 
Boiler Order Blank." It contains blank spaces 
for all of the various appliances which could 
be desired in connection with a boiler plant 
for heating purposes. They state that these 
blanks are intended not only as order blanks 
on which to order goods from them, but also 
as blanks on which to enter up the various 
parts when making an estimate of a contract, 
that the contractor will have all of his in- 

formation before him, arranged carefully and 

The Deane Steam Pump Co., of Holyoke, 
Mass., have issued a catalogue of their con- 
densers, entitled "D-23." In this they review 
the principal advantages of the several types 
of condensers, as applied to steam engines, 
also vacuum pumps, exhausters, air and cir- 
culating pumps, and other auxiliaries. It also 
contains matter concerning the condensing 
apparatus for steam turbines. On account of 
the fact that a steam turbine can exhaust its 
steam to so much lower pressure and utilize 
every inch of the expansion, it is evident that 
in turbine practice, high vacuums obtained by 
condensers are of greater value than in steam 
engine practice. Every one having to deal 
with steam power will find this catalogue of in- 
terest and value. 

The Ridgfway Belt Conveyor Co., 29 Broad- 
way, N. Y., have issued a folder describing 
their new Ridgway two-belt conveyor sys- 
tem for handling materials. This system is 
certainly interesting and the circular should 
prove of interest to all having handling prob- 
lems to solve. 

The Cutter, Wood & Stevens Co., of Boston, 
Mass., are issuing a series of blotters, on which 
are printed advertisements for various foundry 

Warren Webster & Co., of Camden, N. J., 
have issued another catalogue 3^ by 6 in., en- 
titled "The Cardinal Points of the Webster 
Feed-Water Heater and Chemical Purifier." 
This should certainly be of interest to all who 
have bad water to contend with. 

The Ingersoll-Sergeant Drill Co., of 26 
Cortlandt street, New York, N. Y., have is- 
sued two new catalogues, one entitled "Air 
Compressors," and known by them as Form 
35, which is really composed of advance sheets 
of the catalogue which they are now prepar- 
ing, entitled No. 36. This contains a large 
amount of exceedingly interesting information 
concerning the latest developments of com- 
pressed air machinery and compressed air in- 
stallations. They have also issued a catalogue 
of coal mining machinery, known as Catalogue 
No. 52, in which they describe not only coal 
mining machinery, but give considerable other 
matter relating to air compressors, compressed 
air, its uses, etc. 

The National Electric Co., of Milwaukee, 
Wis., have issued a calendar consisting of a 
colored picture of a riding scene, in which 
two horses in the foreground arc taking a 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



ditch. It is labeled "The Thoroughbreds." 
There is a neat little calendar pad at the lower 
portion of the picture, and in the upper portion 
in one comer, the trade mark of the com- 

The American Blacksmith Co., publishers of 
the American Blacksmith, Buffalo, N. Y., 
have issued a very neat little Indian calendar, 
with a small advertisement at the top and a 
picture of an Indian girl, who, we presume, is 
Minnehaha, in the center and a neat calendar 
pad at the bottom. 

W. H. Anderson & Sons are sending out a 
leaflet describing their crucible tongs, double 
and single carrying shanks, and foundry shov- 
els and ladles. Their double shanks are made 
by a special process, so that the weld is lo- 
cated some distance from the shank on the 
carrying bar, and they claim that this produces 
a superior article. 

The Ironmonger, of London, has published 
the Ironmonger Diary for 1905. This is 
quite a bulky book, containing over 568 pages 
of advertising, together with a very nicely ar- 
ranged diary, the pages of which are 8 by 11 
in. and are arranged with three days to the 
page. The diary is interleaved with blotting 
paper. This would certainly be a very handy 
book indeed for any one to keep track of his 
dates in, and we can readily appreciate the 
fact that many of the ironmongers or iron 
dealers of England must find this book ex- 
ceedingly useful. An interesting point in con- 
nection with the present issues is that they 
have sent out two blank mailing cards to be 
filled out and returned to them. On the first 
is to be written a suggestion or quotation on 
any part of the contents of the Ironmonger's 
Diary for 1905, and on the second six ques- 
tions are answered from information contained 
in the book. One of these questions is "Which 
is the best looking page in the advertising sec- 
tion?" Another is "Which firm has used the 
space occupied by its advertisement to the best 
advantage?" For the best answers to these 
cards, they will divide five guineas in prizes. 

The Rand Drill Co., of 128 Broadway, New 
York, N. Y., have recently brought out a 
publication entitled "Air Power," and state 
that it is to be issued quarterly. In their edi- 
torial announcement, they state that the object 
of the paper is to keep the public posted as to 
what is beina: done by the Rand Drill Com- 
pany's air power machinery. 

Graphite. The Dixon Crucible Co. have is- 
sued a special number of their publication, 

Graphite, for January, entitled the "Lubrica- 
tion Number." In this they take up various 
phases of the subject of lubrication, showing 
the many applications of graphite for lubri- 
cating purposes. 

The C. W. Hunt Co., of West New 
Brighton, Staten Island, N. Y., have issued 
two pamphlets 3% by 6 in., one describing the 
Hunt Industrial Railways, illustrating many 
applications of this system and giving a large 
number of useful facts concerning installations 
of this character. The other catalogue is called 
an "Introduction to the general line of ma- 
chinery manufactured by the C. W. Hunt Co.," 
and contains short, concise statements concern- 
ing the different types of machinery which 
they build. 

The Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., of Provi- 
dence, R. I., have issued their 1905 catalogue 
of machinery and tools. This catalogue has 
been revised and a good many new machines 
and devices illustrated in it. Some of the old 
matter has been re-written and arranged in a 
better form. This catalogue contains so many 
handy tables and so much useful information 
that it should be in the hands of all who have 
to deal with metal work, and especially in the 
hands .of metal patternmakers. 

Lord's Advertising Agency, Scranton, Pa., 
have issued a book called Lord's List of Trade 
Papers, giving the names of the various trade 
papers, together with a short statement con- 
cerning their specialties and other informa- 
tion which it is supposed that advertisers 
would want to know. Incidentally the list is 
of considerable interest for any one desiring to 
look over a complete list of trade journals to 
ascertain what journals are published along 
any given line. 

The S. Obermayer Co., of Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago and Pittsburg, have issued a catalogue 
dealing especially with patternmaker's sup- 
plies. They claim that from this catalogue 
one can obtain anything required for his pat- 
tern shop, just as from their other catalogue 
any one can obtain anything required in the 
foundry. The catalogue is known as R 40 and 
will be sent free on request. 

The Thos. W. Pangborn Co., 42 Dey St., 
New York, N. Y., are sending out a catalogue 
describing the sand sifting machinery, mag- 
netic separators, and the core machines which 
they handle. They are also sending out a 
blotter, with illustrations of the Hanna pneu- 
matic screens which they handle upon it, also 
a small folder advertising the corundum 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

wheels which they handle and giving a very 
useful table as to speeds for rotation of grind- 
ing wheels. 

The Westinghouse Machine Co., of East 
Pittsburg, Pa., are sending out an exceedingly 
neatly gotten up publication entitled **The 
Westinghouse Parsons Steam Turbine." One 
of the most striking features of the catalogue 
is a comparative illustration of the space oc- 
cupied by the machinery and foundation nec- 
essary for a 5,000 k. w. generating unit of 
the ordinary Corliss type and one of the steam 
turbine type. The illustration of the steam 
engine is an outline sketch which is drawn 
as though it were transparent and the turbine 
outfit is placed inside of it. The figure of a 
man at one side serves as a scale for compar- 
ing the size of the two. The pages which 
follow are so full of interesting and instructive 
matter that it would be difficult to point out 
the especial features. It is enough to say, 
however, that any one who is planning on 
power installations should certainly give this 
publication careful consideration before mak- 
ing a decision. 

The Goheen Mfg. Co., of Canton, O., have 
issued a large pamphlet entitled "Hitch Your 
Wagon to a Star," in which they h^ve de- 
scribed various uses for their carbonizing 
coating protection for metal work. They il- 
lustrate many plants of all classes, in which 
the steel work has been protected by the ma- 
terial which they manufacture. They have 
also issued a catalogue entitled "Galvanum" 
in which they describe their paint manufac- 
tured under the above name and which will 
adhere to and can be used for protecting gal- 
vanized iron structures. As in the other pub- 
lication, they show many illustrations of build- 
ings and structures protected by the material. 

Pawling & Harnischfeger, of Milwaukee, 
Wis., have issued a catalogue entitled Bulletin 
No. 16, describing their traveling electric 
hoists. For many classes of work this style 
of hoist has many decided' advantages over the 
traveling crane and is being used very ex- 
tensively for a large variety of work. All in- 
terested in handling devices should certainly 
secure a copy pf this catalogue. 


Mr. H. J. Stambaugh, of the Falls Rivet & 
Machine Co., Cuyahoga Falls, O., has resigned 
his present position to become the secretary 
and treasurer of Wm. Tod & Co., Youngstown, 

Mr. Duncan Sinclair, who has been asso- 
ciated with the management of the Coal- 
brookdale Iron Works, has recently undertaken 
the managing directorship of the Sinclair Iron 
Co., Ltd., of Wellington, Shropshire, England. 
Mr. Sinclair visited this country some years 
ago and will be remembered by many of the 
foundrymen who had the pleasure of forming 
his acquaintance. 

G. A. Hassel has been appointed superin- 
tendent of the plant of the Pittsburg Steel 
Foundry at Glassport, near Pittsburg, where 
he will succeed D. MacDougal. 

Mr. Chas. H. Tucker, late designer and as- 
sistant chief engineer with Pawling & Har- 
nischfeger, of Milwaukee, Wis., has accepted 
the position of chief engineer with the Case 
Mfg. Co., of Columbus, b., Engineers, De- 
signers and Builders of cranes and special 

Walter S. Allen, who has been superinten- 
dent of the Aetna Foundry & Machine Co., 
Warren, O., went to Pittsburg on Feb. ist 
as superintendent of the Pittsburg works of 
the American Steel Foundries. 

C. W. Cunningham, who a few years ago 
managed the stove foundry at Central City, 
is now at the head of a new foundry at Water- 
loo, la. 


H. G. Forsberg, of Washington, D. C, of the 
firm of Forsberg & Murray, fell dead on Jan. 
2Qth. About 25 years ago with his old time 
friend and school mate, Mr. Murray, he en- 
gaged in the machine and foundry business, 
and the partnership continued until the pres- 
ent time. He was well known, not only in his 
home town, but by many friends in different 
parts of the country. 

Hugh Caskey, a retired brass and iron foun- 
der, of Philadelphia, Pa., died Jan. 19th. He 
was born in 1844, served his apprenticeship in 
a brass foundry in Philadelphia, later entered 
the United States Navy as assistant naval en- 
gineer and served through the Civil War. In 
1884 he started a brass foundry in Philadel- 
phia and in 1892 went to Newport News, Va. 
where he founded the H. & W. Caskey Brass 
& Iron Works, which has since been consoli- 
dated with the Newport News Shipbuilding 
Co. Five years ago he retired fram business. 

Frederick L. Titsworth, treasurer of the 
Chicago Brass Co.. of Kenosha, Wis., and sec- 
retary of the Benedict & Burnham Brass Co., 
of Torrington, Conn., died at his home in 
Kenosha on Jan. 24th. He had been connected 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



with the factory interests of Kenosha for 
nearly twenty years and almost all his life was 
spent in the employ of the Chicago Brass Co. 
and its allied interests. 


Fire did several thousand dollars worth of 
damage to the plant of the Watkins Machine 
& Foundry Co., of Hattiesburg, Miss., on Jan. 

The local plant of the American Steel Foun- 
dry Co., of Sharon, Pa., was damaged to the 
extent of $6,000 on Feb. 3rd. The most seri- 
ous damage was that resulting from water 
which destroyed the molds in the foundry. 

The plant recently purchased by John Mc- 
Lain & Son, of Birmingham, Ala., was dam- 
aged by fire to the extent of $3,000 on Jan 
23d. It will be replaced by a modern stove 

The Eureka Foundry & Machine Co.'s 
plant at Birmingham, Ala., was burned on 
Jan. 25th, entailing a loss of $2,500. 

The foundry of the Pratt & Whitney Co., 
at Hartford, Conn., was damaged by fire on 
the night of Jan. 30th, to the extent of about 
$1,000. The fire destroyed a portion of the 
building adjoining the cupola. 

On. Feb. 2nd the works of Stewart & 
Bruckner, of Nashville, Tenn., were damaged 
by fire to the extent of $25,000, the insurance 
being $7,000. The most important loss was 
due to the burning of the patterns belonging 
to the company. 

The plant of the Canton Malleable Iron Co., 
of Canton, O., was damaged by fire to the ex- 
tent of $30,000, on Feb. 7th. The buildings 
burned and a large number of valuable pat- 
terns were destroyed. By readjusting the 
work it was possible to resume work promptly 
without serious delay in the department. 

The engine house, pattern shop, planing mill, 
and office of the Pittsburg, Shawmut & North- 
ern Railroad Co., St. Marys, Pa., were de- 
stroyed by fire a few days ago causing a loss 
of $10,000. 

Fire destroyed a large part of the pattern 
department of the Reliance Steel Casting Co., 
at Lawrenceville, Pa., on Feb. 4th. The loss 
is about $6,000. 

The B. & O. Railroad shops at Lorain, O., 
were damaged by a fire which caused $100,- 
000 worth of damage, on Feb. 10th. The 
machine shop, erecting shop, part of the round 
house, and the pattern shop, were all de- 

Fire at the Stanley G. Flagg & Co.'s works, 
Pottstown, Pa., February 11, destroyed the 
foundry and core house. Loss, $10,000. 

The plant of Smith & Caffrey, foundrymen 
of Syracuse, N. Y., was slightly damaged by 
fire on February 9th. 


Plans are being prepared for a new foundry 
which will be built as an addition to the plant 
of the Stacey Mfg. Co., at Elmwood Place, 
Hamilton Co., O. 

The Aurora Foundry Co., of Aurora, 111., 
are planning to build several new buildings, 
including a pattern shop which will be 30 by 
60 feet. 

The Deved Sash Weight Works, Baltimore, 
Md.. will build an addition 16 ft. x 33 ft., one 
story and basement. 

Shunk Brothers, Bucyrus, O., are building 
an addition to their foundry. The building 
will be 40x70 ft. and will be used for the 
storage of patterns. 

The Eureka Stove Works, of Birmingham, 
Ala., will build a foundry 80 by 102 feet, alsd 
an office building, pattern shop and machine 
shop. John McLean, Sr., is president and E 
E. Howard, secretary. 

The debris of the plant of the Economy 
Foundry Co., in Syracuse, N. Y., is being 
cleared away, to allow the plant of the Cen- 
tral Iron Works to be erected. This new 
plant will cost about $50,000. 

The recent fire at the plant of the J. L. Mott 
Iron Works, New York City, did not do a 
large amount of damage and manufacturing 
has not been interfered with. The company 
is equipping its new plant and expects to com- 
mence operations there in about a month. 

The Kinnear Mfg. Co., Columbus, O., has 
completed plans for the construction of a new 
plant, 200 x 400 ft., which will be fireproof. 
The old plant at Fourth and Lincoln streets 
and the foundry at Scioto and Water streets, 
will be sold with the land on which they are 

With improvements contemplated by the 
Norfolk & Western railroad, the capacity of 
the shops at Portsmouth, O., will be practically 
doubled this year. A new tank shop 150 x 175 
ft. will be erected this spring. A foundry may 
also be added to the shops. 

The Southern Skein & Foundry Co., of 
Chattanooga, Tenn., has completed the plans 
for two buildings, one of which will be 75 by 
200 ft. and the other 75 by 125 ft. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

The Favorite Stove & Range Co., Piqua 
O., will erect an addition, 55x125 ft., to be 
used for polishing and japanning departments. 
Work on another large addition is now making 
rapid progress. 

The Economic Stove Co., Jacksonville, 111. 
has purchased a site and will erect a foundry 
as soon as the weather will permit It is now 
having its castings made in Quincy, 111. The 
company may also equip its foundry to do a 
jobbing trade in addition to its own work 
The following officers have just been elected 
for the ensuing year: President, C. F. Tonn; 
vice-president, James .0. Priest; secretary, 
John A. Unglaub. The capital stock has been 
increased to $25,000. 

Herzler & Henninger, of Belleville, III, arc 
planning to add a foundry to their plant. 

Contracts have been let for the enlarge- 
ment of the Western Foundry Company's plant 
at Chicago, 111. The addition will be 70 by 
100 feet. 

The Gibson White Co., Chattanooga, Tenn., 
recently incorporated, will soon begin the erec- 
tion of a foundry building. 

The Phillips & Buttorff Co., of Nashville, 
Tenn., are planning to enlarge their foundry. 

Golden's Foundry & Machine Co., of Co- 
lumbus, Ga., are excavating foundations for 
an addition to their foundry 100 by 250 feet. 

The Chattanooga Implement & Mfg. Co., 
Chattanooga, Tenn., will begin the erection of 
a new foundry as soon as the weather will 
permit. The floor space of the foundry will be 
20,000 ft. At present the plant of the com- 
pany comprises both implement and foundry 
departments. When the new foundry is 
erected, the present plant will be used only 
for the manufacture of implements after the 
castings are made. The present capital of the 
company is $50,000, but application has been 
made for permission to increase it to $100,000. 

The Des Moines Bridge & Iron Works, of 
Des Moines, la., are planning to build a struc- 
tural iron foundry this coming spring. 

An additional annealing oven is now in 
course of construction at the plant of the Iowa 
Malleable Iron Co., Fairfield, la. An addition- 
al room for shipping purposes will also be 

The F. V. Deckert Mfg. Co., Ft. Dodge, la., 
which manufactures the Economy Air Radia- 
tor, has made arrangements for the erection of 
a plant the coming summer. 

The Duff-Trowbridge Stove Co., Hannibal. 
Mo., will erect a new building four stories and 

covering an area 65 x 150 ft The first floor 
will be used as a mounting room and the up- 
per stories for storage purposes. 

The Hartwell Iron Works, of Houston, 
Tex., are making extensive additions to their 


The old Joice foundry at Brattleboro, Vt. 
has resumed operations under a new manage- 
ment after being shut down for several years 

The Genesee Metal Works, of Rochester, 
N. Y., report that the year just closing has 
been a very successful one for their business 
and that the sales of phosphor tin alloys alone 
have been sufficient to produce over 2,000,000 
pounds of standard phosphor bronze castings. 
Their superintendent. F. W. Reidenbach, be- 
lieves that the present year will see their 
business more than doubled. 

Walter H. Storm & Co., Inc., 26 Cortlardt 
street, New York, are making a specialty of 
the manufacture of light castings, such as 
stair treads, risers and newel posts, having 
made contracts with a large part of the New 
York trade for the year 1905 for the stair 
work used in tenement and apartment houses. 
The company will also turn out machinery 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Utica Pipe Foundry Co., Utica, N. Y., 
the following officers were elected for the en- 
suing year: President, Henry W. Miller; vice- 
president, Irving A. Williams; secretary and 
treasurer, John A. Keman; superintendent, 
John K. Gunn. 

Mr. Henry S. Manning, of the firm of Man- 
ning, Maxwell & Moore, announces the fact 
that he has sold his entire interest to his part- 
ner, Mr. Charles A. Moore, and requests that 
their many friends will continue their pleas- 
ant relations with the firm. The busmess will 
be conducted under the firm name of Mannmg, 
Maxwell & Moore, at 85-87-89 Liberty street. 
New York City, as heretofore. 

The Reynolds- Chalou Foundry Co., of Troy, 
N. Y., has elected the following directors for 
the coming year: James E. Egan, Michael H. 
Fallon, Michael Norton, and William Quilli- 

The Heindel Foundry Co., Hanover, Pa., 
has completed the construction of its new 
plant, which will be equipped and ready to 
make all kinds of castings by March i. 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



The Cleveland Foundry Co., of Cleveland, 
O., has increased its capital stock from $200,- 
000 to $400,000. 

The plant of the Union Foundry & Machine 
Co., at Catasauqua, Pa., has been sold to 
Leonard Peckitt, president of the Empire 
Steel & Iron Co., for $27,500. 

Chas. Hanika, of Muncie, Ind., has com- 
pleted plans for the erection of an architec- 
tural iron works and foundry in that city. 

The Independent Brake Shoe & Foundry 
Co., of Chicago, 111., has Deen incorporated 
with a capital of $2,500 to manufacture rail- 
way specialties. The incorporators are John 
P. Floan, F. V. Bissell and M. A. Theiss. 

The Pilsen foundry & Iron Works, of Chi- 
cago, 111., has been incorporated with a cap- 
ital of $10,000, to do a foundry and construc- 
tion business. The incorporators are Geo. 
Patzcker, Emil H. Schintz and Vincent D. 

The American Bell & Foundry Co., of 
Northville, Mich., has elected the following 
officers for the ensuing year: Frank S. Har- 
mon, president; C. S. Filkins, vice president; 
Wm. Phillips, secretary; R. C. Yerkes, treas- 

Wm. L. Thomas, of Osakis, Minn., has 
closed out his business at that point and 
moved to Farmington, Minn., where he has 
purchased the foundry of M. Moes, which he 
will conduct in the future. 

The Virginia Foundry & Machine Co., suc- 
cessors to the Virginia Iron Works, of Vir- 
ginia, Minn., have made many improvements 
and additions to their plant, including new 
fire protection apparatus. 

The Duggan Hardware & Foundry Co., of 
St. Louis, Mo., has been incorporated with a 
capital of $50,000. The incorporators are 
Marcus C. Duggan, Henry C. and Jemima A. 

The Topeka Foundry Co., of Topeka, Kan., 
have completed and moved into their new 
foundry building. This company was organ- 
ized some 18 years ago, and up to the present 
time has been living in rented quarters. They 
do a general jobbing business in patternmak- 
ing, foundry work and machine shop work, 
though they have a number of specialties, 
among which is the manufacture of certain 
line of stoves and some agricultural machin- 
ery for local use. 

The Woehrle Foundry Co., of West New- 
ark, O., is now operating its plant with natur- 
al gas from its own well, and will commence 
a second well. The company has a lease of 

several thousand acres in the vicinity of the 

The Kuhn Foundry Co., Buffalo, N. Y., re- 
cently incorporated, has taken over the plant 
formerly occupied by the Buffalo Foundry Co. 
Joseph Kuhn, the general manager, has closed 
his shops at Niagara Falls, N. Y., and moved 
the tools, machinery, etc., to the Buffalo plant. 

The Fenna. R. R. Co. are pushing the work 
on their gray iron foundry at So. Altoona, Pa., 
•as rapidly as possible, so as to have it in oper- 
ation early in May. 

The Bessemer Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Butler, Pa., has been incorporated with a capi- 
tal of $50,000 to do a general foundry business. 

It is reported that the foundry of the Fleet- 
wood iFoundry & Machine Co., of Fleetwood, 
Pa., which was burned last December, will 
probably be rebuilt. 

The Akron Foundry Co., Akron, O., has 
elected the following officers for the ensuing 
year: President and treasurer, Frank Fiebe- 
ger; vice-president, Frank Nolte; secretary, 
Frank B. Theiss. 

I. M. Blusinsky, of Cleveland, O., will en- 
gage in the brass and iron foundry business 
in Cincinnati, O., having secured a site at 511 
Freeman avenue. 

H. N. Hills, of Gambier, O., who purchased 
the plant fomerly operated by the Coxey Steel 
& Silica Sand Co., at Mt. Vernon, O., a few 
weeks ago, has practically completed the or- 
ganization of the Imperial Steel Co., of Mt. 
Vernon, which will own and operate the plant. 
The entire cost of the plant was more than 

The H. V. Dockray Brass & Iron Co., of 
Zanesville, O., has been incorporated with a 
capital of $10,000. 

The Dayton Malleable Iron Works Co., 
Dayton, O., has increased its capital from 
$200,000 to $1,000,000. The company increased 
its capital to an amount that more nearly re- 
flects the value of the business, but with no 
idea of material expansion other than that 
made possible by rearrangement. 

The change of name of the Crown Casting 
Co., Jackson, O., manufacturer of soil pipe 
and fittings, to the Crown Pipe & Foundry 
Co. does not signify any change of policy in 
its business except that it expects to add some 
business in the way of railroad castings and 
general job work. 

The Electric Controller & Supply Co., of 
Cleveland, O., has placed Mr. Geo. Magalhaes 
in charge of its eastern office, at 136 Liberty 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

street. New York, N. Y. Mr. Magalhaes is a 
graduate of Columbia University and is thor- 
oughly familiar with the company's products. 

The Jeffrey Mfg. Co., Columbus, O., has 
purchased the plant of the Ohio Malleable Iron 
Co. of that city. The Jeffrey company has for 
some time been a large holder of stock of the 
Malleable company. 

The Buckeye Steel Castings Co., Columbus, 
Co., will begin work at once on a new 25-ton 
open hearth steel furnace. This will make • 
four open hearth furnaces at the plant and 
enable it to greatly increase its output. A 
large number of orders are now on hand, 
especially in the car coupler department. A 
large amount of work is also being done for 
loc.omoti^''e companies. 

The Brass Foundry & Machine Works, of 
Fort Wayne, Ind., are increasing the capacity 
of their wheel department by adding five more 
pits and five new wheel floors. They are now 
making 550 wheels a day and will be able to 
turn out 650 when the additions to their plant 
are completed. 

The Shirley Radiator & Foundry Co., of 
Shirley, Ind., reports every department very 
busy and states that it is exceedingly difficult 
to obtain as many molders as are required for 
its work. 

The Schwab Safe & Lock Work^, of La- 
fayette, Ind., are enlarging their works by 
the erection of a new foundry. The new build- 
ing will be 60 by 120 ft. 

The United States Brass & Specialty Co., 
of South Bend, Ind., has been incorporated 
with a capital of $10,000. The incorporators 
are Chas. T. White, Dr. Edwin P. Moore and 
Wm'. H. Birwith. 

The Quincy Stove Mfg. Co., of Quincy. 
III., have decided to build an addition to their 
foundry during the coming year. They have 
also elected the following officers for the en- 
suing year: President, August Heidbreder; 
vice-president, Nicholas King ; secretary, Julius 
Klemme; assistant secretary, Chas. Heidbre- 
der; treasurer, H. C. Sprick. 

The Reedy Foundry Co., Chicago, has been 
incorporated with a capital of $50,000 to do a 
foundry and machine shop business. The in- 
corporators are: W. H. Reedy, W. E. Wake- 
field and Joseph Price. 

The Marinette Gas Engine Co., Chicago 
Heights, III., recently increased its capital from 
$250,000 to $400,000. The additional capital 
will be used in increasing the output of the 
company and also in equipping the plant with 

additional modern tools as they may be re- 

The St. Charles Brass Mfg. Co. has changed 
its location from St. Charles to Elgin, 111., and 
its name has been changed to the EUgin Brass 
& Electrical Mfg. Co. It has also increased its 
capital from $5,000 to $10,000. 

The Western Foundry Co., of Chicago, 111., 
has increased its capital stock from $iCK>,ooo 
to $200,000. 

H. A. Scharrs is planning to build a foundry 
in Abingdon, 111. The building will be 100 by 
200 ft. 

The Pratt Foundry of Joliet, 111., will double 
its present capacity. This plant has been in 
existence but three years, but has had a phe- 
nomenally rapid growth. 

The National Machine Works, of Chicago, 
111., whose plant was recently destroyed by fire, 
will rebuild and resume business as soon as 
circumstances will permit. 

The Kemp Mfg. Co., of Kankakee, 111., has 
been incorporated with a capital of $55,000. 
The company will do a general foundry and 
manufacturing business. 

The foundry of the Port Huron Engine & 
Thresher Co., of Port Huron, Mich., which 
has been closed down all 'winter, has been 
started up once more. 

At the annual meeting of the Detroit Foun- 
dry & Mfg. Co., Detroit, Mich., the following 
officers were elected: F. D. Bromley, presi- 
dent; J. W. Thompson, vice-president; C. F. 
Lawson, secretary and treasurer. Also the 
following directors : J. W. Thompson, F. L. 
Bromley, C. F. Lawson, N. D. Carpenter, W. 
H. Miller, H. S. Taylor and W. Thompson. 

The Enterprise Foundry Co., of Detroit, 
Mich., has elected the following officers for the 
ensuing year : President, Frank Smith ; vice- 
president, Emil Zanwanseele; secretary and 
manager, Charles W. Carolian; treasurer, 
Geo. S. Cuddy. 

Mr. T. J. Thompson, proprietor of Thomp- 
son's Foundry, of Duluth, Minn., has been re- 
fitting his foundry since the fire which dam- 
aged the property some time ago. He has a 
new line of tools and is ready for busines' 
once more. 

The Menominee Electrical Mfg. Co., of Me- 
nominee, Mich., have decided to rebuild their 
shop and foundry which was burned recently. 

H. L. Maxfield, Norman Carle and others, 
of Janesville, Wis., have organized a company 
to build a $20,000 foundry for producing gray 
iron castings. 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



The Rogers Locomotive Works, of Paterson, 
N. J., has been purchased by the American 
Locomotive Co. 

The Northwestern Foundry & Supply Co., 
Detroit, Mich., has increased its capital from 
$50,000 to $100,000, The new issue consists 
of $60,000 common and $40,000 preferred, all 
fully paid. The company has just completed 
an addition to its foundry 64 by 120 ft. The 
following officers have been elected for the en- 
suing year: H. D. Keller, president; Thos. E. 
Robinson, secretary and treasurer and John 
F. Sheaning, vice president. Frank H. Keller 
has been added to the board of directors. 

The Riverside Foundry Co., of Kalamazoo, 
Mich., report a very prosperous year for 1904, 
and have elected the following officers for the 
ensuing year : M. J. Bigelow, president ; W. M. 
Fonieroy, vice-president; A. M. Daily, treas- 
urer; Millard Richardson, secretary and man- 

The St. Paul Foundry Co., St. Paul, Minn., 
lias been awarded the contract for repairing 
the high bridge, at St. Paul destroyed in a 
storm last August. The contract will amount 
to $59,000. 

The Detroit Register Co., incorporated in 
Detroit for $15,000 in February, 1899, has 
filed articles of removal from Detroit to Milan ; 
also articles of increase in capital stock to 
$50,000, of which $40,000 has been paid in. 

The John Watson Sons Co., of Trenton, N. 
J., has been incorporated with a capital of 
$60,000. They expect to do a general foundry 
business. The incorporators are John Wat- 
son, William N. Watson and Samuel E. Wat- 

The Empire Foundry Co., of New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., are planning to absorb the Cri- 
terion Gas Stove Co., of New York, N. Y., 
and to bring all the work to their plant at 
New Brunswick, N. J. This will necessitate 
some additions to their plant. 

The deal for the purchase of the Newport 
Foundry & Machine Co., Newport, Ky., by 
molders who have been on a strike for some 
time, has been completed, $43,100 being paid 
for the plant. Negotiations were broken off 
through the interference of President Valen- 
tine, of the Molders' Union of North America, 
and Mr. Weber made arrangements to disman- 
tle the plant and take the building, which is of 
steel construction, apart. After the work of 
removal had actually begun, the strikers de- 
cided to ignore Valentine, and said they would 
buy the plant regardless of his dictation. They 
soon came to an agreement with Mr. Weber. 

Saturday night the non-union men marched 
out and for the first time since September saw 
the outside world. The strikers marched into 
the plant and took possession. Articles of 
incorporation for the new company have been 
filed. It has a capital of $40,000, consisting of 
160 shares of $250 each. It has 31 stockhold- 

The plant of the Wheeling Ventilating & 
Foundry Co., of Elm Grove, W^ Va., has been 
formally transferred to the Wheeling Mfg. 
& Supply Co., who will operate it in future. 
The former company was organized about two 
years ago and operated for a short time, 
but meeting with various difficulties, was 
forced to go into the hands of a receiver, and 
the new company, which was organized by the 
creditors, secured the plant and intends to 
carry on the business for w^hich the plant was 
originally constructed. 

The .Mountain City Foundry & Machine 
Works is to be incorporated by W. G. Gregory 
and his associates, at Greenville, S. C. They 
will erect a machine shop 32 by 50 ft., boiler 
room 18 by 24 ft., and a foundry 20 by 40 ft. 

The Demopolis Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Demopolis, Ala., has been incorporated with a 
capital of $50,000. The incorporators are A. 
R. Smith, L. W. Spaulding and W. M. Spen- 

The Western Car & Foundry Co., of Annis- 
ton, Ala., will rebuild the foundry of the car 
plant which was destroyed by an explosion 
about two years ago. 

The Dimmick Pipe Co., of Birmingham, 
Ala., will enlarge its plant and increase its 
capacity 100 tons per day. 

The plant of the Watkins Foundry & Ma- 
chine Co., of Hattiesburg, Miss., which was 
destroyed by fire recently with a loss of $9,000, 
and having insurance amounting to $3,200, will 
be rebuilt at once. 

The Gibson-White Co., of Chattanooga, 
Tenn., has been incorporated with a capital 
of $10,000 to manufacture stoves, sheet iron 
ware, and also to do a general foundry busi- 
ness. The incorporators are Filmore Gibson, 
William White, W. E. White, C A. White and 
D. S. Adams. 

The Clarksdale Machinery, Supply & Mfg. 
Co., of Clarksdale, Miss., has been incorpor- 
ated with a capital of $10,000 and will erect a 
two-story building 50 by 160 ft., to be used as 
a foundry and machine shop. 

The Charleston Machinery & Mfg. Co. has 
been incorporated at Charleston, S. C, with a 
capital of $50,000, to do a general foundry and 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

machine shop business. The incorporators 
are Armin Hartrath, A. S. Dickison, Chas. 
Shimer, J. Ross Hanahan, Julian Mitchell Jr., 
and Geo. H. Moffett. 

The plant of the Tennessee Stove and Foun- 
dry Co., at Ridge dale, near Chattanooga, 
Tenn., is practically completed and they ex- 
pect to begin operations very soon. 

The Oregon Iron & Steel Co., Portland, 
Ore., has for a second time won a suit 
involving the ownership of a large meteorite 
whose possession was claimed by several per- 
sons. In instructing the jury the court held 
that while the meteorite came from without 
the world and was the property of no one, 
still it was to be considered the gift of God 
to the man on whose property it was deposited. 
The discovery of the meteorite was made by 
two prospectors, Ellis Hughes and William 
Dale, in the autumn of 1902, and claiming the 
ownership by right of discovery, they moved 
if from the property of the Oregon Iron & 
Steel Co. Two other men who owned land 
in the vicinity also set up property rights for 
the meteorite, which weighs 18 tons, is 25 ft. 
at the circumference of the base, and is four 
ft. high by seven ft. wide. An analysis shows 
that it contains 01.65 percent iron. 

The F. S. Cronk Co., recently organized at 
Waxahachie, Texas, has leased the plant 
owned by T. R. Anderson and opened a ma- 
chine shop and foundry. 
• The Sioux City Foundry & Mfg. Co., Sioux 
City, Iowa, builder of the Norfolk warm air 
furnace, will enlarge its plant and make large 
additions to its machinery equipment. 

F. W. Braun & Co., of Los Angeles, Cal., 
have received gold medals covering practically 
their entire line of appliances and apparatus 
for assayers, metallurgists and chemists, which 
were exhibited in three groups at the Louisi- 
ana Purchase Exposition. 

The Novelty Gray Iron Foundry Co., Dallas 
City, Tex., has been incorporated with a capi- 
tal of $10,000. The incorporators are: Phil 
Schanz, Edgar P. Schanz and Harry A. 

The Hopkins Bros.-Springer Co., of Des 
Moines, la., are preparing to increase their 
equipment for manufacturing their brazing 
compound and brazing equipment. Their com- 
pound is known as brazol and is used for 
brazing cast iron, steel, or malleable iron. 

The O. S. Kelly Western Mfg. Co. will ercct 
a new foundry in East Iowa City, la. 

The Farmers' Mutual Co-operative Associa- 

tion, of Blue Rapids, Kans., have completed 
their foundry and machine shop and are now 
ready for business. 

The Lewiston Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Lewiston, Idaho, has increased its capital stock 
from $20,000 to $50,000. 

The Independence Iron Works Co., of Ra- 
mona, Indian Territory, expect to have their 
new foundry in operation in the near future. 

The Kingsland-Kay-Cook Mfg. Co., St. 
Louis, Mo., has purchased the business of the 
Central Union Brass Co., the Kay-Pin Mfg. 
Co. and the Kingsland Foundry Co., all of St 
Louis. The new company will make a com- 
plete line of electric railway supplies, car 
trimmings, power transmission machinery and 
elevating and conveying appliances, also gen- 
eral iron and brass castings. The company 
does not expect to make any additions to its 
various plants at present, but it expects to add 
a complete line of metal working machinery 
in the very near future. 

Seymour R. Church, of San Francisco, CaL, 
is still acting as agent for .J. H. Gautier & 
Co.'s crucibles, and also continues to deal in 
foundry facings and pig iron, coke, fire brick 
and other foundry supplies. It is true that 
the old firm has been dissolved and that 
Schmidt & Faure are also dealing in the same 
line, but they do not succeed to the business 
of the Seymour R. Church Co., the fact be- 
ing that the firm has been dissolved, and both 
divisions have gone into business for them- 

H. J. Frank, whose foundry at Davenport, 
la., has been leased to the Red Jacket Pump 
Works, has, at the expiration of the lease, 
decided to start up the foundry once more. 

David Fitzgerald will start a foundry and 
machine shop at LaGrande, Ore. 

The citizens of Woodburn, Ore., have raised 
a cash bonus and given a building site to John 
McKinney, of Bremen, Ind., to induce him to 
erect a foundry at Woodburn, Ore. 

The Carleton Foundry Co., of Peterborough, 
Ont., has elected the following directors: H. 
Colby Smith, J. J. Gordon, W. E. Scully, E. 
McLeod, W. J. Irons, W. A. Gathers and W. 
G. Haslam. 

The Sonora Foundry, of Hermosillo, So- 
rora, Mexico, has been started recently, with 
Mr. Jose H. Aguilar as manager. Mr. Agui- 
lar was educated at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology and has had shop experience in 
the United States. He will have a well 
equipped foundry and machine shop. 

Digitized by 


March, 1905 



The Johnstown Foundry, Machine & Car 
Co., of Johnstown, Pa., has been incorporated 
with a capital of $30,000. 

The Vulcan Machine & Foundry Co., of 
Birmingham, Ala., has been incorporated with 
a capital of $10,000 to operate the plant of 
the Wulburn Machine & Foundry Co., which 
they recently purchased. The officers of the 
company are Edward H. Wingate, president; 
Geo. W. Hays, secretary and treasurer. 

The foundry connected with the plant of the 
Wm. R. Trigg Co., of Richmond, Va., which 
is now in the hands of a receiver, has been 
leased and will be operated by W. H. Woody, 
Jr., and Chas. Winburne, under the name of 
the Shockoe Foundry Co. These men were 
both connected with the company before it 
passed into the hands of a receiver. 

The Farmers' Bank & Trust Co., of Hender- 
son, Ky., has sold the Frayset Foundry & 
Machine Works to J. F. Hite, of Owensboro, 

The Foster Mfg. Co., of St. Louis, Mo., has 
been incorporated with a capital of $50,000 to 
manufacture and deal in stoves. The incor- 
porators are Robert M. Foster, S. Lowry, of 
St. Louis, T. J. Mitchell, of Helena, Ark., and 
R. P. Martin, of Jonesboro, Ark. 

The Mesta Machine Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., 
has completed plans for the erection of a new 
foundry, whose melting capacity will be double 
that of the present plant. ■■ The old foundry 
will be used as an extension to the boiler shop. 
The new foundry will be 1,200 by 210 ft, and 
will connect with the old shop. The present 
foundry contains six air furnaces, and these 
will be increased to twelve in the new plant 
The two steel furnaces in the present plant 
will be increased to four in the new plant 
Four additional cupolas will also be added to 
the present equipment. They have a new 
brass foundry now under construction. 

The Schuchert Pattern Works Co., of Cin- 
cinnati, O., has been incorporated with a capi- 
tal of $10,000. The incorporators are Garence 
Oskamp, A. F. Schuchert, A. W. Bauer, W. 
B. Hermeling and A. E. Herbstet. 

S. R. Slaymaker, of Lancaster, Pa., has 
bought the entire business, machinery, pat- 
terns, tools, etc., of the Thomas Slaight Lock 
& Mfg. Co., of Newark, N. J. 

The Parsons Foundry & Machine Works, 
Parsons, Kansas, which has recently b;en pur- 
chased by Millard F. Smith & Co., will be en- 
larged and improved by adding a two-story 
building, 35 by 50 feet, as a brass foundry and 

also by the installation of a new crane for 
handling heavy castings, and a new hoist 
for handling the iron to the cupola charging 

The Dillon Iron Foundry, Dillon, S. C, has 
been organized, and the following were elected 
directors: J. D. Haseldon, chairman; T. B. 
Stackhouse, J. W. Moore, Dr. J. H. David, T. 
G. King, J. H. Hamer, T. A. Dillon. The 
president will be elected at the next meeting 
of the directors, which will be held next wecK. 

The Detroit Automatic Stoker Co., of 
Detroit, Mich., has been absorbed by the De- 
troit Foundry & Mfg. Co., and the two com- 
panies will conduct business under the name 
of the Detroit Stoker & Foundry Co., with a 
capital stock of $110,000. The union of the 
two companies will enable them to increase 
I heir business and serve their customers 
better. The officers of the new company are 
F. L. Bromley, president; J. W. Thompson, 
vice president, and C. F. Lawson, secrtary and 

The Perth Amboy Foundry & Machine Co.. 
of Perth Amboy, N. J., has been incorporated 
with a capital of $100,000. The stockholders 
are Freeholder Peter A. Johansen, Mary 
Johansen and Hugh Dickson. 

The F, F. Collins Mfg. Co., of San Antonio, 
Texas, has sold its entire stock of supplies, its 
equipment and good will to the San Antonio 
Machine & Supply Co., of the same city. The 
F. F. Collins Co. has been in business in San 
Antonio more than twenty years and is very 
well known throughout the Southwest 

The Los Angeles Engine Works, of Los 
Angeles, Cal., has been incorporated with a 
capital of $50,000, and will carry on a general 
foundry and machine shop business. The in- 
corporators are W. C. F. Woodward, A. H. 
Ruggles, J. Hawkins, Anna M. Homcastle and 
Laura C. Hawkins, all of Los Angeles. 

The Bessemer Foundry & Machine Co., and 
the Union Car Wheel Co., have been incorpor- 
ated under the laws of Delaware by foundry- 
men of Pittsburg. The Bessemer Foundry & 
Machine Co. has a capital of $50,000 and the 
incorporators are J. K. Neagley, D. B. Neag- 
ley, and L. E. McKain. The Union Car Wheel 
Co. will erect a plant for the manufacture of 
car wheels and will have a capacity of 250 
vvheels a day. 

The Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co., Beaver 
Falls, Pa., has purchased a building and will 
convert it into a foundry. The company ex- 
pects to have it in operation within 30 days. 

Digitized by 




March, 1905 

Undisplayed Advertisements. 

^% ««, A^tf^ >| ^%^^ per line each insertion be- 
tC &16 4\/C srinnlns i>rlth April lasue. 
Answers sent in our care will be for^rarded. 

FOR SAIvE. — No. 10 Sturtcvant fan, nearly new, 
in first-class condition. Address Box 995, BALTI- 

WANTED. — Second-hand pulley molding machine, 
with patterns: for pulleys, up to 36 inches. Box L.| 
Station B., diNCINNATI, 0. 

WANTED. — First-class brass molder for floor work; 
state wages wanted and give reference. Address Box 

SAMPLES FREE— Compo Crayons for marking 
castings, etc: better and cheaper than talc. Address 

WANTED. — Cupola Man who understands melting 
brass in cupola; state experience, wages and refer- 
ences. Address Box 372, THE FOUNDRY, CLEVE- 

FOUNDRY FOR RENT.— 20-ton cupola. Can 
start on our work at once. Cheap rent. Located in 
good city. Address Box 408. THE FOUNDRY, 

WANTED. — Experienced foundry foreman desires 
position in soft plate or light grey iron work. First- 
class reference trom present employer. Address Box 
486, SYR ACUSE, N._Y\ 

FOR RENT.— Machine shop and foundry. Central- 
ly located. Only one other foundry in city. Popula- 
tion from 15,000 to 18,000. Address Box 400, THE 

FOR SALE. — Complete workinjg; drawings for an- 
nealing furnace, air furnace, and reverberatory fur- 
nace, furnished at reasonable prices. Address Box 

WANTED. — By practical iron molder, situation as 
foreman; has had many years' experience in heater 
and stove plate work, bath tubs and laboratories. Ad- 
dress Box 395, THE FOUNDRY, CLEVELAND, O. 

FLUOR SPAR. — Every grade. QuoUtions deliv- 
ered anywhere. Cheapest suppliers. Address GEO. 
G. BLACKWELL SONS & CO., Ltd.. Liverpool, 
Eng., or ag ents Penna« Salt Mfg . Co., Pittsburg, Pa. 

FOR SALE. — Green Positive Pressure Blower 
made by Wilbraham-Baker Blower Co., Philadelphia. 
Size No. 8. Used but little. In first-class condition. 
Address H. W. CALDWELL & SON CO., CHI- 

WANTED. — First-class brass foundry foreman who 
has had experience on large brass and bronze ma- 
chinery castmgs. State wages wanted and give refer- 
ence. Address Box 870, THE FOUNDRY, CLEVE- 
LAND, a 

FLUOR SPAR.— We furnish best grades on the 
market. Ground lump or gravel. No order too small 
for our attention nor too large for our capacity. 
Prices on request. KENTUCKY FLUOR SPAR CO., 

POSITION WANTED.— Foreman patternmaker de- 
sires to make a change. Progressive. Large expe- 
rience on all classes of work. Good executive ability. 
Hustler. American, 89 years old. Address Box 898, 

dry, thoroughly competent, practical, up-to-date in 
modern methods, desires to make a change; reference 
good; solicits correspondence. Address Box 406, 

WANTED. — A foundry foreman capable of taking 
full charge of foundry handling heavy machine cast- 
ings. One who is willing to buy an interest pre- 
ferred. Established business and a good chance for 
the right man. Address "FOUNDRY," P. O. BOX 
816, ST. LOUIS. MO . 

I am a foundryman with an extended experience on 
the above goods. Would like to open a correspondence 
with a view of engaging. Will furnish Al refer- 
ences from past employers. Can mix from analysis 
and handle help with intelligence. Address Box 407, 

WANTED.— Working foreman for small iron 
foundry working two or three molders, melting two 
or three tons three times a week. Address SOULE 

WANTED. — Core room foreman, exi>erienced in 
handling men and familiar with work similar to small 
gas engme cores for automobile work. Good w^ages 
and steady work for the right man. Address THOS. 

WANTED. — Second-hand 80-ton cupola in good 
condition. Address Box 893, THE FOUNDRY, 

Roots Second-hand Blowers, bought, sold or ex- 
changed for new ones. Address, 

120-122 Liberty street. New York City. 

WANTED. — ^A second-hand foundry cupola in 
good condition — capacity, fifteen tons per hour. Ad- 
dress Box 894, THE FOUNDRY, CLEVELAND, O. 

WANTED. — Position as foundry foreman, 25 years* 
practical experience on heavy and light machinery cast- 
mgs, also molding machine; 8 years a foreman. A 
No. 1 mixer of iron and handler of men. First-class 
reference. Address Box 404. THE FOUNDRY, 

POSITION WANTED.— By a foundry foreman 
who would like to make a change. A practical molder 
with a technical education. Can mix iron by analysis, 
and make analysis if necessary. An Al cupola man. 

FOR SALE. — Foundry, machine and boiler shop. 
Best equipment within radius of 300 miles. Excellent 
and growing field for manufacture. Town 10,000 in 
Oregon. Mining, Agriculture, Saw Milling. Price 
right. Terms easy. Address "OREGON." Box 408, 

FOR SALE — Manufacturing site occupied by the 
Brylgon Foundry; located on I^fayetCe Street in the 
city of Reading, along Lebanon Valley Railroad; lot 
475 X 90 feet; large buildings with power plant; with 
or without machinery: possession at once. Apply to 
MENGEL & MENGEL, 9 North 6th Street, RES^D- 
ING, P A. 

WANTED. — Position as foundry foreman by a 
young man competent to handle a large force. Wide 
experience in green^ dry sand, loam and molding ma- 
chines, cupola practice and mixing iron; one competent 
to put a foundry on systematic working basis. Al 
references. Address Box 897, THE FOUNDRY, 

WANTED. — Foundry foreman, capable of taking 
charge of foundry making lisht automobile gas en- 
gine cylinders and similar work. One experienced in 
handling men and familiar with molding machines and 
with different iron mixtures. Good wages and steady 
work for the right man. Address THOMAS B. 

WANTED.— A practical molder, with 21 years* ex 
perience on stove plate, heater work and general job- 
bing, six years as foreman, would like to correspond 
with some firm who wants a foreman, or assistant 
superintendent; can mix and melt iron and handle 
men to good advantage. Good references. Address 

WANTED. — Manager, six o'clock man, energetic, 
with practical engineering experience, wanted to take 
charge from March, of new foundry and pattern shop, 
output 300 to 600 tons per monUi. Applications to 
be favorably considered must State fully and accurate- 
ly ideas as to shop management and control of fore- 
men, also experience and where gained, of cupola 
practice, mixing of metals, coke consumption, pattern- 
making, plate and machine molding. Applicants 
should also state class of work previously engaged in 
*" " ■ " * ndation. 

producing. Technical education a recommendatio 
Present manager regrets giving up owing to ill health. 
Applications treated in strictest confidence. Apply 
giving age and salary expected to "MANAGER," care 
(Continued on page 46.) 

Digitized by 



Vol, 26, No, 2. 


Whole No. 152 

Iron Foundry of the Yale & Towne Mfgf. Co., 
Stamford, Conn. 

The high grade of the product turned out 
by this company would lead one to expect 
good practice in their various departments and 
the iron foundry is certainly not disappointing 
in this respect. To any experienced molder 
who passes through it it shows evidence of ex- 
tremely careful work, both as to the manner in 
which the work is conducted and as to the 
manner in which it is laid out. Practically 
the entire output is small work and hence no 
crane system is necessary. The foundry build- 
ing proper is 141 by 407 feet. It is divided into 
two bays, and is amply lighted by skylights, 

run upon this runway. There are also suit- 
able runways connecting the two bays of the 
foundry at the ends and at the center opposite 
the cupolas. The majority of the iron, how- 
ever, is carried from the cupola in 35 pound 
hand ladles. Great care is taken to see that 
these ladles are always in good condition. It is 
the duty of one man to see that they are prop- 
erly lined and dried. For the drying of the 
ladles a special stove or furnace is used. This 
is situated near the cupola and has six doors in 
the front which can be lifted up and the ladles 
introduced with the faces down upon iron 

Sand Shed and JFi u»k i 

169 X e9 Mhc Ml 



XJapnn B'lTfl 

Irvn foundry 



^^yg [ ^ 

Core Room 

1 ffiTTiS rsm ■ .^ji, 


Bran J u " 

l£9xU0 ' ^^ 



Th« iMHM/ry 

monitor roof, and side lights. The foreman's 
office is situated near one end and commands 
a view of the entire floor. The molding equip- 
ment consists of squeezer machines, the floors 
for each machine being ten feet wide, and 
varying somewhat in length according to their 
position in the foundry. There are also a 
number of bench work floors for use especially 
in connection with the heavier work. As much 
of the work is duplicated, great care has been 
taken in designing the flasks so that they will 
produce the castings with the minimum amount 
of sand and also so that they will prevent all 
danger of straining of the mold or shifting of 
the parts of the flask. The flasks of each set 
are interchangeable. 

Along the center of each bay there is a run- 
way 8 feet wide made of iron plates, and for 
their larger work they have truck ladles which 

bars inside. After the ladles have been lined 
and air dried, they are placed in this furnace, 
warmed up and thoroughly baked so that they 
are ready for use when the iron comes down. 
For the larger work ordinary shank ladles are 
used. The drying furnace for the small ladles 
is fired with coke. 

Melting Equipment. 

The melting equipment consists of two cu- 
polas, 48 and 72 inches respectively, inside the 
shell. These cupolas are at present lined to 
48 and 36 inches inside the lining. The iron 
2ind coke for the cupola are kept in the yard 
and in sheds adjoining the cupola and lifted 
to the charging platform by an elevator. The 
trucks are brought in from outdoors. Blast 
for the cupola is furnished by an electrically 
driven fan. 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 


Heating and Ventilating System. 

The entire foundry is heated and ventilated 
by the Sturtevant hot air system, the ventilat- 
ing plant being located near the cupolas and air 
distributed to the various parts of the building 
through suitable ducts. 

Preparation of Sand. 

Bins having a capacity equivalent to nearly a 
year's supply are provided for the storage of 
different classes of sand used for both the iron 
and brass foundries. The sand for the iron 
foundry is prepared in a room adjoining the 
sand storage sheds m which are located a 

rotary sand sifter, a shaking sand sifter, and a 
grinding mill. The different mixtures of sand 
are placed in bins from which they are taken 
to the foundry in wheel barrows or trucks. 
As most of the work is light the sand bums 
out slowly and hence the new facing sand used 
is in many cases sufficient to keep the sand 
heap in condition, but the fact that the work is 
light also necessitates very careful regulation 
of the facing mixtures to suit them to the work 
for which they are intended. 

Flask Shop. 

Adjoining the sand sheds is located the flask 



Digitized by 


April, 1905 




shop, in which the wooden flasks are made or 
repaired. Metal flasks may also be fitted up 
here. In this department the jackets for the 
snap flask molds are also made. The depart- 
ment is equipped with the necessary wood 
working machinery fcr attending to the flask 
work and whatever carpenter work may be 
necessary about the foundry. 

Core Department. 
The same core department supplies cores for 
both the iron and brass foundries. It is lo- 
cated between the two foundries and receives 
its supply of sand from either one of the sand 
mixing departments. The most of the cores 
are small cores made from carefully fitted 
metal core boxes and are dried in Millett ovens 
located in the room. The core department is 
lighted by windows on the sides and the end 
and also by skylights along the monitor roof. 
On account of the highly specialized work it is 
necessary to specialize in the core work also, 
and as a consequence very high grade metal 

core boxes are used in most cases, and great 
care is taken to design them in such a way 
that the operators can handle them easily and 

Finishing of the Castings. 
The light nature of many of the castings 
necessitates very careful treatment in the fin- 
ishing departments. These departments oc- 
cupy several rooms at the end of the iron- 
foundry. First, there is a battery of tumbling 
barrels for cleaning any class of castings for 
which this is suitable. There is a pickling: 
bed for pickling castings upon which scale is 
objectionable, and a series of annealing fur- 
naces for annealing the lighter grades of cast- 
ings. Many of the castings require no finish- 
ing except the drilling of a few small holcs- 
and hence a department called the drilling 
room is located next to the cleaning room and 
in this much of the work is finished by drilling 
in jigs on drill presses, so that the parts go 
directly from the foundry to the japanning de- 
partment or the assembling department. 

fi;ask depaetmbnt. 


Digitized by 




April, 1905 



It is true that every material used for this 
purpose is a compound; but so is the sand a 
compound; so is the pig iron a compound; 
though certainly no salesman has yet had the 
nerve to offer you any Carnegie chill casting 
compound under the impression that you 
would recognize it as pig iron. The materials 
in question are employed solely for their ad- 
hesive qualities. 

You may say that they do other things, but 
be that as it may, the basic reason for their 
use is to bind the sand together so that it will 
take and hold the desired shape. Certainly 
such a material is a sand binder and when 
used for cores, a core sand binder. This is 
my plea and I hope my justification for the 
new name. Perhaps this question of a name 
is along of a line with some other points in 
core shop practice in that they need more at- 
tention, that they need changing, that they 
need reform. It has been brought forcibly to 
me again and again as I travel from foundry 
to foundry that the core shop has suffered, and 
is suffering from neglect. 

On page 157 of The Foundry for December, 
in an article by Charles A. Smith, note the 
following words; "Every superintendent ought 
to get acquainted with his core room foreman 
and give him credit for what improvements 
and additions he can make in the department, 
for the core room is certainly an important 
department and much saving can be made here 
by close attention to details." That is a strong 
•call from the man in the shop. Can you 
afford to be deaf to it? 

Because you happen to pick up — after a few 
trials — a man who can make cores without 
much loss of labor, sand or castings with the 
local sands and binding materials, hence the 
<:onvenient ones, or with some that he or you 
used elsewhere with success, then you think 
your problem has been solved. And you are 

I believe that I am perfectly safe in saying, 
and this without any intention of throwing 
bouquets at you, that in addressing the 
Foundrymen*s Association of the Pittsburg 
district; I am addressing the men who have 
made a closer study of the business than any 
other such body in the United States and yet 
I doubt if there are five of you tonight who 
'•can tell what their binders cost per ton of 

♦kead at the February meeting of the 'Pittsburg 
Foundrymen's .'\s8ociation. Mr. Robeson is president 
-of the A meri^ati 'Glucose Co. 

sand mixed; not half who can tell off hand, 
with any accuracy, what their core sand mix- 
tures are and I will warrant if there are any 
who think they know, that one visit to their 
core room will prove they are in error. 

For a reason, which is not quite clear to 
me, the men in this trade, do not get the 
assistance from the shop foreman, the foundry 
superintendent and the office force that the 
molders or the cupola-men receive. A man 
who is thus forced to work out his own sal- 
vation, alone and unaided, without help or 
assistance from that part of the management 
that is supposed to know more, will naturally 
make workable cores from the materials at 
hand, if he can. They may be the best, they 
may be the worst permissible, but he does not 
know the degree of their goodness or badness 
nor anything as to cost and this because there 
is no method of comparison. 

Here is a trade without a literature. Can 
you expect progress from a nation without a 
written language? In what is probably the 
most read book of "the few relating to the 
foundry trade, there are just 4H pages devoted 
to core making out of nearly 400, and half of 
these 4J4 pages is padding. This neglect has 
brought about another condition of affairs. 
The sand, the binders, the manner of drying 
have been worked out for each foundry and 
the coremaker that lasted long enough to get 
good results has held the job until he and not 
the office was tired. This fact has made him 
narrow, localized and with a high opinion of 
his own skill in sands and binders and there- 
fore difficult to teach. As an example of this, 
and also of several other related points, I 
recollect meeting a boss coremaker a short 
time ago who was dissatisfied with the results 
he was having. 

This in itself was remarkable, and especially 
so, because in my business of selling a core 
sand binder, I had just left the office of the 
company he was working for, where I had 
been told that they could not even listen to my 
story because they were getting good results 
from their cores and there was no use in dis- 
turbing any part of the plant that was running 
smoothly and well. It turned out that this 
man had been working for a rival concern, 
located a few miles away, and because of his 
good results had received and accepted an 
offer from his present employer, who at the 
time was having trouble from excessive break- 
age of cores, much blown work and many 
condemned castings, owing to defects in the 
cored work. Now he had used my binder in 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



the old shop and I was, of course, curious to 
know why I had lost his trade and anxious to 
secure it again. I knew something of the 
sands in that locality and after an examination 
of those he was using, I worked out the fol- 
lowing story. The figures that I now give 
are not the actual ones but are relatively cor- 
The sand mixture in his old shop was: 

30 percent old or gangway sand $0 03 

30 percent loamy sand, at $1.80 per ton. . o 54 
40 percent bank sand, $0.75 per ton o 30 

Total $6 84 

One part of gluetrin to 40 parts of sand. 

This binder cost 15c per gallon or 3^c per 
quart delivered. The sand ran 900 quarts to 
the ton and on these figures the binder cost 
84 cents per ton of sand mixed and the total 
cost for each ton of core sand, ready for cores, 
was $1.68. 

The new shop had been using, 

40 percent sharp sand at $1.20 per ton. . .$0 48 
60 percent loamy sand at $1.80 per ton. . . i 08 

Total $1 56 

I part of flour to 12 parts of sand. 

Flour at that time cost $25.00 a ton and on 
a weight of i.i pounds to the quart the cost 
of binder per ton of core sand mixed was $1.03 
and the total cost for each ton of core sand, 
ready for cores, was $2.59 per ton. The work 
from these cores was bad. They had tried 
rosin, on and off, with equally poor results. 

With these two sands, which were different 
from the loamy and sharp sands of his old 
shop, this man tried, with and without old 
sand, gluetrin as he had used it before and 
failed. He then went back to the original 
practice of this shop — flour — and by changing 
the mixture slightly and seeing that the pro- 
portions of the sands and the sands to the 
flour did not vary, and forbidding the core- 
makers to run to the flour sack whenever they 
liked, which had oreviously been allowed, he 
managed to get much better results than they 
had formerly secured. This satisfied the of- 
fice but the work was not as good as in the 
old shop. He knew it and was dissatisfied but 
apparently helpless. Here was a man that 
looked ready for my material and, in spite of 
his failure, was easily persuaded to try it 

I was certain after examining his sands that 
the whole trouble was in the sand mixture and 

several were tried, this being finally adopted 
as the most satisfactory and economical. 

40 percent old or gangway sand $0 00 

40 percent loamy sand at $1.80 per ton. . o 72 
20 percent local bank sand at $0.75 per ton o 15 

Total $0 87 

I part of gluetrin at 3^c a quart to 50 parts 
of sand cost 67^40 per ton of sand mixed and 
the total cost for each ton of core sand, ready 
for cores, was $i.54J/$. 

This was successful, reduced the breakage 
of cores and did away entirely with any blown 
castings or trouble irom the size of cored 
holes, besides making a clear saving of $i.04J/^ 
on each ton of core sand mixed. But note — 
here was an intelligent man of his class, hold- 
ing a responsible position — he had charge of 
twenty-five coremakers — who, after one or two 
trials had given up his problem and drifted 
back into practically the same methods as this 
shop had always used. It seems to me that 
there were two causes at work here. The one 
that his superiors did not know enough to 
push him for better results nor to aid him 
with suggestion, and the other, that he, him- 
self, lacked sand experience — did not realize 
that simply because sands look alike they may 
be different and that one or two trials are not 
sufficient to test a sand or a binder. Inci- 
dentally he learned how to figure the cost of 
his mixture; something he had never done 

Under this heading of Core Sand Binders, 
any material possessing adhesive qualities 
might be included. Local conditions and 
sands have caused the use of some that seem 
absurd to the general trade. A consideration 
of these freaks is omitted and only those that 
are found in general use are considered. 
These are: 







Proprietary Dry Mixtures 





Fish oil 




Gluetrin (Proprietary Liquid) 


Linseed oil 




Proprietary Oil Mixtures 


Rosin oil 

At the first glance it is seen that these can 
be divided into two distinct classes — the solids 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

and the liquids. It is to the difference in 
action of these two conditions of matter, when 
used as core sand binders, that I wish espec- 
ially to call your attention, and not to the 
merits or demerits of any particular one. 

Let us consider the work that is required 
of a binder. The local conditions in each shop 
vary greatly and it is only possible to name 
these requirements in a general way. 

A good binder must make a core that 

1. Is strong both green and dry. 

2. Is weak and rotten after the casting is 

3. Is not easily affected by moisture. 

4. Will give off but little gas. 

5. Will dry quickly. 

6. Will not change in size. 

7. Has a low cost. 

Th€ ideally perfect core sand binder is one 
that mixes easily with the sand, making a mass 
that packs with but little work in the box, 
leaves it freely and leaves it clean. Is strong 
enough before baking to stand alone, without 
^ggitig or deformation and retain sharp edges. 
Such a core must now bake in the shortest 
possible time and when baked be hard enough 
to stand rough handling, be weak enough to 
yield to the contraction of the iron in cooling, 
porous enough to permit the gases to escape 
freely, and after cooling leave the casting 
easily and cleanly. 

The usual method of preparing the mixture 
is to put on the floor the required quantity of 
•each kind of sand, previously selected by the 
foreman or boss core maker, and to spread or 
■sprinkle on top of this pile the necessary 
amount of the dry, or liquid binder that is to 
be used, afterwards wetting the mass, as may 
be required, with water. 

This pile is then cut over and shoveled, be- 
ing finally put through a riddle and then de- 
livered to the coremaker or put in a pile 
ready for their use. There are various modi- 
fications of this practice in the way of rid- 
dling the sand before the binder is put on, 
mixing in a machine, etc. Every step that is 
taken to increase the thoroughness of the 
mixing is a step taken in advance. The more 
perfect the mixture the better the core. 

If you are using a dry binder, flour for ex- 
ample, and it is simply dumped on the pile of 
sand, wet down and put into barrows, wheeled 
to the coremaker and made up into cores, you 
will have a core that consists of a gob of 
■flour with a little sand in it, next to a gob of 
sand with a little flour in it. 

It does not take a verv wise man to know 

that such a core will be weak and it is a fair 
presumption that when the hot metal strikes 
one such loaf of bread in the core there will be 
a large volume of gas given off at the point 
and a resultant blown casting. This is 
actually the condition that exists in every core 
made with a dry binder to a greater or lesser 
extent. The more thoroughly the sand and 
binder are stirred and mixed together, the 
more even will the distribution be and the 
more nearly will the ideal condition be reached 
of having each grain of sand surrounded and 
attached to the next erain by the binder. For 
this reason dry binders should be very finely 
ground — ^be very much finer than the sand. 
This condition of fineness is true of flour, not 
quite so true of rosin and not nearly so much 
so of the dry binder mixtures on the market. 

Flour is delivered in a much more finely 
ground condition than any particle of ordinary 
sand and if kept dry, will remain loose and 
free from lumps. Rosin is not usually, in fact 
I think never, so finely ground but, even if 
so, will immediately, because of the moisture 
and heat in the air, under normal conditions, 
commence to stick together and ball up. AH 
the dry mixtures sold will act in the same 
way as rosin, in varying degrees, so that the 
resuh, with these two latter materials is that, 
however much labor may be spent on the mix- 
ing, the mass will never be nearly so uniform 
as with flour. 

If flour is therefore the best, let us see how 
bad it is. The sand is composed of grains, 
varying in size from particles as small as a 
needle point up to ^ inch. The variation in 
the shape of these grains is much greater than 
in the size and in fact the shapes met with 
are so various that they cannot be numbered. 
This matter of shape, as long as the size is 
within the limits already mentioned, is the 
most important. Roughly speaking these 
grains may be divkied into two kinds, those 
that are angular having sharp comers and 
numberless projections and recesses; those 
that are rounded, the projections having been 
rubbed off so that the grain is a more or less 
true sphere with a highly polished surface. 

Some years ago I was engaged in the manu- 
facture of steel by the basic Bessemer process 
and, as part of our practice, it was necessary 
for us to make dolomite bricks. For this pur- 
pose we used an exceptionally pure dolomitic 
limestone, which was crushed in a jaw 
crusher, then pulverized to nearly the fineness 
of flour, dampened with water and pressed 
into building brick form and size on an ordi- 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



nary brick press, then calcined at a very high 
temperature. The work of making these 
bricks was progressing very satisfactorily, the 
breakage in handling from the brick press and 
in piling in the kilns being practically nothing 
when there was offered to us a limestone from 
another quarry. Repeated careful chemical 
analyses of this stone, showed that it differed 
but little from that we were using. If any- 
thing it was more nearly pure and a contract 
was placed for a larke tonnage. Shipments 
arrived and were dumped and used indiscrimi- 
nately with the older stone. Later investigation 
showed that they were probably in about equal 
proportions in the stock pile, so that the pul- 
verized material coming to the brick press was 
about half and half of each stone. With its 
use trouble immediately resulted. The bricks 
were very weak, as they came from the press. 
Fully 25 percent were broken in the handling 
at this point and from 10 to 15 percent more 
when piling in the over. Various means, such 
as increasing the water, the pressure on the 
press, etc., were tried but with no success in 
doing away with the trouble. Instant relief 
was necessary so that the use of the new stone 
was stopped, with an immediate stoppage of 
the trouble, while the investigation proceeded. 
The microscope finally told the story, as it 
showed that the older stone crushed and pul- 
verised into granular grains, while the newer 
stone gave almost perfectly rounded particles. 
The geological explanation carried this back to 
the manner of the original deposition or for- 
mation. It can easily be realized that under 
pressure these granular pieces would knit into 
one another, projection into recess, so that 
their very shape made a strong bond, whereas 
the rounded grains would simply have their 
polished curves the one against the other — 
without bond and in fact of a position and of a 
shape to encourage a sliding or rolling action 
and consequent weakness and breakage. This 
same story is exactly and similarly true of 
the core sand. The bond is increased in the 
cores, however, by the use of some added 
material, that by the aid of water or of heat 
becomes adhesive or is so of itself. This, 
however, is but an aid. It does not change 
the condition produced by the first shape of 
the sand grains. The more angular they are 
the less work the added adhesive has to do, 
the more rounded, the greater the work. 

There is a common expression used in the 
foundry, that a sand is sharp, and on examina- 
tion, I have found that ruch a sand invariably 
shows the angular grains to which I have 

referred. I have not come across, however, 
any expression or word or name, that denoted 
the reverse of this condition, the non-sharp 
kind. All of the non-sharp kind that I have 
used contained some loam or clay, so that for 
want of a better name, I have called this loamy 
sand. Now I do not know whether it is true 
or not that these rounded grains only occur 
with the loamy admixture. It is my experi- 
ence, however, that the two always appear to- 
gether, and when they do so appear, that the 
loam acts as a binder. Thus the two kinds 
of sand, the sharp sand and the loamy sand, 
are both, in a measure, self-binding though 
from entirely different causes and the bond, as 
formed, is of a different nature. I have never 
found a case where, what might be termed the 
angular bond, was strong enough to make a 
core without an added binder, but I know of 
one loamy sand, and there are probably others, 
from which hard cores can be made without 
the addition of any adhesive. 

In the New England district the universal 
base of all core sand mixtures is beach or bank 
sand and the usual binder is flour, together 
with a small amount of the proprietary dry 
mixtures. These sands are sharp, of varying 
degrees of fineness, and in all probability from 
the same source, the sea shore. The present 
beach sand being sometimes dug from a little 
distance back from the tide line, or directly on 
the beach, thus subject to daily intermittent 
soaking with salt water, or dredged from un- 
der the water. It may thus be more or less 
weathered or strongly impregnated with salt. 
The bank sand is from inland points and if 
these deposits are, as I think, but the remains 
of an ancient sea shore, then the only differ- 
ence between the two sands is that the one 
has been weathered and washed free from 
salt and the other has not. 

In the foundry district in and around Phila- 
delphia there is a very large amount of Lum- 
berton, Millville and other sands containing 
loam or clay used. The characteristic core 
sand of this section is thus a loamy sand and 
the usual binder is flour and a certain amount, 
greater I think than in New England, of the 
proprietary dry mixtures. Here now are two 
sands entirely unlike in their physical condi- 
tions and self-binding powers that are in prac- 
tice bound and made into cores with the same 
adhesive material — flour — and requiring about 
the same amount. It is evident, therefore, that 
the binding power of the angles on the sharp 
sand is replaced by the adhesive property of 
the loam in the loamy sand. From this view 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

of the situation, it would seem that it made 
no difference which sand was used, that the 
one was as good as the other. 

There is, however, a very great difference in 
the structure of the two cores. With the sharp 
sand, the angles fit into one another but not 
perfectly. The flour particles press into the 
recesses, rest on the projections and lay against 
the body of the grain but not flatly, completely, 
perfectly, the very irregularity of the shape 
makes the joint between the grains of sand 
themselves, as well as with the binder, imper- 
fect, and as a consequence the mass is not solid 
nor compact but consists of grains tightly and 
perfectly joined at different points to the sur- 
rounding grains but with open and un jointed 
parts at other points. In other words, the in- 
terstices are not completely filled. Thus the 
core is porous, though strong, with ample op- 
portunity for the travel through its interior 
and out to the surface of any gases that may be 

With the loamy sand the story is different. 
Here the binding is entirely dependent upon 
the adhesive strength of the loam and the flour. 
With the addition of water these two mix in- 
timately and easily, and as the rounded and 
polished surfaces of the sand grains come to- 
gether under the pressure of the ramming, this 
fluid mass of adhesive, greater in proportion to 
the whole mass with the sharp sand, you must 
remember, is forced and flows into the open 
space between these grains a much smaller 
space than with the angular sand and as a 
consequence these intergrain spaces, that 
would form passages for the travel of the 
gases, are almost closed up. In other words, 
the interstices are almost completely filled. 
Thus the core is strong, with the same amount 
of flour is actually stronger than when 
made from sharp sand — ^but very dense and 
compact. As a proof of this you will find that 
the man who is using sharp sand as his base 
for cores, seldom or never talks about trouble 
from his cores blowing. He cares little 
whether the core sand binder offered him has 
gas in it or not but the man using the loamy 
sand is ever on the watch for that point. He 
knows that he must be careful and, because 
flour gives off so much smoke and gas when 
the hot metal strikes it, he is ever seeking 
for a substitute that will give him less trou- 
ble and reduce his loss from core-blown cast- 

Now it has been noted that the binders com- 
monly used can be divided into two classes, 

the solids and the liquids, and also that in 
preparing the core sand mass, water is in- 
variably added. With the exception of the 
rosin all of these dry binders are more or less 
soluble in water. The rosin, after it has been 
mixed and molded, likewise becomes liquefied 
or partly so, because of the heat in the core 
oven. At the first glance it would seem then 
that they all became liquids during the opera- 
tion and that there is thus really but one class 
of binders. This is not entirely correct, be- 
cause, first, some of the mixing is usually done 
before the water is added, and, second, be- 
cause only enough water can be added to make 
the mass properly damp for ramming. This 
amount is not sufficient to make the dry bin- 
der thin, fluid, and in a condition to run freely 
through the sand. The most casual examina- 
tion of a rosin made core, will show that the 
sand and binder are very improperly mixed. 
The rosin can be seen in spots throughout the 
mass and it is, as a fact, the poorest and per 
unit of volume, the most expensive of the 
binders, mainly because of the impossibility of 
proper mixing. This but goes to prove, the 
well known fact, that a more uniform mixture 
can be attained when a liquid and a solid are 
put together than when two solids are used. 
The thinner the liquid the more easily will it 
run through the mass of sand and the more 
rapidly and completely will it cover each grain. 
It would, therefore, seem that a liquid binder 
would, with the least work, give the most per- 
fect mixture, provided, of course, that it was 
thin enough when put on the sand to flow free- 
ly through it. It must, also, be sufficiently ad- 
hesive per unit of bulk so that the amount 
added will not make the sand too damp. 

Some experiments recently made, for the 
purpose of proving this theory, showed that 
the efficiency of all of the dry binders could 
be increased by better mixing but that the ex- 
pense of so doing was greater than the cost 
of the binder that was saved as, aside from 
the difference between hand and machine mix- 
ing, this means, simply, longer continued work 
on the sand mass. With the liquid binders a 
somewhat different method seemed possible. 
Having the idea in mind that the thinner the 
binder the better the mixture, a material was 
selected, gluetrin, that mixed easily and read- 
ily with water, and a test was then made by 
putting this on the sand .in the form of a 
spray with compressed air. At the foundry 
where this was tried their regular core sand 
mixture was: 

Digitized by 


April. 1905 



20 percent old or gangway sand $0.00 

60 percent Millville gravel @ $1.40 ^qt 

ton 0.84 

20 percent local sharp sand (a) .90 per ton 0.18 

Total $r . 02 

One part gluetrin mixed with one part of 
water to each 50 parts of sand. 

This sand ran 930 quarts to the ton and the 
binder, therefore, at 3^c a quart, cost 70 
cents per ton of sand mixed and the total cost 
for each ton of core sand, ready for cores, 
was $172. Their practice was to put the 
sand on the floor in three layers as dumped 
from the wheelbarrows. This was then shov- 
eled and cut over about three times while dry. 
The gluetrin had previously been mixed with 
an equal amount of water and was then 
sprinkled over the bed of sand from a watering 
pot. The pile was shoveled over once, sprin- 
kled with water, and put through a riddle on 
a pneumatic shaker and taken to the core- 
makers. In the first test with the compressed 
air spraying, the same amount of gluetrin and 
water was used and the cores were entirely 
too hard. Various trials were made until now 
their practice is to wheel in the sand and to 
put it on the floor as formerly but as the sand 
is shoveled and cut over, while dry, it is 
thrown rather high from the shovels and is 
met by a spray of gluetrin and water. This 
is done twice and it is then put through the 
riddle as before. 

The sand mixture is now: 

40 percent old or gangway sand $0.00 

40 percent Millville gravel @ $1.40 per 

ton 0.56 

20 percent local sharp sand @ .90 per ton o. 18 

Total $0.74 

One part of gluetrin, mixed with two parts 
of water, to 70 parts of sand. Thus the binder 
costs but 50 cents per ton of sand mixed, and 
a total cost of $1.24 as compared to $1.72 — a 
saving of 48 cents per ton. 

Here is a credit for old sand, binder and 
labor due to the method of mixing alone, and 
a small debit for compressed air. As the oils 
and oil mixtures are too expensive per unit of 
volume for general use, and this without re- 
gard to their merits or faults in any other re- 
spect, but few tests were made with them. 
Such as were made, however, agreed with this 



In response to the article in the February is- 
sue of The Foundry on the loss of air-cooled 
automobile cylinders, I wish to make the fol- 
lowing statement. Possibly every one who 
reads The Foundry knows that this is one 
of the most delicate classes of work that the 
foundryman has to contend with. It requires 
the utmost care and attention on the part of 
the coremakcr to produce sound castings. In 
my everyday practice on this class of work I 
follow four or five rules which I have applied 
in making the cylinders, and have been suc- 
cessful both in steam and gasoline engine 
work. First, be absolutely sure that the core 
is thoroughly vented and all vents connected. 
Second, be equally sure that you have sufficient 
outlets to relieve the core of any gas pressure 
from the gases formed in it. Third, if there 
are any outlets from the top of the jackets, 
take care that the projections to form these 
openings are not longer than the prints on the 
patterns, as if this is the case, the cope will 
press too hard on these points and strain the 
core until the joint opens. This allows the 
iron to flow into the core, resulting in a bad 
casting. Fourth, if the above precautions do 
not produce sound castings the molder should 
be cautioned against ramming too hard or 
the use of too wet sand. In my own practice 
I never dry the molds. 

A Complaint. 

Iron went up two cents today. 
Will it go more tomororw? 
The broker's price we have to pay, 
Iron went up two cents today. 
I wonder what the "firm" will say? 
I'll soon learn to my sorrow, 
Iron went up two cents today. 
Will it go more tomorrow? 

W. L. Zimmerman. 

Molds for Making Bepairs with Thermit. 

The sand used in making molds for thermit 
castings must be clean, hard and sharp. Such 
sand, mixed with an equal amount of ordinary 
brickmakers' clay, will make satisfactory 
molds. If fire clay is used the molds should 
be composed of 65 percent fire clay and 35 
percent sand. Fire clay molds, however, are 
hard to dry. 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

The Foundry 


The Penton Publishing Co. 


CHICAGO : 1164 MonadDOck Blk. 

PITTSBURG 429 Park Bldg. 

NEW YORK : 150 Nassau St. 

The subscription price of Thb Foundry is $1.00 
a jear to points in the United States, Canada and 
Mexico. To Great Britain : Eight Shillings. Single 
copies 15 cents each. 

Practical articles pertaining to the trade in all its 
branches are solicited and will be paid for. 

When sending in articles be sure to place your name 
and address on the article and on the drawings. 

Entered as second-class matter at the Fast-Office at 
Cleveland^ Ohio. 


Iron Foundry of the Yale & Towne Mfg. 

Co 53 

Core Sand Binders 56 

Air Cooled Automobile Cylinders 61 

A Complaint 61 

Molds for Making Repairs with Thermit. . 61 

Trade Outlook 62 

Manufacture of By-Product Coke 63 

New Books 63 

A Casting Difficulty 63 

Chemistry in Foundry Practice 63 

Shot Iron 65 

Making By-Product Coke 66 

Core Room Records 78 

Some Melting Furnace Practice 83 

Lifting Magnets 83 

Foaming Slag 84 

A New Traveling Electric Hoist 84 

Trouble* with the Foundryman 85 

Cast Iron Notes 86 

Malleable Cast Iron Notes 87 

Brass Foundry Notes 87 

Car Wheel Casting Difficulties 88 

Reviews 88 

Associations and Societies 90 

Continuous Process for Car Wheel Man- 
ufacture 92 

Mending Castings with Thermit 95 

Casting Iron on Steel 96 

Trade Publications 97 

Personals 97 

Fires 97 

New Construction 98 

General Industrial Notes 99 


The foundry pig iron market has not 
changed materially during March, though 
there has been a good aggregate of sales to 
a variety of buyers in different parts of the 
country. No. 2 Southern iron can still be had 
at $13.50 at furnace, in large lots, though 
small lots in some cases have brought $13.75. 
On Northern iron the Central Western fur- 
naces are quoting $16.00 a ton. In Southern 
Ohio some iron has been sold in the past 
month at $15.50 per ton at the furnace for 
No. 2 foundry, though it is probable that at 
present it would be difficult to obtain it for 
less than $15.75. The pipe interests have been 
buying since our last report. 

Reports are coming in from all parts of 
the country showing that there are orders for 
larger tonnages of castings on the foundry- 
men's books than there have been for a long 
time, and the general outlook in this direction 
is very encouraging. The increase of orders 
on the books of the foundrymen has caused 
many of them to place orders for foundry iron. 

The malleable interests have received a 
considerable tonnage from the agricultural 
trade, but orders for malleable iron for rail- 
road and car work have not been equally con- 
spicuous. This is probably due in part to the 
fact that cast steel has been replacing mal- 
leable iron to sgme extent in connection with 
these lines of manufacture. On the other 
hand malleable foundries have gained, per- 
haps, at the expense of gray iron foundries. 

The steel foundries report a great increase 
in the number of orders received and most 
of them are running with practically a full 
force of men; some, in fact, are working over 

The price of foundry coke has increased 
somewhat, and there are indications that it 
may go still higher. Ordinary foundry coke 
is now quoted at $3 per ton at the oven in 
the Cotmellsville region and $3.25 is asked 
for special grade. It is probable that steady 
or slightly increasing prices will rule in foun- 
dry lines for some time, on account of the 
fact that the prices of the blast furnace raw 
materials that is iron ore and coke are both 
increasing and that the railroads are show- 
ing a tendency to put freight rates back where 
they were before the slack times of 1904. 

All this means that if the foundryman is to 
conduct his work at a profit he must obtain 
a somewhat higher price for his castings, and 
such re-adjustments as this always take time. 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 




In another part of this issue we publish an 
article on By-Product Coke, telling of its 
manufacture and also of the manufacture and 
use of some of the by-products. As by- 
product coke is becoming more common and 
is being used by found rymen in many cen- 
ters, it is but natural that all foundrymen 
should be interested in the subject and in the 
matter of its production, and we are glad to 
be able to present such a good article on the 
subject. The paper was read before the Phila- 
delphia Foundrymen's Association. 


"High Temperature Measurements,*' by H. 
Le Chatelier and O. Boudouard. Authorized 
translation by G. K. Burgess. Published by 
John Wiley & Sons ; second edition. Price $3. 

This book contains 341 pages of very inter- 
esting matter descriptive of pyrometers and 
high temperature measurements. Formerly 
such .'X work would have been of interest only 
to the scientific investigator in connection with 
laboratory work, but now that pyrometers are 
used so extensively for the control of tempera- 
tures in all classes of metallurgical work, the 
subject has become one of vital interest to all 
connected with the different branches of the 
metal industry in which the metal undergoes 
heat treatment. In this work the authors in 
the preface give a short review of the history 
of high temperature measurements and then 
follow with an extensive treatment of the sub- 
ject of high temperature measurements, de- 
scribing the many different devices which 
have been invented for this purpose and show- 
ing the relative advantages of each. 

Considerable mathematics has been used in 
some portions of the work, though one not fa- 
miliar with higher mathematics would gain a 
great deal of information by reading the other 
portions of the book. 


BY 0. B. CECIL. 

In answer to the matter entitled "A Cast- 
ing Difficulty,'* by A. L. B. in a recent number 
of The Foundry, I may give the following ex- 
perience with this kind of work. Some years 
ago, I had to cast some rolls of the nature 
described, and after spoiling several, I tried 
the following method with success. I had a 
pattern made with the prints one-half inch out 
of center, and molded them with the print 

nearest the bottom and in a horizontal posi- 
tion. In preparing the mold, I placed 2^^ 
inch shrinking heads along the pattern every 
eight inches and dried the mold thoroughly, us- 
ing a sand mixture that would bake very hard. 
I heated the shaft red hot and placed it in 
the mold a few minutes before pouring. The 
iron was melted to a white heat and in pour- 
ing I allowed the metal to flow through the 
feeding heads until the iron lay perfectly 
quiet and then used a churning rod until the 
metal was congealed. Castings made in this 
way turned up nice and clean. Very little 
stock is required on the bottom or under side 
of the casting and by allowing all the stock 
on the top it enabled me to be sure that the 
work would turn up clean. I wish to lay great 
stress on the fact that the shaft must be as 
hot as possible and the cast iron must also be 
very hot or good results will not follow. 

I also had a great deal of success in cast- 
ing brass bearings in driving wheel boxes 
made of cast iron. This saves a great deal of 
expense in a machine shop, which is quite 
an item in a big railroad system. In doing this 
it is necessary to have the iron boxes hot be- 
fore pouring the brass. 



The last fifteen years has brought a great 
change in the making of cast iron. Before 
1890 little attention was given to the different 
grades of cast iron, but since that time ma- 
chinery manufacturers have demanded a hard, 
wear resisting metal and also a soft metal 
which may be easily machined. The control of 
this metal is governed by its chemical com- 
position and for this reason chemists have 
come from the blast furnace and steel making 
plants to the foundry. Before 1890 the chemist 
was looked upon as an ornament or a fad, and 
most foundry men wondered why they were 
allowed to exist, and to some foundrymen to- 
day the chemist is looked upon as a close ally 
of the devil and his suggestions are regarded 
as rank heresy to the orthodox teachings of the 
old practice. The feeling was much the sanie 
among the old blast furnace men twenty odd 
years ago. 

In the old days a man that made soft iron 
did not dare to make hard iron. Only four 
years ago I met a foundryman who would not 
make a pully for his own shafting. He would 

*Read at meeting of Buffalo Foundrjmen's .Associa- 
tion, Feb. 21. 

Digitized by 



April, 1905 

have to make them of harder iron than his 
regular mixture, so he went outside and bought 
his pulleys. He said, "Nobody shall ever ac- 
cuse me of making anything but dead soft 
iron," and he keeps his word, for all his iron 
simply crumbles as the tool steel strikes it. 
The hard iron was usually a question of luck 
and scrap. When the scrap was hard, 
the iron would be hard; if the scrap 
happened to be soft the iron was soft, 
but was called hard. The method of mixing 
irons was a curious mixture of good judgment 
and superstition. A great many pigs were 
broken and the fractures examined. It took a 
good observer and a good guesser to judge iron 
by fracture and in case there was doubt it was 
considered the thing to put in a good dose of 
Scotch. Scotch iron was a panacea for all iron 
ills and was supposed to be a softener. Then 
there were some special strong irons, which 
were spoken of with a certain reverence and 
were supposed to have virtues handed down 
from the remote past. These were known to 
gain strength from the hills whence they were 
made. These were mixed with the Scotch, and 
scrap added with fear and trembling. Occa- 
sionally white iron was seen, but this was re- 
garded as the black beast of iron founding and 
any one charging white iron into a cupola was 
looked upon as insane or a tempter of provi- 

The grading of iron by fracture was one of 
the difficulties in the old method of mixing. 
At one time there were nineteen different No. 

1 irons. They varied from J^ percent silicon 
to 4 percent and were all No. i. No. 3 in one 
brand would match No. i in another. No. i 
and No. 2 were usually confused, and often No. 

2 was supplied for No. i and the founder paid 
the No. I price. When we know that two or 
three grades of iron can be distinguished on a 
single pig, when we know that a No. 3 grade 
can be transformed into a No. 2 grade by 
slower cooling, when we know that iron caat 
in a dry pig bed is a lower number than iron 
cast in a wet pig bed, we can form some idea of 
the difficulty of grading by fracture. 

It would be interesting to know how many 
foundrymen still cling to this method of grad- 
ing iron. No doubt many think that the iron 
is graded by fracture, but, if the truth 
were known, every ton they receive is 
graded by analysis. Rut this handling of 
iron by number and by tradition is unknown 
to the mixer by analysis, nie chemist ruth- 
lessly cuts into the iron with two acids, sepa- 
rates the graphite, silicon, sulphur, phosphorus 

and manganese and marshals them into col- 
umns, and now the mixing is simply a pairing 
off of these substances : 

A high silicon with a high phosphorus; a 
low silicoh with a low phosphorus; a low 
manganese with low sulphur; a high manga- 
nese to carry off sulphur; low silicon and low 
phosphorus for strength ; high silicon and high 
phosphorus for softness; a low silicon and high 
manganese for close grain. 

Nothing is left for guess. A formula is de- 
cided upon and the various irons are figured 
to so mix that the result shall not vary over 
one-tenth of one percent. The old method 
was more picturesque, but the modern method 
is more sure. There are foundrymen here who 
will admit that mixing can be done better by 
analysis, but they say the blast furnace people 
make the analysis of every carload of pig, and 
that is good enough for them. This may do 
in making the softer grades of iron, but when 
it comes to making hard iron the furnace 
analysis is seldom reliable. The fact is the 
analysis given of the carload is not an analysis 
of the pig in that car, it is simply an analysis of 
the cast from which that carload was 
loaded. As one cast of iron may vary from 
10 to 60 in silicon it is easy to see that a man 
may get a carload of iron of which the furnace 
analysis is 1.50 silicon, but the actual analysis 
is 1. 00 silicon. If he goes on the supposition 
that the furnace analysis is right, he will get 
white iron if he uses any hard scrap, and he 
will probably get all his light castings white 
if he uses nothing but pig. These cases are 
happening right along. Castings that should be 
1.25 to 1.60 percent silicon, have finished below 
.70 silicon because the furnace analysis did not 
represent the car. The blast furnace sample 
is taken from the liquid metal as it runs from 
the notch at the furnace, and though the an- 
alysis of that sample doubtless is correct, yel 
that sample is very different from one ob- 
tained from the car itself. Another disadvan- 
tage of relying on the blast furnace is that the 
furnace people will claim that the only satisfac- 
tory iron is supplied by them. The claim is 
often made that the ores, limestone and even 
air used by them have a marvellous power to 
give both strength and softness to the iron, 
while ores and air of a rival furnace have no 
such power. If this claim is admitted by the 
foundryman, he is at the mercy of the pig iron 
maker, and the blast furnace fairly owns the 
foundry. This shuts out the foimdry from 
the open market when prices are much lower. 
If the foundryman is free to buy, he can often 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



pick up lots of ofF malleable or off basic iron 
which he can use to advantage. In the same 
w£y, many lots of scrap, two or four dollars 
below the price of pig may be picked up and 
the right pig bought to go with it. 

Put the great value of the chemist to the 
foundry is in the making of special irons. 

Some castings must be very strong, some 
must resist corrosion by acid or alkalies, some 
in 11 St expand and contract with sudden change 
of temperature. This requires a careful bal- 
ancing of the different elements in the inms, 
and in many cases the correct amount of man- 
ganese will solve the problem. A special iron 
much heard of lately is semi-steel. The name 
is a poor one, but like many other poor names, 
it seems to stick. It is practically not steel at 
all. ■ It is simply a cast iron strengthened hy 
melting steel with it. It generally gives a 
foundryman a creepy feeling to melt steel 
with pig iron, but when he gets up his cour- 
age, he finds the metal clean, close-grained 
and strong and not a bad imitation of air fur- 
nace iron. Semi-steel should have a definite 
composition and its real value is in the low 
graphite. The plates of graphite scattered 
through cast iron tend to weaken it, and if the 
amount of graphite is lessened the iron be- 
comes stronger. Even in running a cupola a 
chemist may be of value. Cupolas are slagged 
with limestone or fluorspar as a flux. The 
amount of limestone is generally given by the 
chemist. The coke ash should be fluxed as 
well as the sand on the pig. The old way was 
to add a shovelful of limestone to every charge 
of iron, but now from 100 to 200 lb. of lime- 
stone are added to a charge, the amount de- 
pending on the coke ash and upon the amount 
of scale and sand on the pig iron and scrap. 
Lime, if properly used, will absorb some sul- 
phur from the coke and will also save iron 
from going into the ciuvior. This may be con- 
sidered a small point, but it means saving 
many tons of iron in the course of a year. 

But the coke sampling is the most important. 
Many cokes are sold with ij/ to 2 percent sul- 
phur, which means a moderately low silicon, 
white iron castings. Sulphur should not go 
above 75 percent in coke, and many foundry- 
men find out that the coke is poor after they 
have made two heats of white castings, then 
they test the coke. This is much like locking 
the door after the horse is stolen. 

The chemist is often of value to the purchas- 
ing agent in keeping up the standard of quali- 
ty in blackings, flours, core compounds and 
oils that are often supplied heavily adulterated. 

Many alloys, fluxes, dopes and physics are con- 
stantly pushed on the foundry with a high 
sounding name. It is usually some familiar 
compound that is thrust upon him at double 
the price. Numerous revivors, restorers, are 
often proposed to make the poorest iron good. 
Most of these inflated schemes can be punc- 
tured by a test in the right place. A care- 
ful watching of every part of the work is 
essential to success and a great deal of this 
watching may be done by the chemist who tests 
the supplies and tests the product. 



I have just read in the March issue of The 
Foundry the article on shot iron. My experi- 
ence with the same began in February, 1904, 
when I induced my people to put in a "Sly" 
mill and was able to obtain from my daily drop 
from 1,200 to 1,800 pounds of shot iron. I 
used this in each charge during the heat in 
sufficient quantities to use up each day's shot 
iron as it was ground or washed, and 
then watched and waited to hear from our ma- 
chine shop, but never heard a word. So the 
first of last May I induced my people to get 
another Sly mill and an electric motor and put 
it to work on my dump, which was one year 

On the 29th of September I had the dump 
cleaned up and a little over 118 tons of shot 
iron to the good and used up into castings. 
During this time I had also used all of the 
regular quota from the daily drop. I send 
all of my gangway riddlings through the Sly 
mill, and have melted as high as 5,500 pounds 
of shot iron per day with no evil results, 
aside from a little extra slag. The cupola is 
64 inches and the charge consists of 6,000 
pounds of iron on the bed and 3,000 pounds on 
each charge. I enclose a few shavings planed 
from one of our saw mill knees, which I 
picked up as I was coming through the ma- 
chine shop. 

Note by the Editor. — The shavings referred 
to were evidently from the finishing cut on a 
planer, with a tool taking a cut about an inch 
wide. The shavings were rolled up into neat, 
compact rolls, showing an exceedingly good 
soft gray iron. From this it is evident that 
Mr. Wooden has solved the shot iron problem 
so far as his foundry is concerned. 

The Marinette Iron Works, Marinette, Wis., 
has been purchased by W. O. Carpenter, of 
Menominee, A. C Merryman, of Marinette and 
T. C. Miller, of Chicago. 

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April, 1905 



By way of introduction Mr. Moore said: 
Mr. President, Secretary and Gentlemen : I 
want to say in prefacing the paper that the 
president very wisely referred to it as the pa- 
per which will he read. When the arrange- 
ment was made with me in regard to talking 
to you about by-product coke plants, etc., I 
was ill and since recovering have been obliged 
to get over the country through snow storms 
and otherwise, and I feel greatly indebted to 
Mr. D. T. McLeod for preparing most of the 
detail information (or, in fact, all of it) in 
connection with this paper. 

The opening portion, however, does not 
make any reference to the introduction into 
this country of what is properly known as by- 
product coke ovens, and I know that it would 
be a matter of interest to all of us Philadel- 
phians who are assembled here — I say us be- 
cause it was my privilege to be identified with 
the machine shop and foundry business many 
years ago, consequently I feel more at home 
with you than I would otherwise. 

So far as my personal knowledge is con- 
cerned, the by-product coke oven was intro- 
duced into this country about ten years ago 
through the efforts of Dr. F. Schniewind, of 
the United Coke & Gas Co., of New York 
City. He was at that time instrumental in the 
formation of the Otto Coke & Chemical Co., of 
Pittsburg, Pa., and is now vice president of the 
United Coke & Gas Co., of New York City. 
He induced Mr. William L. Elkins Jr. to be- 
come interested in the by-product coke oven 
and to take up the matter. At about the same 
time the Solvay Process Co., of Syracuse, N. 
Y., became interested in the same question and 
installed a small plant of Semet-Solvay ovens 
in Syracuse in connection with its soda ash 
works. By the combined efforts of Dr. Schnie- 
wind and Mr. Elkins arrangements were made 
to build a plant of Otto-Hoffman ovens at 
the works of the Cambria Steel Co., who had 
become interested in this question and had 
sent experts abroad to investigate the matter 
with a view to making coke at its steel works 
from coal obtained from its mines nearby.. 
Now the United Coke & Gas Co. and the 
American Coke & Gas Construction Co., with 
which I have the honor to be connected, are 
affiliated with a corporation known as the 

•Paper read before the Philadelphia Foundrymen's 
Association, Feb. 1, 1905. 

American Coal Products Co., of which Mr. 
George W. Elkins <son of the late Mr. Wil- 
lim L. Elkins) is president You will see as 
the paper is read how the by-products are util- 
ized by the American Coal Products Co., par- 
ticularly as regards tar and ammonia, which 
result from the carbonization of coal in the 
by-product ovens. The reason for the intro- 
duction of the by-product oven as seen by Mr. 
William L. Elkins Jr. was largely because of 
the waste that takes pkice in carbonizing coal 
in what are popularly known as the beehive 
oven, in which the celebrated Connellsville 
coke is made. As a matter of reality, I guess 
we get very little of what was originally 
known as Connellsville coke. 

The contrast I wish to bring to your atten- 
tion is between Connellsville, or beehive, and 
by-product coke; that which is made in bee- 
hive ovens, where all waste products from the 
coal go into the atmosphere, of which about 
30,000,000 tons of coal are carbonized every 
year. About 20,000,000 tons are carbonized in- 
to coke for blast furnace use and the balance 
for sundry other manufacturing purposes. In 
this conection we would like to impress upon 
your mind the fact that there goes off as waste 
products from this 30,000,000 tons from 8oc 
to $1 per ton. Consequently you can see the 
advantage of saving these waste products be- 
cause it is not American-like to see so much 
waste go into the air. Our friends, the finan- 
ciers, are usually after the mighty dollar, and 
they don*t like to have it get into the air where 
they can't get it. 

By-product ovens have been in use through- 
out Germany and other parts of the continent 
and largely through England, during the past 
25 years. There is not anything in the way 
of a beehive oven in operation in Germany at 
the present time. Those of you who have been 
abroad know (I have seen pictures of it) that 
the by-product coke oven produces all the coke 
that is used abroad, through Germany partic- 
ularly, but not so much as yet in England. The 
introduction into this country was compara- 
tively slow at the first, but the field has greatly 
increased during the past three or four years. 
There have been built, or are in course of con- 
struction at the present time in the United 
States and Canada about 3i950 by-product 
ovens, about 2,605 of these being of the Otto- 
Hoffman and United-Otto systems, carboniz- 
ing approximately 15,000 tons of coal per day 
and about 1,345 Semet-Solvay, carbonizing ap- 
proximately 8,000 tons of coal per day, 

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April, 1905 



amounting in a year to a total carbonization 
of approximately 8400,000 tons. It will thus be 
seen that, although the number of by-product 
coke ovens apparently does not approach the 
number of beehive ovens installed, on account 
of the difference in the size of the charge and 
the shorter coking time, the coke made in by- 
product ovens will be much nearer the total 
coke tonnage of beehive ovens than would at 
first be supposed. 

Mr. Moore*8 Paper. 

The paper, which was profusely illustrated, 
was then read by Mr. Moore as follows: 

It is not the writer's purpose to discuss the 
relative merits of the different types of oven, 
but to describe the method of manufacturing 
coke and the recovery of the by-products from 
tlie coal by means of the Otto-Hoffman sys- 
tem. Let us first discuss the objects of a few 
of the typical plants which have been built, 
and the writer will then describe a specific 

The first plant built in this country was two 
batteries of 30 ovens each for the Cambria 
Steel Co., at Johnstown, Pa., which was men- 
tioned before. In these ovens was coked a low 
volatile coal from the company's own mines, 
to produce a coke satisfactory for blast fur- 
nace use, and incidentally the recovery of tar 
and ammonia. On account of the low percent- 
age of volatile matter in this coal, the gas pro- 
duced was only a little more than sufficient 
for heating the oven batteries. This plant has 
been in operation now for approximately ten 
years and two additions of 100 ovens each 
have been made at different times. Another 
plant is that of the New England Gas & Coke 
Co., at Everett, Mass., consisting of 400 ovens, 
built for the purpose of manufacturing from 
Cape Breton coal a coke satisfactory for 
foundry, locomotive and domestic purposes, 
but the principal object of the plant was to 
supply illuminating gas to the City of Boston 
and the surrounding suburbs; also the recov- 
ery of the ammonia in the form of sulphate 
of ammonia and the tar which is distilled by a 
coal tar company in the near vicinity of the 
plant. Another plant is that of the Dominion 
Iron & Steel Co., Ltd., at Sydney, Cape Breton. 
This was built for the purpose of manufactur- 
ing from Cape Breton coal a coke satisfactory 
for blast furnace use, the surplus gas to be 
used in open-hearth furnaces, and the recovery 
of tar and ammonia. The plant of the Mary- 
land Steel Co., at Sparrows Point, Md., con- 
sisting of 200 ovens of the long type, has for 

its object the manufacture of blast furnace 
coke, illuminating gas for use in the city of 
Bahimore, and the recovery of tar and am- 
monia in the form of cither concentrated 
liquor or sulphate of ammonia. 

The above mentioned plants give an idea of 
the many methods of utilizing the by-products 
especially the surplus gas and the uses of the 
coke manufactured by this system. The am- 
monia produced is usually worked up at the 
plant into either concentrated ammonia liquor 
or sulphate of ammonia. The tar is usually 
disposed of to coal tar companies who distill 
same, utilizing the pitch for the manufacture 
of roofing pitch or roofing felt, the heavy or 
anthracene oils for creosoting, and by the 
further distillation of the tar separating the 
various lighter oils for the manufacture of 
tar oil products. By this method of manufac- 
turing coke the by-products may be recovered 
and utilized in various ways, as above de- 
scribed, and thus become a source of revenue 
which will largely reduce the cost of the coke 
instead of letting all of these products go to 
waste as in the present manner of manufac- 
turing coke in the beehive ovens. 

Many other plants have been built of the 
Otto-Hoffman system, having many various 
uses for their products. The writer can best 
describe the manufacture of coke and the re- 
covery of the by-products by this system by 
describing the plant of the Camden Coke Co., 
which is located in Camden, N. J., on the East 
bank of the Delaware River, near the Kaighn 
Point ferry. This is a plant which is near at 
hand and may be visited by the members of 
this association if they are especially inter- 

[At this point the speaker, with a stereop- 
ticon, displayed views of a number of coke 
plants, including those of the Cambria Steel 
Co. and Camden Coke Co.] 

These views will give you an idea of the 
general appearance and equipment of coke 
plants both in this country and abroad. The 
last is a view of the plant which I will now 

This plant has for its object the manufacture 
of coke for metallurgical, foundry and domes- 
tic purposes, the use of the surplus gas for il- 
luminating purposes, and the recovery of the 
ammonia in the form of concentrated ammonia 
liquor, the tar being disposed of to other parties 
who distill same for the recovery of its different 
products. The coke made at this plant during 
the two years of its operation has been dis- 

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April, 1905 

posed of to blast furnaces, foundries, and also 
very largely for domestic purposes. For the 
latter purpose, when the coke is discharged 
from the ovens, it is crushed to various sizes, 
and at the present time the greater portion of 

the coke produced is sold to supply the demand 
for this purpose. The illuminating gas which 
is made is distributed at about 10 lb. pressure 
to Trenton, 38 miles away, supplying the in- 
termediate towns between Camden and Tren- 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



ton, and is used at Camden under ordinary 
pressure. Entirely satisfactory results have 
been obtained by this plant, both in the coke 
produced and the large quantity of illuminat- 
ing gas made, which very much exceeds the 
production of most plants of this size on ac- 
count of the installation of Benzole enrich- 
ment, this being a special feature of this plant 
which will be described later. 

The ttnality of Coal. 

One of the most important things to be de- 
termined in connection with a new plant is the 
coal to be used. This should be a good grade 
of bituminous coal of from 25 to 32 percent 
volatile matter and about 68 to 75 percent of 
carbon. In selecting the coal, the purpose of 
the coke should be considered in order t(j get 
a coal which will make a coke/^best adapted 
for the purpose intended, whether for metallur- 
gical, foundry or domestic purposes. The coal 
should be low in sulphur — not over iJ4 percent 
for metallurgical purposes — ^but the lower the 
better for all purposes, so that washing will 
not be necessary at the coke plant. If obtained 
in the form of "run of mine," it must be 
crushed at the plant to sizes which will pass 
through a ij^-in. mesh; the finer the better, 
especially if the coke is for metallurgical pur- 
poses, because the fine coal will make a strong- 
er and more uniform structure in the coke, 
which is better adapted to carry the burden in 
blast furnaces, and if there is any slate in the 
coal it is well broken up and more uniformly 
distributed throughout the mass. The by-prod- 
uct oven permits various grades of coal to 
be used and also various mixtures to be used. 
At this plant two or three grades of coal are 
used to get certain grades of coke and also to 
obtain -a large quantity of illuminating gas. A 
coal otthis class should yield per ton about 70 
to 75 percent of coke, 9,000 to 10,000 cu. ft. of 
gas, 10 gallons of tar, and 5 pounds of am- 

The coal for this plant is brought by barge 
to the docks on which travels an unloading 
crane which picks up the coal from the barges 
by means of a clam shell bucket and dis- 
charges it, either into the coal storage bin or 
to the storage pile. The crane has an inclined 
frame supported on upright frames at either 
end and travels on a double track on the wharf 
end and on a single track on a girder at the 
coal bin end. The crane travels the length of 
the coal bin and wharf, and both traveling 
gear and the carriage for the bucket are oper- 
ated by means of steam engines and boiler 

mounted on the frame or carriage at the wharf 
end. At the coal bin end is suspended a steel 
hopper feeding into a pair of roll crushers op- 
erated by electric motors. The bucket is sus- 
pended from a carriage which travels up an in- 
clined track attached to the main trusses, and 
discharges the coal either in the steel hopper 
to be crushed or into the storage pile, or it 
takes up the coal from the storage pile and 
discharges it in the crusher and thence into 
the bin. It will thus be seen that the crane 
traveling the entire length of the bin and dock 
can pick up coal from any part of a barge or 
storage pile and discharge into any part of the 
coal bin. This crane has a capacity of 100 tons 
per hour and the storage pile has a capacity of 
approximately 8,600 tons. The coal bin is of 
the Berquist suspension type, carried on two 
outside rows of columns at a sufficient height 
above the oven batteries to allow a clear space 
between same for the charging larry to travel 
under the bin to be filled from same by spouts 
connected to the bottom, these being placed at 
intervals of 12 ft. throughout the length. The 
bin is constructed of steei and is lined through- 
out with concrete and expanded metal. It has 
a capacity of 1,800 tons of coal, which is suf- 
ficient for about 31/^ days supply for the 100 
ovens, which carbonize approximately 500 net 
tons of coal per day, giving as a result ap- 
proximately 375 tons of coke, 1,850,000 cu. ft. 
of i8-candlepower gas, 2,500 pounds of am- 
monia, and 5,000 gallons of tar. Over the oven 
batteries are steel trusses extending the entire 
length; on the lower portion of these a track 
is placed on which travels the larry for charg- 
ing the ovens. These trusses have a clear span 
from the coal bin to supports between the two 
batteries, and from this point to the further 
end of the next battery. They are made of 
steel and are of the usual form of bridge truss. 
The larry consists of a steel frame mounted 
on wheels, and from this frame are suspended 
six steel hoppers with spouts and grates at 
the bottom of same. The larry is operated by 
a 15-h. p. motor and travels the entire length 
of the two batteries and discharges about 6J4 
tons of coal into each oven in its regular turn 
by means of holes in the top of the ovens cor- 
responding to the spouts. 

The Oven Batteries. 

Let us now describe the oven batteries. 
These consist of a mass of brickwork sup- 
ported on a concrete and brick sub-structure. 
This sub-structure consists of concrete walls on 
which are built brick arches forming a floor 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

or support for the ovens proper. There are 50 
ovens in each battery, these being 17 in. wide, 
6 ft. 6 in. high and 33 ft. long and are placed 
2 ft. loj/^ in. on centers. Between each oven is 
a set of vertical heating flues, directly below 

same combustion chambers and above same 
a horizontal flue. Below each oven is an air 
chamber and below each battery under two of 
the supporting arches are rejenerators running 
the entire length and connecting at one end 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



into a common flue to the stack. The open- 
ings or ports serve as a passage for the sup- 
ply of the preheated air from the regenerators 
to the heating flues, and for the exit of the 
off -gases from the heating flues to the regener- 
ators. One of these openings is placed direct- 
ly below each oven. The burners are placed 
on either side of the battery at the end of the 
combustion chambers. The gas and air supply 
for heating the flues is alternated on either side 
of the battery every half hour, the well-known 
Siemens regenerative principle being used for 
the reversal of the gas and air supply. 

Let us now follow the manner of heating 
the ovens, supposing that the gas is burning 
on the right hand side at the present time. 
The air supply for the burner is discharged by 
a fan at the end of the battery into the lower 
flue of the regenerator on the right hand side, 
passes up through the openings in the lower 
arches, through the heated checker brick, 
through the openings into the air chamber. A 
damper is placed over each opening which al- 
lows the regulation of the air supply to each set 
of flues. The air passes through the ports in 
the wall between the air and combustion cham- 
bers into the combustion chamber, where it 
mixes with the burning gas and passes up into 
the vertical flues (which are divided into two 
sets midway the length of the oven by a wall 
extending from the bottom of the chambers to 
the top of the flues). Ine burning gases pass 
from the vertical flues through the upper hori- 
zontal flues over the partition wall into and 
down through the vertical flues on the left 
hand side into the combustion chamber, 
through the openings in the wall into the air 
chamber and down through the opening into 
the regenerator, giving up a large amount of 
the heat in passing through the checker work 
to the lower flue, and thence into the 3tack. 
The arrangement of gas burning and the air 
supply is reversed each half hour by means of 
valves at the end of each wharf. In this man- 
ner the air is always preheated from about 800 
degrees Fahr., the temperature of the supply 
from the fan, to about 1,500 to 1,800 degrees 
Fahr. when entering the combustion chambers, 
and the temperature of the off-gases to the 
stack is reduced to about 600 degrees Fahr. 
The gas is supplied to the burners from the 
mains which connect with the regulating gas 
holder. The heat value of the fuel gas is ap- 
proximately 550 B. t. u. per cu. ft., and about 
6,000 cu. ft. of gas are required per ton of coal 
carbonized, giving a temperature in the ovens 

of about 2,500 degrees to 2,800 degrees Fahr. 
The air supplied by the fan is preheated before 
enttring the regenerators in the following 
manner : 

The air is drawn by the fan through the 
middle arches of the sub.structure the entire 
length of the battery, through openings in the 
top of each arch into an end chamber from 
wliich it passes through the small flues under 
the chambers the entire length of the battery 
into a corresponding chamber at the other end, 
and from this is drawn by means of a pipe 
into the and passed into the regenerator on 
either side. In this manner the air is heated 
from the temperature of the atmosphere to 
about 800 degrees Fahr. before entering the 
regenerators. By means of preheating the air 
and the system of regeneration, the maximum 
efficiency is obtained from the gas burned and 
higher heats maintained in the ovens than 
would otherwise be possible. 

The Principle Involved. 

It might be well at this point to state the 
principle utilized in the manufacture of coke 
in by-product ovens. The oven chambers con- 
stitute a closed air tight and gas tight chamber 
heated externally, the heat transmitted from 
the heating flues to the coal through the brick 
walls, thereby giving a dry distillation as in a 
closed retort. By this means the volatile mat- 
ters in the coal are driven off as the heat 
further penetrates the charge in the retort, 
leaving as a residue the coke consisting of 80 
to 85 percent of fixed carbon. By means of 
connections made to each oven the volatile 
portion of the coal in the form of gas, aqueous 
vapors, tar oils, and other condensable prod- 
ucts are taken off into circular steel pipes, 
and by passing the same through various ap- 
paratus this volatile portion is cooled and the 
gas washed, obtaining thereby a clean com- 
mercial gas, and the condensable portions are 
recovered in the form of tarry oils, aqueous 
ammonial liquor, and benzole and its homo- 
logues. The principal portions of the oven 
brickwork, especially those having to with- 
stand the higher heats, are constructed of the 
higher grades of refractoy clays, the principle 
of construction being the outgrowth of many 
years of experience in this line, as a result of 
which the structures as built at the present 
time are able to withstand the effects of ex- 
pansion and contraction due to heating and 
cooling, and due to varying temperatures in 
the regenerators and the cooling effect of 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

placing a charge of moist coal suddenly in 
contact with the highly heated oven walls. We 
have not as yet been able to obtain as good a 
grade of brick in this country for this con- 
struction as are obtained in Germany. This 
IS largely due to the fact that we have not 
as good clays for their manufacture. 

The oven chambers proper, as above stated, 
are 33 ft. long, 17 in. wide and 6 ft. 6 in. high. 
They are closed at either end by cast iron, 
brick-lined doors, which in some cases are 
luted with clay and in other cases are espe- 
cially constructed to give a metal joint or seal, 
thereby doing away with the necessity of clay 
luting and thus reducing the cost of labor for 
this work. In any case the ends are air-tight 
and the coal is charged into these ovens at 
six points in the length of same and the coal 
leveled off to a uniform height by means of 
bars or rods passed through small openings in 
the doors at the ends. By later improvements 
in the method the leveling is done by means 
of an electrically driven ram or bar which 
travels in and out, thereby cutting down the 
labor expenses in this connection and giving 
much more uniform charge. 

The entire battery is heated uniformly 
throughout, means being provided for regulat- 
ing the amount of gas to each set of flues. 
The gas driven off from the coal during the 
first portion of the heating is rich in illum- 
inants and has an average heat value of about 
650 B. t. u. This gas, for the first ten to four- 
tween hours, is taken off into the collecting 
main through the standpipe, neck and drop 
valve indicated. At the end of this period 
the drop valve on this side is closed and the 
gas for the remainder of the coking period is 
taken off through the standpipe, neck and drop 
valve into the main on the opposite side. The 
gas for this last period is lower in illuminants 
and has an average heating value of about 525 
B. t. u. Its illuminating value will vary with 
different coals from about 3 to 8 candle power. 
The illuminating value of the rich gas given 
off during the first period will vary from 13 
to 19 candle power. One set of standpipes and 
valves are provided for connecting each oven 
to the gas mains on either side. After the 
coal has been in one of the ovens for a period 
varying from 24 to 30 hours, all the volatile 
matter has been driven off and the charge is 
ready to be pushed from the oven. At this 
time the doors are raised on both ends by 
means of electric hoists which travel on a 
tr-xck directly over the doors on either side. 

and the charge of coke is pushed from the 
ovens by means of a ram or bar with a large 
head. This ram is mounted on a steel frame 
of the pusher machine and is propelled by 
means of an electric motor connected through 
intermediate gearing to a driving pinion which 
meshes with the rack on the under side of the 
ram. The ram is driven by a 5a-h. p. motor 
and the machine is traversed lengthwise on a 
track extending the length of the two batteries 
by means of a 25-h. p. motor connected by in- 
termediate gearing to the driving shaft of the 
wheels on each side. After the charge has 
been pushed out on the coke wharf on the op- 
posite side of the battery, the ram is with- 
drawn, the doors on both ends are dropped 
into place by means of the hoist and set hard 
up against the brickwork by bars and wedges 
and luted with clay, or in the later improved 
type of self-sealing doors by means of eccen- 
tric bars, and the oven is then ready to re- 
ceive another charge. 

Method of Charging. 

It is so arranged that the ovens are charged 
at regular intervals in the following manner: 
1st, No. I oven is charged; next, No. 10. No. 
20, No. 30, No. 40 and No. 50; then beginning 
at the other end of the battery with No. 5. 
No. 15, No. 25, etc. By this manner of charg- 
ing a more even and uniform heat is main- 
tained throughout the batteries, thus giving a 
more uniform coking time for each oven. Each 
oven is pushed in its regular sequence in the 
manner above mentioned. The coke wharf 
upon which the coke is pushed consists of a 
concrete and expanded metal wharf or floor 
supported on concrete columns and is cov- 
ered with red brick. After the coke is pushed 
from the ovens on to this wharf, it is quenched 
by means of water from a hose, using as little 
water as possible in order to thoroughly drive 
out the heat and prevent the coke from burn- 
ing after discharged into the cars or on to the 

When quenched it is loaded into steel bar- 
rows and discharged into cars from the edge 
of the wharf, or through holes in the wharf 
on to the belt conveyor which travels the en- 
tire length of both wharves and discharges 
into the crusher at the ends of the batteries. 
If the coke is for foundry or metallurgical 
purposes it is loaded directly into the cars as 
"run of oven" coke, or it may be divided; the 
ends and top portion of the charge being dis- 
charged on to the conveyor and delivered to 
the crusher, and the middle portion of the 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



charge being loaded into the cars for foundry 

The coke to be crushed is conveyed to the 
end of the battery, and by means of a cross 
conveyor, it is conveyed to a roll crusher lo- 
cated at one end of the coal bin. It is run 
from this crusher up an inclined belt conveyor 
to the storage bin. At the top of this bin is 
placed a motor-driven rotary screen 8 ft. diam. 
X 40 ft. long. The crushed coke is passed by 
means of a chute into this screen and dis- 
charged from the same into five different com- 
partments in the bin, these compartments each 
having a capacity of 250 tons of coke. By 
this means the coke is sized and the various 
sizes, viz.: 2j^ in., 2 in., 1% in., % in., and 
breeze, can be loaded from either side of the 
bin into wagons, cars or barges. It will be no- 
ticed that this bin is located on a dock, which 
allows a barge to come up on either side of the 
same. In discharging from the bin the coke 
passes over screens in the chutes, which takes 
out the dust or breeze; this breeze being used 
in the boiler house for generating power. Cer- 
tain sizes, principally nut, are put up in 20-lb. 
bags which retail at 10 cents. A very exten- 
sive trade has been established for this bagged 
coke, and there is also a targe demand for 
the other sizes for domestic use, the stove and 
egg size being utilized in furnaces and heaters, 
and the breeze being used for generating steam 
in boilers and also for filtration purposes. At 
the present time nearly the entire output of 
375 tons of coke is being disposed of for 
various domestic purposes; most of this coke 
is distributed by teams. No doubt most of 
you are familiar with the ever present adver- 
tisements setting forth the manifold advan- 
tages of Otto coke and have come to realize 
that this must indeed be the long-looked-for 
panacea of all household ills. 

We will now return to the volatile portion of 
the coal, which has been driven off from the 
ovens and passed through the standpipes and 
valves into the collecting mains. A certain 
portion of the heavier condensable products 
are collected in these collecting mains, the 
mains being provided with clean-outs where 
these products, such as heavy pitch form, so 
that they may be remowM ; .-^ portion of these 
products are also taken K.?f by the constant 
stream of tar which is flushed through the 
mains in order to keen them clear at all times. 
These mains run the entire length of the bat- 
tery and at the ends two pipca, one for the 
rich gas and one for the poor or lean gas, are 

run to the condensing plant. During the pass- 
age of the gas to the condensing plant a still 
large portion of the condensable products arc 
recovered, in some cases 99^ high as 50 percent ; 
these consist principally of the heavy tars and 
oils and some water vapor due to moisture in 
the coal. On reaching the condensing plant 
the gas from each main passes through two en- 
tirely separate systems of apparatus in being 
cooled and treated for the further recovery 
of the products. 

Treatment of Gas. 

The apparatus on each side is of the same 
design, and the gas is treated in both sets at 
this plant in the following manner: 

It first passes through the air and water 
coolers, consisting of a system of rectangular 
pipes one above the other, connected at the 
ends by return bends. The gas passes in at the 
bottom, passes back and forth through each 
section in a contra direction until it reaches the 
top and then passes down through a vertical 
pipe into the common main. These pipes act 
as air coolers ordinarily, but in warm weather 
water is sprayed over them from the top and 
is collected in a cistern below to be cooled and 
used over again if desired. The gas then 
passes through circular water coolers, which 
are 8 ft. in diameter, with 4-in. tubes ex- 
panded into heads at either end. The gas 
passes around the tubes in a downward direc- 
tion and the water through the tubes in an 
upward direction, so that the coldest gas is 
brought in contact with the coldest water, thus 
obtaining the most efficient cooling results. 
The cooling in this apparatus should be done 
gradually and with special care so as to pre- 
vent the formation of naphthalene due to a 
sudden cooling of the gas at any point. The 
temperature of the gas is reduced in these 
coolers to about 80 degrees Fahr. and a large 
portion of the remaining heavier tar oils and 
the water vapor are recovered ; these are led 
off from the apparatus by drain pipes into a 
compartment tank where the ammonia liquor, 
which is mixed with the same, and is separated 
by gravity to be treated separately. The gas 
next passes through a tar scrubber which 
consists of a square tank with a diaphragm 
plate forming an upper compartment, and the 
gas entering this compartment passes down 
through tubes which are set in the diaphragm 
plate, these tubes sealing at the bottom in a 
mixture of ammonia liquor and tar. The gas 
passing down through the tubes has to break 
through a liquor seal, thereby passing around 

Digitized by 




April. 1905 

the bottom serrated edges of the dip pipes, 
which gives a cleaning or scrubbing effect for 
removing the tar. After passing into the 
chamber around the tubes it is taken off 
through a connection to the main which con- 
nects with the exhausters. Ammonia liquor 
is fed into the tar scrubbers and the mixture 
of ammonia liquor and tar obtained in the 
same is led off to a compartment tank where 
the liquor and tar are separated by gravity 
so that they may be treated separately. The 
gas up to this point has been drawn through 
the apparatus by a slight pressure in the ovens 
and by a vacuum created by the exhausters. 
It now passes through the exhausters which 
are of the usual type direct connected to hori- 
zontal steam engines, and is forced by them 
under a pressure equal to about 16 or 18 in. of 
water, through the P. & A. tar extractors 
which remove the finely divided particles of 
tar and the lighter oils by passing the gas 
through circular drums constructed of perfor- 
ated plates placed closely together; the per- 
forations of the various plates are staggered so 
that the small streams of gas passing through 
the perforations impinges on the plates be- 
yond, thereby dropping out the tars and oils. 
In this machine the gas enters the lower cham- 
ber, passes up into the drum of perforated 
plates, through the same into the upper cham- 
ber and out into a connecting main. These 
drums seal in a mixture of ammonia liquor 
and tar and a greater or lesser amount of per- 
forated surface is exposed, depending on that 
required to remove the tar and oils. This ap- 
paratus can be set for a certain differential 
pressure necessary to remove the tar, and is 
self-regulated at this pressure by means of 

Eemoval of Ammonia. 

The next step of treating the gas is the re- 
moval of the ammonia. The ammonia is re- 
moved from the gas to the best advantage at a 
temperature ranging between 60 degrees and 
75 degrees Fahr. It is, therefore, the object to 
have the gas at about this temperature when 
entering the ammonia washers. This enables 
the ammonia to be removed with the least 
amount of water or weak liquor which is used 
for the washing purposes, thereby making a 
stronger liquor to be treated later on in the 
ammonia house for the conversion of this 
liquor into a finished product. The ammonia 
washers consist of circular shells, 8 in. in 
diameter, with a bottom and top compartment, 
and intervening spaces between the same filled 

with perforated plates or with wooden slats set 
at rigjit angles to each other, attaining by both 
of these means the breaking up of the gas 
into small streams and forming a large area of 
wetted surface for contact with the gas, where- 
by the ammonia can be most readily removed. 
Two of these apparatuses are used on each 
side, the gas passing through them in series. 
In the washer furthest from the exhausters 
a large portion of the ammonia being already 
extracted from the gas in the first washer, it is 
washed by clean cold water, this water being 
fed into the washers by means of a number of 
sprays set in the top of same. The gas passes 
up through the washer and the water down 
through the same removing the last traces of 
ammonia from the gas and resulting in a weak 
ammonia liquor which is drained to a compart- 
ment tank and pumped from there to the over- 
head feed tank, from where it is fed into the 
first washer. Here it washes the gas which 
contains a greater amount of ammonia, and by 
washing with this weak liquor a large percent- 
age of the ammonia is removed and the liquor 
greatly increased in strength. This liquor con- 
stitutes what is called the strong liquor which 
is about I percent to 2 percent in strength, 
and the manner in which this liquor is treated 
will be described later on in connection with 
the ammonia house. 

As the poor gas is used only for heating 
purposes, the illuminants in same (which are 
principally benzole and its homologues), are 
practically of no value, and in order to utilize 
these illuminants to the greatest advantage the 
poor gas is now passed through three washers 
of a type similar to the ammonia washer, and 
in passing through these in series the gas is 
washed by tar oil which has a strong affinity 
for benzole and removes from this gas the 
greater percentage of same. This tar oil, after 
passing in series through the three different 
washers, thereby increasing the amount of 
benzole in the same, is then pumped to the 
benzole house where it is treated in a manner 
to be described later on. The poor gas after 
leaving the benzole washers passes to the reg- 
ulating gas holder maintaining about 7 in. water 
pressure, and from there to the batteries where 
it is used for heating purposes. 

The rich gas after being washed in the am- 
monia washers passes out of the condensing 
house and to the storage holder. In order, 
however, to increase the illuminating value of 
this gas by utilizing the benzole removed from 
the poor gas, a small portion of the rich gas 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



is taken at a point beyond the ammonia wash- 
ers by means of a pipe, through a gas com- 
pressor, passed to the benzole house and 
through one of the benzole stills, in which the 
tar oil previously mentioned is being treated, 
f he tar oil from the benzole washers, in pass- 
ing down through these stills which are heated 
with steam gives up the benzole (which is 
evaporated by means of heat)' and the rich gas 
in passing upward through this still takes up 
these benzole vapors. The current of rich gas 
is then passed back into the rich system in 
front of the exhausters in the condensing 
house, is mixed with the larger volume of 
gas in these mains and thereby increases the 
candle power of the whole quantity. In this 
manner a much greater illuminating value is 
obtained from the coal, and the high candle 
power rich gas when later on mixed with water 
gas from an auxiliary plant requires less en- 
richment in order to get a mixed water and 
coal gas of a high candle power. Water gas 
is only made at times when more gas is re- 
quired than can be supplied from the coke 
plant. This gas is made in a standard Lowe 
apparatus. This is one of the first instances 
where this method of benzole enrichment has 
been used in this country, it being done here, 
we believe, on a larger scale than has ever be- 
fore been attempted, and it has demonstrated 
its value in this plant to the thorough satis- 
faction of all parties concerned. 

Condensable Products Eemoved. 

The condensable products in the gas are 
finally removed from the various apparatus 
and piping in the condensing house by drains 
to separate compartment tanks. The strongest 
ammonia liquor, which will vary from i per- 
cent to 2 percent, is pumped to a feed tank in 
the ammonia house, and the lighter tars ob- 
tained in this apparatus are pumped to the tar 
storage tanks. The heavier tars which are 
condensed in the gas mains between the ovens 
and the condensing house are drained into 
large tanks or pits and a portion of this tar is 
pumped over and over through the collecting 
mains on the battery. The balance of the tar 
is pumped to the tar storage tanks and is 
loaded from this tank into barges for treat- 
ment at the works of the coal tar products 
people. The picture before you is that of a 
large condensing plant with apparatus similar 
to that described. It forms a part of the coke 
plant of the Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y., and is designed to treat 33,000,000 cu. 
ft. of gas per 24 hours. It is undoubtedly one 

of the largest single plants of its kind in the 
world. The ammonia liquor is fed from the 
overhead feed tank in the ammonia house into 
circular stills. stills consist of three 
parts, a volatile still and a lime mixing cham- 
ber, which parts comprise one unit, and the 
fixed ammonia still, which comprises a sep- 
arate unit. The liquor passing in at the top 
of the volatile still is preheated and as it 
passes down through the upper portion of 
the volatile still the volatile ammonia is freed 
by contact with steam and hot ammonia vap- 
ors from below and the liquor flowing into 
the chamber below is mixed with milk of lime 
and agitated by compressed air to give a thor- 
ough mixture. The liquor and lime passing 
from this chamber into the lime still, comes 
into further contact with steam, thereby set- 
ting free the fixed ammonia. The waste li- 
quor passes out of the bottom of the lime still 
into the drain. These stills handle approx- 
imately 30,000 gallons of ij4 percent liquor 
per day, reducing the strength of the am- 
monia in the waste to a minimum. The vapor 
which is given off from the still passes into 
a circular apparatus 4 ft. in diameter, consist- 
ing of alternating absorbing and water-cooled 
sections. In this apparatus the gas passes 
down through the ammonia liquor in the va- 
rious sections, this liquor constantly overflow- 
ing and increasing in strength as it reaches 
the bottom. It is also brought in contact with 
water-cooled surfaces, thereby reducing the 
temperature and increasing the strength to a 
greater degree. In this apparatus the strength 
of the liquor is increased to about 16 percent 
to 20 percent, which is a commercial product 
used for various purposes. 

In some plants the ammonia gas from the 
stills is brought in contact with sulphuric acid 
in large lead-lined boxes, thereby forming a 
precipitate or salt, which is called sulphate of 
ammonia. This salt is then drained from the 
boxes and passed through a centrifugal drying 
machine whereby the moisture is removed and 
the salt sold for use as a fertilizer. The farm- 
ers are being educated to its use at the present 
time through the Department of Agriculture 
and, as the country grows and people become 
more educated in scientific farming, sulphate 
of ammonia will be used more and more as a 

How Power is Supplied. 

The power required for the different ap- 
paratus and machinery throughout the plant is 
supplied by electric power generated in the 

Digitized by 



April, 1905 

power house, using for the purpose coke breeze 
in the boilers and a portion of the poor gas in 
gas engines. The power plant consists of three 
sets of water tube boilers, 256 h. p. each, these 
boilers being equipped with a forced draft sys- 
tem and special grates for burning coke breeze. 
The boiler fronts are also provided with con- 
nections so that gas may be used for fuel if 
desired. Especially efficient results have been 
obtained by the use of the forced draft system 
in burning coke breeze, the boilers showing by 
a test conducted under ordinary working con- 
ditions that they were developing 389 h. p. 
each, or more than 50 percent above the rated 
capacity without showing especially deteriorat- 
ing results. These boilers are connected by 
a breeching to a stack which is common both 
to the boiler house and the ovens. This stack 
is of special perforated brick, and is 7 ft in 
diameter by 150 ft. high. The boiler is pro- 
vided with the necessary feed pumps, injectors 
and other customary fittings. The bulk of the 
steam generated here is used for a Green en- 
gine of about 150 h. p., for the exh^iuster en- 
gines in the condensing house and for the 
stills in the ammonia house. In the engine 
room are placed the Green engine which is 
used under ordinary conditions for developing 
electric power required, this engine being 
belted to a i8o-k. w., 220-volt, alternating cur- 
rent generator, which is placed on a line shaft 
This generator furnishes ordinarily sufficient 
power for the entire plant and is seldom used 
up to its capacity except momentarily. There 
is also a 280-k. w., 220-volt, alternating cur- 
rent generator direct connected to a Westing- 
house gas engine. This gas engine is used 
ordinarily as a reserve, but at intervals, when 
sufficient fuel gas is available, it has been op- 
erated by this gas with entirely satisfactory 
results. Notwithstanding the fact that this 
gas is unpurified, it is only necessary at in- 
tervals to place clean igniters, which is the 
only difficulty experienced with the use of 
same. It was the original intention to use 
this engfine for the regular supply of power, 
but owing to the fact that the amount of fuel 
gas has been reduced in order to increase the 
quantity of illuminating gas, it has been un- 
able to carry out the original intentions, ex- 
cept at intervals. On account of the benzole 
obtained from the poor gas, it has been found 
desirable to run the ovens longer on the rich 
gas side, thus getting a greater quantity of il- 
luminating gas, but at a lower average candle 
power. This candle power, however, has been 

increased to that desired by the use of the 
benzole enrichment. This plant is, we believe, 
one of the few in this vicinity which is using 
alternating current for power purposes, espe- 
cially on apparatus where any variation in 
speed of the motors is desired ; it has, however, 
proven very satisfactory. The power plant is 
provided with the necessary generator and feed 
panels complete with the customary fittings 
for this purpose. The lighting for the olant is 
supplied by an outside circuit, incandescent 
lights being used throughout, these being en- 
closed incandescents in certain portions of the 
plant, particularly in the benzole house. 

In regard to the benzole plant, we believe 
it unnecessary to further describe this, as it 
would take the writer into considerable amount 
of detail, which would not be particularly in- 
teresting to you, and the principal object of 
the benzole plant was described earlier in con- 
nection with enriching the rich gas. 

The Water Supply. 

This plant has its own water supply con- 
sisting of a steel standpipe, 10 ft. in diameter 
by 100 ft high, and two horizontal duplex 
steam pumps with a capacity of 1,200,000 gals, 
per day. The pumps draw the water by a 
suction line from the Delaware river, the foot- 
valves and strainer being placed in a cribbing 
in the dock on which the coke storage bin is 
situated. The water is distributed at approx- 
imately 40 lbs. pressure throughout a system 
which supplies the fire service lines, water for 
cooling apparatus, coke quenching, anmionia 
washing and various other purposes. This 
makes the plant entirely independent of the 
city service except for drinking water, and 
greatly reduces the cost of the supply. The 
office is placed near the entrance to the plant 
for the superintendent and necessary clerical 
force. All tests and analyses in connection 
with coal, coke, gas, tar, and ammonia prod- 
ucts are made by a chemist, in a laboratory 
situated adjacent to the power plant. The du- 
ties of the chemist in these plants are impor- 
tant, as it is only by chemical analyses of the 
gas and liquors that wastes due to careless 
operation are detected. It is also his duty to 
analyze the coal, coke and tar and watch the 
operation of the condensing, ammonia and ben- 
zole plants. The heating and operation of the 
ovens also materially influence the quantity of 
the by-products produced. 

The above description of this plant covers 
the principal and most salient features in con- 
nection with same, and the writer will be 

Digitized by 


April. 1905 



pleased to go into any further detail questions 
if information is desired by any of the mem- 
bers, or an opportunity will be given to any 
of the members of this association to visit this 
plant if they desire, especially to examine the 
coke, which is, I believe, the product most 
interesting to you. 

Many improvements have been made in the 
desig^n and construction of later plants, some 
of the principal features being as follows: 

In connection with the oven construction, 
several plants have been built in which the 
length of the ovens has been increased from 
33 ft. to 43 ft., thus increasing the capacity of 
the ovens to nine tons or approximately 30 
percent at a very small cost, the principal in- 
crease in cost being ten additional feet of 
brickwork with the necessary increased foun- 
dations, and a slightly larger pusher machine 
on account of the longer bar required, and a 
larger coal larry, thus obtaining a much larger 
output at a slight increase in investment. 
While the average charge of the ovens at 
Camden is 6^ tons, this charge has been in- 
creased in later ovens of the same length to 7 
net tons. This has been done by increasing the 
height of the ovens 6 in., and by the introduc- 
tion of a leveling machine which enables coal 
to be leveled more uniformly than is done at 
this plant by hand. 

The oven proper is at present built on steel 
beams supported on three concrete walls run- 
ning the entire length of the battery. The re- 
generators are built underneath and are made 
entirely separate from the oven proper, a con- 
nection between the regenerators and the ovens 
being made by a connecting brick flue at each 
three ovens. This construction prevents the 
possibility of cracks developing in the ends of 
the ovens due to the contraction and expansion 
of the regenerator brickwork. One of the prin- 
cipal objects of this construction is, however, 
to reduce the cost and to enable the introduc- 
tion of auxiliary burners at different points in 
the combustion chambers, whereas in the type 
of oven at Camden only one burner is used at 
the end of the battery. The multiple burner 
system enables a little more uniform heat be- 
ing maintained through the length of the oven 
so that the charge will be more evenly coked. 
The coke wharf at this plant has been re- 
placed in later plants by a coke quenching ma- 
chine. This machine consists of a water-cooled 
chamber approximately the size of the ovens, 
mounted on a steel frame. This chamber is 
made up with hollow side castings and circular 

top and bottom castings. The water is intro- 
duced into the bottom section, passes up 
through the sides and overflows at the top of 
the side sections, thereby coming in contact 
with the coke and quenching same with a min- 
imum quantity of water. The steam evolved 
acts as a dryer and the surplus steam at the 
beginning of the operation passes out through 
stacks or pipes on top of the chamber. A 
heavy chain forms the bottom of the chamber, 
and this chain travels through same, passing 
under the bottom of the machine in its travel. 

Method of Operation. 

The method of operation is as follows: 
When the oven is ready to push, the machine 
is moved opposite the oven, the pusher ram 
pushes the charge of coke into the chamber, 
the doors on either end of the chamber are 
closed, and the water which is drawn from a 
trench running the entire length of the 
quencher track is discharged by a motor-driven 
centrifugal pump into the bottom portion of 
the machine, quenching in the manner above 
mentioned. After the coke is quenched the 
doors on either end are raised and the motor 
operating the chain is started. The chain 
carries the coke charge out of the chamber 
into cars at the end of same. By this method 
of discharge, the machine can travel along a 
series of cars throwing the ends of the charge 
in one car and the middle portion into another, 
or in case of an under-coked charge the entire 
charge may be distributed over a series of cars. 
In this manner a selection of coke may be 
made and the coke handled with a minimum 
amount of labor. On account of the steam 
acting as a dryer, if the quenching is properly 
done, the moisture will run from 3 to 7 per- 
cent when discharged into the cars. As the 
coke is not broken until discharged into the 
cars, the amount of breeze is also greatly re- 
duced from 5 percent to practically nothing. 
This method of quenching gives the coke the 
grey metallic lustre which is to many foundry- 
men the indication of a first-class coke, but 
which is really no indication as far as actual 
results are concerned. 

The above improvements are only a few of 
the many which have been made during the 
past few years with a view of simplifying the 
construction, reducing the cost of same, and 
particularly reducing the cost of labor by using 
machinery wherever advantageous. This all 
tends to reduce the cost per ton of coke made, 
which, of course, is one of the principal points 
to be attained. We feel very much encouraged 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

by the many uses to which this coke is applied 
and especially at the accounts received from 
the foundrymen and furnace men using same, 
and at the increasing interest they are mani- 
festing in it. We feel sure that if you will 
all give it a trial you will be amply justified 
by the results. 

During the past few years the installation 
of these plants have received a great impetus 
over the preceding years since its introduction 
in this country. We, v/ho firmly believe in the 
field open for these plants for the various ob- 
jects, believe that in the next few years the 
number of beehive evens built will be mate- 
rially reduced and that the by-product oven 
will eventually replace the beehive oven. We 
feel justitied in this belief because it will 
sooner or later be necessary, as competition 
becomes more severe, for manufacturers in 
this country to reduce to a minimum all waste 
products, as has already been largely done 
abroad, thereby reducing the cost of manufac- 
tures in every line. 

The writer feels that he has not done full 
justice to this subject, owing to the fact that 
business demands have made it 
impossible, in the brief time al- 
lowed for preparation, to treat the 
subject in a more than a superfi- 
cial manner, and he feels certain 
that further investigation on your 
part will convert you into advo- 
cates of this method of making 
coke rather than by the other 
method, whereby only about 63 
percent cf coke is obtained from 
the original coal, as in beehive 
ovens, instead of 70 percent to 75 
percent coke and the by-products, 
as are obtained in the by-product 
ovens. I hope to have the oppor- 
tunity at some future time to pre- 
sent to you more detailed and interesting data 
on this subject, and wish to thank you all for 
your kind attention to what must have seemed 
to many of you a lengthy and uninteresting 
discussion, as the subject must have been en- 
tirely new to some of you. 


By R. W. MacDowell. 
Many foundries do not pay sufficient atten- 
tion to the running of accurate cost records for 
their core rooms. No exact records are at- 

lleport of Material used In Core Room 

Date Kept. No. 

I have today ased the following 
material In core dept. 



_ Linseed Oil 


_Core Comix)und 


Tks F t u mdrff 

tempted, and it is not known just how many 
cores are made, nor how many are lost through 
poor work in the making or through careless- 
ness. The result as that they have little or 
no idea as to whether this department is cost-. 

Requisition For Supplies. 

To Date- 



Please furniah- 

_Dept. with the following 



The Archer Iron Works, of Chicago, 111., are 
sending out a 24-page catalogue illustrating 
and describing their steel wheelbarrows and 
various types of charging barrels, cars and 
trucks for use in connection with industrial 
plants and especir.lly about foundries. 

The Femmdrg 

ing too much, or how to make it cost less. 
Carelessness in this respect also breeds indiff- 
erence on the part of the coremakers, who 
know that there is no record of their work 
that can be depended upon. A good cost sys- 
tem in this department will go far toward 
showing where the leaks are, and will give 
something definite to proceed on in the effort 
to stop them. No matter how big or how little 
a foundry may be, a system of this kind should 
be carefully kept, for if the cost of the cores 
be not known, it stands to reason that the cost 
of the castings cannot be determined with any 
accuracy. Naturally, the make-up of the sys- 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



tern must be determined by the kind of a 
foundry it is intended for, and what style of 
castings are to be manufactured, some kinds of 
work requiring many cores, while other kinds 
require but few, but in any case, the cost of the 
cores, by the month or by the job, should be 
at hand at all times. 

It is not really a difficult matter to operate 
a system of this kind. The principal items in 
any cost system are material and labor, and 
there should be no trouble experienced in 
keeping track of these, as no complications are 
likely to arise in accounting for either, the 
material being simple and easily weighed or 
measured, and the labor being principally piece 
work. A little care and attention in reporting 
the amount of material used and the number of 
cores produced by each man will be all that is 
required. The core room should be treated as 
a separate department and charged with the 
material and labor expended in producing the 
cores as well as its proportion of general ex- 
pense, and should be credited with the good 
cores which it produces. Let a ledger account 
be run with this department, and the charges 
and credits be entered monthly. 

The core department of a radiator plant 
forms a good illustration on which to base a 
system of this kind, for this is all cored work, 
the core room being a very important part of 
the foundry, and all the large radiator plants 
are extremely careful to get exact figures as to 
the cost of operation of their core rooms. We 
will therefore describe a method of keeping 
records for a plant of this kind which makes 
single, two and three column radiators. 


All material used in the making of cores is 
charged to the core department account once 
or twice per month, as preferred, or may, if 
it is so desired, be charged direct at the time 
the invoice comes in, the former method being 
probably the better. Sand, linseed oil, core 
compound and other materials used in large 
quantities, are kept either in the core room 
itself, or in close proximity to it. Other sup- 
plies which are used in smaller quantities, such 
as carbon oil, rosin, flour, molasses, etc., are 
kept in the store room and given out on 
requisitions issued by the foreman of the core 
room as he requires supplies of this character 
from time to time. As the material kept in the 
core room is used, it is reported to the store- 
keeper, or whoever has charge of the store re- 
cords, by means of blanks like Form i. This 
is a simple form, giving the quantities of the 

different kinds of sand, linseed oil, core com^ 
pound, etc., and the number of batches of sand 

There is no trouble in determining the exact 
quantity of linseed oil and core compound used, 
as a gallon or two gallon bucket can be used 
to get the oil out of the barrel. A blackboard 
is kept in the core room, on which the record 

Name No. 1 


Kind of Core 

Made 1 Disci 



Single Column 
ao" Steam 
a" " 


ao" Wftt^r 






Two Column 
ao" Steam 

215" »* 

-- i 

«2" »* 




ao" Watnr 

g^ff *» 

5»" " 

SR// »» 


4iy// »» 


Three Column 
20" Steam 

20" ** 

as" *» 

SR" *. 

4K" •' 


20" Water _ 

j»" »i 

m" " 

iR" " 


Form 3 




can be kept until the report is made up for 
the day. The quantity of sand used may be 
ascertained in various ways. Certain sizes of 
wheelbarrows may be used, by which the quan- 
tity may be readily approximated, or each load 
may be weighed. This latter method is not 
recommended as it is slow, and frequently the 
sand mixer will forget to note the weight of 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 




20" 26" 82" 



No. Col. 




88" 1 45" 


8, 1 .--, _._ 

^ • 1 
- i 

t-r^-:.:i:-r ^-i 


^ , i 1 ' r ! 

0,.- _. ,__! 



-— !-H 


9 1 1 

— :. , j. _.: ._,__j_.__. — 1 


ic' .,.__;_ U H i - - '- - - ^- - i ' - - - 

29 1 1 ! 1 

! ' 1 i 

81 1 . 1 

_ . _ _ . 

— [-- ^ - - 

1 [ 

L ^ 


Form 4 

1 ! ! i ! 

one or more loads. One of the best methods 
the writer has ever seen employed was in a 
plant having tracks run from the core room to 
the sand sheds, over the scales, and using a 

Cores DIscountetl on 190 

Tbro>vn out 


Size No. Col. 

Kind j OauM 


1 1 

. I 

^ . _) 


] 1 


' ' ~1 



.ken "* 


Size 1 No. Col. j Kind ' Cau^e 

1 j 

1 _ _ _ 


- - - -' 

1- - i 


r , 

, I 





, J 



Tk» Fimndrt 

sheet iron lined box in which to mix the sand. 
This box was mounted on wheels, so when a 
batch of sand was required, the whole box was 
taken to the sand sheds, filled with sand, and 
weighed on the return trip. The weight was 
noted on the board as soon as the sand came 
in, so at the end of the day the board will show 
just how much sand has been used. If the 
sand is mixed by means of one or more of the 
machines now in common use, the same plan 
may be employed, by using large boxes in 
which to bring in the sand and weighing each 
load in the same way. This method will pro- 
bably give better results than almost any other 

Core Boom Becords. 
Requisitions, Form 2, are made out in dupli 
cate, one copy going to the storekeeper while 
the other copy is retained by the core room 
foreman for checking purposes. The requisi- 
tions from the core room should be of a differ- 
ent color from those of the other departments, 
for convenience in making up the monthly re- 
ports. A card will answer very well for the 
foreman's copy, as in this shape it is convenient 
for filing. There will not be any very large 
number of these requisitions issued in the 
present instance, as radiator cores are nearly 
always made of sand and linseed oil instead of 
sand and flour or sand and molasses, and the 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 






Price II Cost 

9 II Oost I Remurk 

_ lbs. Sand 

-lbs. Sand 

-gals. Linseed Oil 

. gals. Linseed Oil 

.gals. Core Compoui d 

_gal8. Core Compound 

_gal8. Molasses 

_ lbs. Rosin 

-lbs. Flour 

_ qts. Carbon Oil . 

-ft. ga« for ovens 
-batches Sand mixed. 

— I \ 


_Co8t of Material - 

¥*crn» 7 

Unseed oil is kept in the core room itself and 
reported on the daily report. 

In this way the material used is accurately 
reported, and there is no reason whatever why 
this item need ever get wrong. The next fea- 
ture to be considered is, 

Labor and Production. 

Labor in the core room is an extremely sim- 
ple matter to take care of, cores being paid for 
at a certain rate each, which gives a fixed price 
on productive labor, all non-productive labor 
being paid for by the day. Time is registered 
by means of a clock, every workman being 
provided with a card on which he registers his 
time of beginning and quitting work, whether 
he works by the day or by the piece. The 
cards of the men in the core department are 
of a different color from those of the other 
departments which makes it easier to enter 
up the time in the proper place. 

In addition to these cards, the 
coremakers each make out a card 
like Form 3 after their work is 
finished for the day. These cards 
are turned in to the office after 
the foreman has O. K.'d them, 
and from these cards the monthly 
core sheet, Form 4, is made up. 
This sheet is ruled so as to pro- 
vide spaces for the various kinds i 
of cores used, and is a very useful 
record to have about a radiator ► 
works, as it can easily be seen [ 
from month to month just what ' 
has been done and what has been . 
received in return for the out- i- 

lay as shown by the monthly recapitulation. 
In many foundries, a record of this kind would 
not be necessary, but in a radiator plant it is 
well to have this information at hand at all 

A discount sheet, Form 5, is also kept, on 
which the number of cores thrown out each 
day is recorded. A core may be broken 
through carelessness on the part of the core- 
maker, it may have imperfect vents and cause 
a "blow" or the knobs upon it may be defec- 
tive. In any of these cases, the corcmaker re- 
ceives no pay for it. If, however, as is some- 
times the case, the core is broken by the molder 
through no fault of the coremaker, the latter 
is paid for it, the discount coming off the 
molder. After this system has been worked 
for a little while, it is surprising to note the 
effect it has on both coremakers and molders. 









Eala not 





Digitized by 




April, 1905 

Core Room Report for Month of 


Cost of Materl«l 




Cost of Fnel 

t ■ ■ 

- — 


Cost of Labor (ProdnR«v« ) 



— - 

Cost of Labor (Non-Prodnfitlvn) 





■ "- ' 


^ Genl. Expftn»«A 





Whole qoHt 



_ i; 





— - 

No. Cores Made 




No. Discounted 




Total Good Cores ' 




1 1 


Averaee Cost J 




_ .... 

A ] 


Form 8 |l 


] 1 1 

making them far more careful in the manufac- 
ture of the cores and the handling of them 
after they are made, and it will be found that 
a very small percentage will be either care- 
lessly made or broken. The discount sheet 
shows what kind of core was thrown out, who 
made it, why it was rejected, and where the 
fault lay, which is all the information the man- 
agement needs. The time cards have a space 
given on them for rejected cores, so the num- 
ber of good cores produced by each core- 
maker is easy to figure, and this is all that is 
necessary to enter in the time book, radiator 
cores being paid for at a certain rate, each ac- 
cording to their size, this rate varying from 
J/2C to ij^c each. If one man works on two 
or more different kinds of cores during the 
period, ample space will be found in the "total" 
column to note the number made of each kind. 

A certain section of the pay roll book is al- 
lowed for the core department and the produc- 
tive and non-productive labor is usually run 
on different pages, so there is no difficulty in 
getting each of these amounts for the month, 
pays being twice per month. The non-pro- 
ductive labor consists principally of the men 
who look after the oven, take out the cores 
and put them in, the sand mixers, and the boys 
who grease corepans, go after wires and help 
the coreraakers in various ways. 

The Monthly Beport. 

The monthly core room report is simply a 
recapitulation of the other forms. The cost 
of the material is first given, followed by the 
cost of fuel, productive and non-productive 


labor, and the percentage of general expense. 
The cost of the material is obtained by taking 
the amounts used from the stock records and 
the requisitions and extending the value at the 
price per pound or gallon. The stock record 
has been previously described in this magazine 
so description will not be necessary. A form, 
(No. 6) is, however, shown for the purpose of 
illustration. The total material issued on re- 
quisitions is figured up and entered in the same 
way, thus giving the entire cost of the material 
for the month. 

The productive and non-productive labor is 
then gotten from the time book, by adding 
these items as shown on their respective pages 
for the two preceding pays. The number of 
cores made is then gotten from the core sheet, 
and if desired, the average cost each can be 
figured. This will not, of course, be strictly 
accurate, owing to the difference in the sizes 
of the cores, but it will not be far out of the 
way, and if the difference in the prices paid 
is added or deducted as required, the variation 
will be very trifling. 

These reports are then filed and form a per- 
manent record. It is thus possible to make 
monthly comparisons, and if the core room is 
costing more this month than it was last 
month, or if the work is not coming fast 
enough, it will be seen at once, and there will 
be something to proceed on toward finding out 
the reason; if there is a leak anywhere the 
reports will show it and aid in finding where 
it is. Without such a system of records it is 
the easiest thing in the world for unnecessary 

Digitized by 


April, 190S 



cost and leaks to go on for months unchecked, 
and even after they are discovered it is one of 
the hardest things to find just where they are 
and check them if there is no such data at 
hand as these reports provide. Of course the 
system will not attend to such matters itself 
alone, but if common sense is used in connec- 
tion with them, they will be found to be of 
the greatest assistance. The core room of 
every foundry is not, of course, as important 
a department as it is in a radiator plant, but it 
is important nevertheless, and it is well to 
bear in mind at all times in regard to foundry 
work of any description that "What is worth 
doing is worth making a record of." 


The Steele-Harvey melting furnace which 
was described in our issue of August, 1904, 
has been installed in a good many different 
plants, and we have received the following in- 
formation concerning some tests made in one 
of these furnaces. It will be remembered that 
this is a furnace in which a crucible is sur- 
rounded by a tilting furnace and heated by gas 
or oil, the result being that the metal is not 
brought in contact with the products of com- 
bustion to such a great extent as it is in many 
melting furnaces. The makers claim that this 
results in much less loss and in a better qual- 
ity of metal. The results given also show that 
it is possible to melt very refractory material 
in the furnace. This furnace is made by the 
Monarch Engineering and Mfg. Co., Balti- 
more, Md. 

In a test made at a prominent foundry near 
Baltimore, the following results were ob- 
tained in one of the large No. 275 furnaces, 
the composition being of heavy copper and 
red metal. 

First day's run 2,895 lb.; loss 1.04 percent; 
number of heats, 4. 

Second day's run 2,252 lb.; loss 1.19 percent; 
number of heats, 3. 

Third day's run 2,579 lb.; loss 0.96 percent; 
number of heats, 4. 

Fourth day's run 2.534 l^-J loss 1.03 percent; 
number of heats, 3. 

Average use of oil ij^ gallons per 100 lb. 
of metal, and castings were run into a fine 
grade of marine work. 

At the same plant the following test was 
made in the same furnace: 

175 lb. low carbon billet steel. 
24 lb. ferro manganese. 
4y2 lb. ferro silicon. 

The above was run into a fine grade gear 
wheel, and time of melting was three hours, 
oil consumed two gallons per 100 lb. of metal. 

The following test of foundry iron was 
made: 590 lb. No. 2 put in received 571 lb., 
loss in slag and dross 19 lb., oil consumed 
three gallons per 100 lb. metal. 


With the increased tonnage of many of our 
larger plants and the increased competition, 
it becomes necessary to practice every possi- 
ble economy in the handling of material. This 
has led to the adoption of many devices for 
handling material in bulk. One of the most 
interesting applications in this line is the use 



, ra 






of electrically operated lifting magnets, for 
handling such material as pig iron, scrap, cast- 
ings, etc. These have for some time been suc- 
cessfully used for handling plates, bars and 
billets, but they are equally advantageous in 
the handling of material in bulk. 

The accompanying illustration shows one of 
these magnets lifting a quantity of sandless 
pig. It can be used equally well for handling 
many classes of castings, scrap, etc. 

One point that has been discovered in the 
application of these magnets, however, is that 
a single design of magnet is not adapted for 
handling all classes of material. Each magnet 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

must be designed for the work it has to do. 
For instance, it requires a very different mag- 
nete for the handling of thin plates from that 
which would be required for the handling of 
steel billets. The manufacturers have taken 
great pains to design each magnet so that it 
would be especially suited for the class of 
work which it has to perform. 

The magnets are controlled by the crane 
operator, so that in handling pig iron and other 
similar material, the man in the crane can do 
all of the work without any help from some 
one on the ground. Pig iron can be loaded 
into or taken from cars, or handled in a num- 
ber of other ways by this device. The manu- 
facturers state that while one might think at 
first that there was great danger of acci- 
dents in this method of handling, that they 
have a large number of magnets in use at 
different places throughout the country, and 
they have yet to learn of a single accident that 
has occurred through their use. In fact, the 
records for the magnets are very much above 
those for ordinary sling chains used for han- 
dling certain classes of material. The magnets 
when built are tested with from four to five 
times the specified load. 

These magnets are made by the Electric 
Controller & Supply Co., of Cleveland, O., 
and are protected by the Wellman, Clark and 
Peik patents. 


Seeing an article in The Foundry on foam- 
ing slag, I thought I would give my experience 
with the enemy of the casting. I had been 
melting 12 to 15 tons a day ; all was going well 
until T got a new car of coke. Our first heat 
was small, eight tons, the next day 14 tons 
was our heat. The slag began about the mid- 
dle of the heat to foam and stopped up the 
slag hole. I went up to the charging floor 
and found the melter charging on iron which 
disappeared through the slag which was now 
up to the charging door. I stopped the charg- 
ing and as I found I was having trouble with 
my motor driving the wind through the cupola 
as my heat was near off and the slag began 
to get into the tweers and wind drum; I 
told the melter to pull the bottom but before 
he could my motor stopped with a fuse blown. 
Now that slag which was up to the charging 
door found its way into the tuyeres and wind 
drum of the cupola in along the wind pipe for 
20 ft. I had a solid mass of slag that looks like 
a bhck glass. It was very heavy and could 
not be broken easy. 

We lost a day getting the cupola ready for 
the next heat. I changed my coke, which, to 
all appearances, looked no different, yet results 
proved it was in the coke, as the iron was the 
same for a month. The cupola lining was 
a month old and our next heat was all right 
and has been ever since. 

Can some one tell me if this slag was from 
the coke which I believe it was. Why is it 
so heavy and so solid? 

Matthew Elliott. 



An analysis of your foaming slag will show 
it to be principally a basic silicate of iron. 

When the bed in the cupola becomes too 
low, caused either by economy in coke or by 
using a soft coke with excessive blast, which 
will allow melting to take place too close to 
the tuyers and thus allow the blast to play 
directly upon the melting iron, oxidation of 
iron, to a certain extent, will invariably take 
place. It is a well known fact that atmos- 
pheric oxygen unites with iron at a white heat, 
and when oxygen and iron unite under these 
conditions there is a decided raise in tempera- 
ture, which of course has a tendency to pro- 
mote further oxidation. 

The oxide of iron being a strong base, 
readily attacks the acid lining of the cupola, 
which creates the excess of slag, and also ac- 
counts for the burning out of the melting 

The melting of the iron frame extending out 
at the charging door does not mean anything, 
as that can happen when the cupola is running 
all right by leaving the blast on too long 
after the last charge has been melted down. 

In conclusion, let me say, keep your bed 
high, don't use too much blast, watch soft coke 
carefully and you will have no trouble with 
foaming slag. 


Electric traveling hoists have many advan- 
tages for different classes of work and espe- 
cially for foundry work. By arranging suitable 
switches and passing points, it is possible to 
reach any point on the floor, and for instance, 
in pouring operations, to have a steady pro- 
cession of ladles moving from the cupola to 
various parts of the floor and back again with- 
out interfering with one another, while when 
ordinary traveling cranes are used they are 
constantly getting in each other's way. 

A new electric hoist suitable for foundry 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



use is shown in the accompanying illustration. 
It is arranged to run on the lower flange of 
an I beam, and is built in capacities from ^ up 
to 6 tons. For broad spans such traveling 
crane hoists are arranged to run between two 
I beams. The controllers are attached to the 
hoist and operate it by cords reaching to the 
floor. These hoists will run on either curved 
or straight tracks and are usually provided 
with separate motors, one for traversing and 
the other for hoisting, though when desired a 

is a simple square pattern with two strips top 
and bottom. The top strips are left loose and 

H* i* 



TUFtmmdry sUle Flcw End Vicw 

are held in place with wires. The foundryman 
sent back word that he could not mold it, 


hand traverse can be supplied. The hoist is 
self-contained and arranged so that it is bal- 
anced when in use. 

These hoists are manufactured by the Niles- 
Bement-Pond Co., Liberty street, New York, 

N. y. 


I enclose two views of a pattern which I 
made and the foundryman claims he could not 
mold it. It will be seen by the views that it 

that it would have to be cored out inside, and 
I can't see why that foundryman couldn't have 
molded the pattern in a three part flask. 
There was a great rush for the casting and the 
trouble made a great delay as there was only 
one casting wanted from the pattern. I would 
like to hear from some of the readers in re- 
gard to this pattern. C. E. W. 

J. P. Raymond, of Oswego, N. Y., is plan- 
ning to build a new foundry at Red Creek, N. 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 


Devoted to Inquiries from PrmeUad Poaadrymen on 
subjects relating to tlie MeltinK and Using of Cast iron, 
Steei. Brass and Bronze. 

Tlie following experts answer questions in tliis 

W. J. Keep. Cast iron. 

J. B. Nau. Metallurgy of Steel and Steel Castings. 

Dr. Ricliard Moldenke, Malleable Castings. 

C. VIclcers, Brass Castings. 

We have also made arrangements with several others 
to act as special oontributors upon Brass, Bronze and 
other subjects. All inquiries should be addressed to 
the Editor of THE FOUNDRY, and they will then be 
forwarded to those In cliarge of the different subjects. 



Silicon and Carbon. 

Question. — In mixing iron I understand that 
the silicon is used for the purpose of con- 
trolling the carbon; what should be the ratio 
between the graphitic and the combined car- 

Answer. — Silicon is used to vary the ratio 
between graphite and combined carbon, and it 
is the only practical way to do this, but there 
are many other ratios between the other ele- 
ments that influence the quality of castings, 
therefore no definite percentage of silicon, 
graphite or of combined carbon can be de- 
pended upon to produce a definite quality of 
casting. Two castings with absolutely the 
same chemical composition, so far as the six 
ordinary elements are concerned, may have 
quite different physical qualities. 

However, the only way that we have to 
vary physical quality is to vary silicon, and then 
we measure the shrinkage and strength to see 
if more or less silicon should be used with that 

Ordinarily the less combined and the more 
graphitic carbon the softer the castings, and it 
is not at all sure that such castings will not 
also be the stronger. 

Practically the silicon should be varied until 
the qL'ality suits, irrespective of the ratio be- 
tween the carbons. 

Again the size of the casting changes the 
percentage of silicon necessary, as slow cool- 
ing of large castings allow a smaller per- 
centage of silicon to produce like results. 

Mixture for Automobile Cylinders'. — Sili- 
con about 2.25 per cent P. about i per cent 
S. .075 Mn .5. The silicon should be as low 
as possible and machine easily. Purchase the 
irons that your market offers, which will pro- 

duce such a mixture. You will find that some 
irons will give you cleaner castings than others 
and will in time find the most desirable mix- 

Mixture for Corliss Engine Cylinders of 
1,800 to 3,500 lbs. weight.— Metal about i^ to 
1Y2 in. thick? Silicon 1.20 to 1.60 per cent, sul- 
phur less than .095, phosphorus below 0.70, Mn 
below .70 percent. See remarks on automobile 

Blow Holes or Drawing. — Where arms join 
the rim in heavy blank castings for machine 
cut gears? The ordinary way to prevent such 
shrunk spots is to reduce silicon as low as pos- 
sible and allow of machining. The use of 
scrap with low sulphur will help. Low phos- 
phorus allows the iron to set quick, but the 
best way is to use cast iron borings, 100 lbs. 
to the ton of iron melted. Pack clean borings 
in pine boxes holding 100 lbs. and nail the 
cover on tight. Charge the box on the coke 
before charging the pig iron. 

Spongy Spots on Cylinders. — See remarks on 
Blowholes or drawing. The trouble in that 
and in your case comes from shrinkage after 
the surface of the casting has become set. 

The reason that such spongy spots are 
located near the gate is that they are at the 
place that cools last. Have all parts of a 
casting of as even a thickness as possible. 
Founders are using chill pieces more and 
more each year, and will in the end place a 
chill on any surface when they are troubled 
with an open grain. This sets the iron quickly 
and so deep that the tooling will not cut into 
a soft spot. You should not use irons that 
will chill hard. 

Molding in a Stove Foundry. 

Question. — Is it good foundry practice in a 
stove foundry to mold up work and let it 
freeze up over a shut-down of a couple of 

Would it affect the castings in any way? 

Anszver. — Very few castings can be saved if 
a mold is allowed to stand over until next 
day, even if it does not freeze. Freezing would 
dry the molds so that when thawed they would 
not be fit to pour. To pour iron into a frozen 
mold would chill the iron. 

At a meeting of the stockholders of the 
Chas. Creighton Foundry Co., of New York 
City, the following officers were elected : John 
H. Allen, president and treasurer; Jas. H. 
Norris, vice-president and secretary; Chas. 
H. Thomas, manager. 

Digitized by 


April, igos 





Time For Heat. 

J. P. L. asks what time a fire should be 
started for a 20-ton heat in the air furnace, 
so that it can be tapped at 4:00 p. m. This 
naturally depends upon a number of things. 
First, whether the furnace is an up-to-date one 
which will turn out a properly mixed charge 
of this size in four and one-half to five hours. 
Some furnaces would not do this in six hours, 
and others might, with heavy fuel expense, cut 
the time down a little from the first mentioned 
figure. The second consideration is whether 
you charge on a cold bottom or not. If so, 
you can charge early enough in the morning, 
so that you can light up at 11 :oo a. m. Should 
you notice that the heat will be ready before 
you really want it, you can throw in some ex- 
tra pig iron to retard the heat, and then tap. 
Next day you can start up the fire a little later. 

The second consideration is the mixture. 
The modern tendency is to get away from the 

Tht Fo u mdrf 

refining of the metal as much as possible. 
The additional strength gained from the burn- 
ing out of the silicon and lowering of the total 
carbon is better attained by the direct addi- 
tion of steel scrap to the mixture. Hence it 
is only necessary to melt the charge, and then 
heat it up to the proper pouring temperature, 
before tapping. The first test plug taken 
should show proper casting metal, though it 
may be necessary to hold the heat for ten 
of fifteen minutes to get it hotter. Adding 
steel for strength and quality means that about 
30 points in silicon should be added to the com- 
position of the castings wanted, for the silicon 
of the charge. This should prevent holding 
the heat in the furnace to refine it down to the 
proper point as in the old way of melting. 

Tapping Hole for Reservoir. 

J. P. L. further wants to know how large to 
make a tapping hole in a reservoir ladle as 
per sketch, and how long it would take to 
empty the ladle. The idea being to tap as in 
the cupola. We confess that once upon a time, 
during our university days, we were familiar 
enough with the calculus to work out this 
problem, granted that we could get the proper 
coefficients for melted iron, in place of water, 
in the calculation of the flow of water from 
given orifices, or to get the size of the ori- 
fice itself, when the quantity of water is given. 
Life is too short to go all over this mathe- 
matical matter long sincft on the shelves of 
our memory, and very dusty. We fear that 
the only way to get this information is to try 
it, and by repeated trials with small tapping 
holes at first, and enlarging them until the 
desired time of full discharge is found, the 
problem will be solved at least as fast as by 

Incidentally, if the reservoir ladle is to be 
used for "malleable" for transportation, care 
should be taken to have the metal extra hot, 
as it loses fluidity every time it is repoured. 
In our own interests, we take away metal five 
tons at a time, but pour from the lip, and get 
excellent results, so that it is possible to carry 
hot metal for malleable casting purposes, if 
proper care is taken. This statement is liable 
to be doubted by several large works where 
carrying of the metal had to be abandoned 
because it got too cold to pour; but it is so 
just the same. 



Manganese Bronze. 

Inquiry. — Will you please give me a recipe 
for making manganese bronze, also state just 
how it should be compounded or mixed. 

Answer. — "Manganese bronze" is made by 
simply adding manganese to any bronze or 
brass alloy, and the best manner of adding it is 
in the form of manganese copper. 

An alloy for manganese with bronze is 
known as red manganese bronze and is used 
for bearings and other bronze parts of ma- 
chinery. It may be either hard or soft accord- 
ing to the amount of tin. A soft alloy is: 

Copper 64 pounds. 

Tin 4 pounds. 

Zinc 5 pounds. 

Manganese Copper 5 pounds. 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

For a hard alloy use: 

Copper 64 pounds. 

Tin 8 pounds. 

Manganese Copper 10 pounds. 

Zinc 4 pounds. 

When manganese is added to yellow brass it 
is called yellow manganese bronze, properly 
speaking it is a brass, not a bronze. 

Such alloys are noted for their tensile 
strength. Any yellow brass can be converted 
into manganese bronze by the addition of from 
5 to ID per cent of manganese copper. From 
% to I per cent of aluminum should also be 
added. A good example of this class of alloys 


Copper 64 pounds. 

Zinc 42 pounds. 

Manganese Copper 8 pounds. 

Aluminum i pound. 


Copper 64 pounds. 

Zinc 30 pounds. 

Manganese Copper 6 pounds. 

Aluminum 4 ounces. 

In melting manganese bronze keep the sur- 
face covered with charcoal, and do not "hold" 
the metal in the fire after it has become suffi- 
ciently hot, pour the yellow variety with the 
same precautions as with yellow brass. 
Manganese bronze shrinks almost twice as 
much as ordinary brass, such shrinkage must 
be overcome by the use of large risers, on the 
heavy portions of large castings, and the use 
of shrinkage balls on lighter castings. 

Car Wheel Casting Difficulties. 

Your subscriber's troubles are caused as he 
surmises both in the mixture and method of 
treatment. I see nothing particularly wrong in 
the designs of wheels, although curved spokes 
in mine car wheels and curved plates and ribs 
in ordinary car wheels are preferable to 
straight ones. 

The ordinary method for making mine car 
wheels in. Pennsylvania is to use a strong 
enough mixture to slightly chill the wheel and 
stand the shrinkage strains without annealing. 
Such as your subscriber was doing with No. 3 
Southern iron. 

To chill the rims of mine car wheels to ob- 
tain 5^-in. or more depth of chill is a difficult 
thing for an ordinary jobbing shop to do suc- 
cessfully without the necessary annealing pit 
*-^ counteract shrinkage strains. 

Re-solid plate car wheels, nothing short of 
an ordinary good car wheel mix with annealing 
will make these wheels successfully as a mix- 
ture hard enough to give depth of chill will 
surely crack without the annealing process. 

The fact of the wheels breaking under mod- 
erate pressure in mounting on axles or after 
mounting, indicates a poor mixture of iron as 
I have proved repeatedly by experience. Only 
a short time ago I replaced twenty pairs of 
24-in. wheels having cracked hubs which had 
been in service but a short time under lumber 
cars. These wheels were made in an ordinary 

To illustrate the strain there is on car wheels 
made of good mixture by the regular car wheel 
makers if the wheels are left to cool the same 
as an ordinary casting they always crack across 
the plate. 

It may be possible to obtain a mixture of 
iron to give sufficient depth of chill and not 
crack without annealing but I have never come 
across it yet. 

Chills should not be made less than 2j4 in. 
to 3 in. thick and thicker as the wheels increase 
in diameter. 

Standard 33-in. car wheel chills are seldom 
made less than 3J4 in. thick. 

Half silica sand and half loam sand will 
make a clean core. 



Centrifugal Castings. 

Eisenscitung, Jan. 26. The Huth method of 
centrifugal casting seems to be meeting with 
much success in Germany. In this process 
the molds are given a centrifugal motion, while 
the metal is being poured in. Several kinds 
of steel or gray iron can thus be cast into 
the same mold, and give the desired results. 
Thus for a wheel, a hard steel is poured into 
the mold, immediately flying outward into the 
rim, then the soft steel is poured in, filling the 
mold. The result is a wheel with a hard rim 
and soft centre. Other castings can be made 
similarly. The advantages claimed are greater 
density, no shrinkage spots, which is saying 
much for steel castings; slag is kept from the 
outer surfaces, and the strains are not as 
prominent as would be the case with the ordi- 
nary molding methods. 

The centrifugal method of casting is espe- 
cially recommended for bulky castings whether 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



of one class of metal or more, on account of 
the greater freedom from openness and shrink- 

Modes of Testing Cast Iron. 

The Mechanical World. Feb. 10. Mr. W. T. 
MacCall, in a paper read before the British 
Foundrymen's Association, describes the vari- 
ous methods of testing cast iron. The ordi- 
nary cross-breaking test is the most common. 
One test piece is the one inch square and over 
three feet long, (broken on supports 36" 
apart). The other bar is as long and 2" 
vertical by i" horizontal in cross section. 
The former should stand 2,000 lbs. before 
breaking, and the latter has a load of 3,000 
lb. specified. 

In the tensile test, the bar is turned down 
to 0.798" in diameter, and the heads are 
shouldered off to fit the machine. A breaking 
strain of 26,750 lbs. per sq. in. is specified, 
while the highest recorded strength in Eng- 
land is 40,320 lbs. 

For the crushing test the sample should be 
about two to three times as long as the 
diameter, in order to get a fair test. In Eng- 
land bars for tensile or compressive tests are 
usually cast on and cut off the casting for 
subsequent turning up, while for transverse 
tests the bars are always cast separately. In 
America we are taking up standards a little 
nearer the ideal conditions under which cast 
iron should be tested, and the bars are shorter 
and heavier than the above sizes. 

Economic Value of Cast Iron. 

A paper was recently read before the Man- 
chester Association of Engineers, by Mr. W. 
H. Pretty, in which he discusses the produc- 
tion of machine castings of maximum strength, 
uniformity and satisfactory machining quali- 
ties A very interesting editorial in the En- 
gineering Magazine comments freely on the 
points raised. While everything points to the 
steel casting for machinery purposes, yet it 
must not be forgotten that cast iron offers ad- 
vantages still better in given places, and there- 
fore its study should be encouraged in order 
to locate these places and provide the best 
grade of material for them. 

In the engineering field cast iron is espe- 
cially useful for some parts of structural work, 
for bridges, tunnel linings, and water pipe. 
Then for castings in engine and machine con- 
struction, and finally for the malleable cast- 
ing. In England the recently introduced seg- 
ment castings for tunnel linings are going 

to the blast furnaces. Here the large 
foundries get them. The steel casting is bound 
to crowd the gray iron one, but the malle- 
able casting will probably hold its own for a 
long while to come, if not for always. 

Today we consider cast iron a compound of 
iron and carbon, manganese, silicon, sulphur, 
and phosphorus. Later on, Mr. Pretty pre- 
dicts, such elements as chromium, arsenic, ti- 
tanium, etc., will be looked after carefully in 
the pig irons we use. The melting methods 
will then be so improved that great strength 
should result, and the comparatively rarer in- 
gredients thus become more important. 

The study of cast iron from the chemical 
as well as physical standpoint has disclosed the 
reasons why certain results are obtained in 
the way of strength and other characteristics. 
We can now manipulate our material so that 
required standards can be met, and thus the 
value of the foundry producf is greatly en- 
hanced in the arts. The introduction of high 
speed steels has rather emphasized the neces- 
sity for soft castings, yet there is also a 
tendency not to sacrifice other good qualities 
simply for ease in machining. Mr. Pretty 
would like to see a shop test for the machining 
qualities of a cast iron adopted. 

Quite a number of items which it will pay 
to follow out in the foundry laboratory and 
on the molding floor are enumerated. Among 
these are, for the cupola : The behavior of the 
blast under bad working conditions, and its 
effect on the quality of the iron. The formation 
of a cupola slag of standard composition, sim- 
ilar to other metallurgical slags for copper, 
silver, etc. The addition of proper reducing 
agents to take away oxidation, such as the 
alloys of iron with aluminum, magnesium, and 
silicon. The study of gases in cast iron, and 
the strains they may leave in the metal. 

In the foundry proper, we have the effect 
of dampness in the molding sand. The char- 
acteristics of distribution of impurities, and 
the effect of frequent remelting. The decay of 
iron in service. The effect of temperature con- 
ditions on the metal and the heat treatment 
of cast iron. The microscopical study of cast 
iron. Finally the various classes of melting 
apparatus which can be used. 

Our American Foundrymen's Association is 
highly commended for what it has done along 
the above lines, and it is predicted that the 
newly formed British Foundrymen's Associa- 
tion will also take its place in the front, a 
sentiment with which we Americans heartily 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 


Philadelphia Foundrymen's Association. 

Howard Evans, Secretary, care J. W. Paxaon Co. 

The i4Sth meeting of the Philadelphia 
Foundrymen's Association was held at the 
Manufacturers' Club, 1409 Walnut street, on 
Wednesday evening, March i, with Vice Presi- 
dent Alex. E. Outerbridge Jr. in the chair. 
There were about forty members and visitors 
in attendance. The treasurer's report showed 
a balance of $2,197.74 in the treasury, all bills 
to date being paid. 

The secretary read a letter which had been 
received from the Associated Foundry Fore- 
men of Philadelphia and vicinity, extending an 
invitation to the members of the Foundrymen's 
Association to become associate members of 
their organization and attend their meetings. 
This association was formed recently, one of 
the principal objects being the improvement 
of the working department of the foundry. 
Mr. Evans also announced that the subject 
to be presented before the Foundrymen's As- 
sociation at the meeting in April would be 
**Foundry Costs," and the probable subject 
for May would be "Cores and Core Making." 

The paper of the evening was read by 
Thorsten Y. Olsen, of the firm of Tinius 01- 
sen, of Philadelphia, Pa., the paper being en- 
titled "The Fremond Method of Testing the 
Fragility of Iron and Steel." The paper was 
illustrated with stereopticon views and was 
very interesting indeed. It provoked con- 
siderable discussion and the author was ten- 
dered a vote of thanks. 

New England Foundrymen's Association. 

Fred F. Stock well. Secretary, care of Barbour-Stock- 
well Co., Cambridgeport, Mass. 

The regular monthly meeting of the New 
England Foundrymen's Association was held 
at the Exchange Club, Boston, on March 8, 
at 4:30 P. M. Vice President W. B. Snow 
presided. The secretary reported the illness 
of ^President John Magee and stated that 
flowers had been sent him on behalf of the 

Reports were received from the committees 
on securing new meeting quarters and on the 
pig iron storage warrant system. These were 
accepted and filed. The quiz questions ar- 
ranged by the committee were then discussed 
as follows: 

Ques. What is the best sand to use for 
making medium brass and bronze castings? 

Ans. In the hardware business we find 

that No. o Albany sand for brass castings and 
No. I Albany sand for plain castings is the 
best that can be used in making up hardware. 
The Albany sand is strong sand to start with 
and it is also a stronger sand after being 

Ques. Do you use salt in tempering the 

Ans. Salt is just as necessary to sand as 
lime is to sand in order to make it strong. 
There is no molder that can produce a casting 
without any salt in the sand. We can produce 
just as good a casting in green sand in high 
brass, but we cannot do it without salt. Salt 
gives the sand strength and without it a molder 
would be helpless. He could not produce the 
fine work which we produce today. 

Ques. How much salt do you use? 

Ans. In proportion we use about % lb. salt 
to a bucketful of water. 

Ans. There seems to be a vast difference 
of opinion on that point. We use No. i Albany 
sand and we find we can get as good results 
with No. I Albany as with No. o sand. If 
you get in too much French sand, it gets 
too strong. In regard to French sand, we 
call it sand, but it is more of a clay than 
sand and the clay, by ramming up the mold, 
will make it quite air tight. The question of 
today is how will the foundryman go to work 
to make all his gas escape. If he can do that 
then he is sure of a good sound casting. 

Ques. What has beea your experience in 
the use of old or burnt core sand in mixture? 

Ans. We use old core sand because it is 
absolutely necessary in making up good cast- 
ings. The old core sand is more porous and 
allows the gas to escape more readily than new 
core sand. 

Ans. We have started recently to use old 
core sand on certain mixtures. We are to- 
day using about 20 percent on medium sized 
cores and about 30 percent on larger cores. 
We use a dry compound and that is the only 
thing that will hold core and sand success- 
fully. We can handle more old sand with the 
dry compound. 

Ques. What success have you had with 
core compounds or core oils? 

Ans. The smallest core we make is about 
y% in. diameter and I find that the core com- 
pound is the best binder. It is far better for 
the cores than core oil. 

Ans. Going back to the old methods of core 
making, you can make a core of glue, or a 
core of flour, or a core of core oil, or any 
other compound which is in the market to- 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



day, but the main point is this. Sometimes 
the fomidryman condemns a good article, he 
never goes far Enough to investigate what the 
reason is that his cores blow. In all prob- 
ability he does not vent the core properly. 
If the core is 354 in. long it should be vented 
2% in. and the coremaker has vented it only 
I in. When the molder puts that core in the 
casting there is a blow there. The main 
point in making a core is the venting of the 

We have tried core oils and compounds 
but are now using burnt sand with glue. We 
found with core compounds and core oils it 
took us so long to get the core out of the top 
of a small hole that we had to go back to 
the old method of core making. 

After a short intermission the meeting ad- 
journed to dinner. At the evening session the 
president introduced as the speaker Mr. Geo. 
H. Hull, of New York, president of American 
Pig Iron Storage Warrant Co., whose remarks 
were on the use of the warrant and certificate 
system by foundrymen in supplying themselves 
with pig iron. He said that the warrants were 
simply a receipt for 100 tons of pig iron. They 
designate on the face the brand, grade and 
weight, and upon the return of the warrant 
the 100 tons as described on the face of the 
same would be put on the cars free of charge. 
Iron bought on these warrants are purchased 
on both analysis and fracture grading. At 
the conclusion of the speaker's remarks there 
was some discussion, after which a unanimous 
vote of thanks was extended to Mr. Hull. 
The meeting adjourned at 9:50. 

Indianapolis Foundry Foremen. 

W. H. Holmes, Dist. Vice Pres., care American 
Foundry Co. 

At the March meeting of the Indianapolis 
Foundry Foremen, Mr. Keller read a paper 
on "Core Making." The Indianapolis Qub 
has gotten out a postal card which they send 
out to each member previous to the meeting, 
stating the date on which the meeting will be 
held, the subject of the paper to be read, and 
requesting that the members come prepared 
to discuss the same. 

Hamilton, Ont. Foundry Foremen's 

A. Chase, care Sawyer & Hassey Co,, Secretary and 

During the winter the foundrymen about 
Hamilton have met a number of times to dis- 
cuss the subject of forming a local branch of 
the Associated Foundry Foremen. On Satur- 

day night, March 11, a meeting was held at 
which the final organization was perfected, the 
charter having been received from New York. 
The following officers were elected: David 
Reid, of the Canadian Westinghouse Co., Ltd., 
president; Frank Reid, of D. Moore & Co., 
vice president ; A. Chase, of Sawyer & Massey 
Co., secretary and treasurer. The president 
appointed .the following executive committee : 
Thos. Simpson, Canadian Iron Foundry Co., 
city; John Dale, Sawyer Massey Co., city; 
George Manning, with John Bertram & Co., 
Dundas; Jas. Dowling, city; Samuel Brown, 
Canadian Westinghouse Co., city. 

The foundry foremen of Brantford, Dun- 
das and St. Catherines were also invited to be 
present at the meeting. The principal paper 
of the evening was by Dr. Richard Moldenke, 
of Watchung, N. J., but as the doctor could 
not be present the paper was read by Mr. Reid, 
and provoked considerable discussion. 

On account of the fact that the election of 
officers and other routine business had taken 
up a great deal of time, it was impossible to 
discuss the paper as extensively as it was de- 
sired, and hence it was voted to continue the 
discussion at the next meeting. Before ad- 
journment the members passed to an adjoin- 
ing room, where an elaborate luncheon had 
been prepared. A hearty vote of thanks was 
extended to Dr. Moldenke for the paper pre- 


F. H. Zlmmers. Secretary, care Union Foundry and 

Machine Co. 


Frank C. Everitt, Secretary, 2413 Third Ave., New 

York, N. Y., care The J. L. Mottlron Works. 


W. H. Nicholls, 608 Gordon Avenue, District Vice 


W. P. Cunningham, Secretary, Pencoyd, Pa. 


W. F. Grunau, Dist. Vice Pres., care Erie City Iron 




8. M. Williams, Dist. Vice Pres.. 22i:Third Street, 

Elizabeth, N. J. 

David Spence, Diat. Vice Pres. 142 Bunker St. 


Thomas Glasscock, Dist. Vice Pres., care Pawling Ss 

Harnischfeger Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 


No branch of the iron and steel industry 
offers wider possibilities for the production 
of duplicate parts than the foundry trade, and 
in the past few years many continuous pro- 
cesses have been tried with more or less suc- 
cess. No steel plant is considered modern to- 
day without a continuous mill and it can be 
safely predicted that in the very near future 
every specialty foundry will operate on some 
continuous semi-automatic system. Labor 


Fiu, 9 



troubles in foundries have fostered the mold- 
ing machine, and the further replacement of 
skilled labor by the unskilled and cheapening 
of labor costs will bring about continuous 
processes. At Pittsburg a continuous steel 
belt was tried in one of the largest malleable 
shops for conveying molds to the casting 
floor, and practically all continuous processes 
tried have been designed to prevent the shak- 
ing down of molds when taken from one floor 

to another. The steel belt was discarded as 
it was impossible to prevent the vibration 
which resulted in the destruction of an unduly 
large percentage of molds. At another spec- 
ialty shop the molds were placed on floats 
in a large water tank, but the tipping of floats 
with the consequent destruction of the molds 
soon resulted in the system being discarded. 
Outside of the car wheel line, no attempt has 
been made at operating continuously with a 
process that combines molding, casting and 

For nearly two years car wheels have been 
successfully made at a plant near Pittsburg 
by the Sherman process, the invention of C. 
W. Sherman, of Bellevue, Allegheny 
county. Pa. Mr. Sherman's wide expe- 
rience as a car wheel manufacturer led 
him to the conclusion that by the instal- 
lation of a continuous process and a 
division of the work on each wheel 
v/ould facilitate the manufacture, better 
the product, and effect a saving in the 

As shown in Fig. i, the plant consists 
of an endless track and mold conveyor 
100 ft. in diameter with space for 72 
car wheel flasks. Each flask is allowed 
approximately 52 in. of space on the ring. 
The movement of the conveyor is in- 
termittent and the distance moved is 
equal to the space occupied by one 
flask. The molding is accomplished by 
the use of ten patterns and each pat- 
tern is placed in a flask at A shown in 
Fig. 3, which is an enlarged elevation 
of the molding section. As the flask 
moves from point to point sand is fed 
from overhead spouts at point H in 
Fig. I, and each man does that portion 
of the work assigned to him and this 
labor is the same on every wheel. 
When the flask leaves point B, Fig. 3, 
with the pattern withdrawn the mold is 
ready to be poured. The coping device 
is shown at F, Fig. i. The sand ram- 
devices shown in Fig. 3 have not yet 
been used, this work now being done by hand. 
The pouring is accomplished by the use of a 
bottom pouring ladle as the mold passes the 
pouring crane A, Fig. i, the iron being sup- 
plied in the usual manner from cupolas B and 
ladles C in Fig. i. The stripping of the wheels 
is done at a cherry red temperature near the 
annealing pits, the pits being indicated by K, 
Fig. I, the scope of the pouring and stripping 


Digitized by 


April, 1505 





cranes being such as to allow the proper time 
between pouring and stripping each wheel re- 
gardless of the spfted of molding and melting. 
The wheel casting is removed with crane D, 
Fig. I, from the conveyor car and placed in 
position for the pit, in one operation. The 
pitting crane is at G. Fig. i. As the sand 
is removed from the wheel it drops into con- 
veyor A, Fig. 4, and is automatically screened, 
mixed and tempered as sho^n in Figs. 8 and 
9, while being conveyed to the molding sec- 
tion and the empty flask is replaced on the 
conveyor and passes under crane E, Fig. i, 
where it is removed and a cold one placed in 
position ready for use. About one hour and 
45 minutes is required for a flask to make a 
round of the entire operation and in operat- 
ing 10 hours a day the same flask can be used 
twice, thus effecting a saving in a foundrsr's 
flask equipment of about one-half. 

The track construction on which the con- 
veyor moves consists of 70-lb. T rails curved 
to the proper radius and resting on ordinary 
cross ties. Figs. 5 and 6 show an endless con- 
veyor, but the present installation consists of 
a system of cars, each holding two flasks and 
made of upright plates A, Fig. 6, and aprons 
B, of bent plates, forming a protection for the 
wheels which operate loose on the axles and 
also the rails at the stripping and molding 

sections to prevent any loose sand from block- 
ing the track. 

The radial axles have the distance from the 
axle of one car to the axle of the next, the 
same as between the axles on the same car, 
and the cars are coupled by a universal de- 
vice, which will be simplified by the use of a 
continuous conveyor. Figs. 5 and 6 show a 
side view and cross section of the conveyor 
at the operating point. Trolley A, Fig. 5, is 
so applied to the conveyor as to allow the re- 
turn movement without engaging the axles. 
Dog B works against the axle on its forward 
movement only, and the trippers CC act on 
the clutch A, Fig. 7, and reverse the move- 
ment of the trolley from either direction while 
the motor runs steadily forward making the 
movement automatic. The trolley track inside 
the conveyor track in Fig. 6, extends only 
the distance of the operating mechanism. The 
propeller is connected to drums B and C, Fig. 
7, by a wire cable shown in Fig. 5, and by re- 
ferring to Fig. 7 it will be seen that one drum 
is loose on the shaft while the other is in op- 
eration and vice versa. The drums shown are 
of different sizes to proportion the periods of 
travel and rest for the main conveyor and al- 
low the proper time between movements for 
doing the work at various points on the cir- 
cle. It has been found that a 15-h. p. motor 
is sufficiently large to move the whole train. 



Digitized by 




April, 1905 

Fig. 3 shows the reciproca- 
ting sand conveyor and down 
spouts for feeding the sand 
to cope and drag sections 
of the molds. The gates on 
the sand spouts operate by a 
lever. The roll-over hoist C in 
Fig. 3 is at a convenient point 
to roll the flask over immediate- 
ly after the bottom board has 
been fastened and the coping 
device D travels in line with the 
center of the conveyor and leads off the center 
line in Fig. I at F. Fig. 4 shows a pneumatic 
crane B, which travels in line of the conveyor 
and the wheel removing cranes C and C. 
The stripping operation is carried out as fol- 
lows: Crane B removes the cope, chill and 
drag from the casting and replaces the flasks 
on the conveyor in a vacant space ahead, and 
the wheel is taken from the concveyor by ordi- 
nary wheel tongs operated by pneumatic jib 
crane C and deposited in position for the pit- 
ting crane G, Fig i. The bottom board is 
then placed in an upright position as at D, 
and all the remaining sand drops through the 
cars and open track into conveyor A. The car 
and grating construction around the stripping 
section prevents any chunks of iron or scrap 
from falling through which cannot, be easily 
handled by the conveyor A and removed from 
the sand by screen A in Figs. 8 and 9. The 
sand passes along conveyor A, Fig. 4, into 
screens A, Figs. 8 and 9. This mixer has a 
system of paddles attached to a shaft for thor- 
oughly mixing the sand while it is being 
cooled and tempered. The sand is discharged 
at the opposite end into elevators and con- 
veyors for delivery to the molding section 
ready for use. 

The advantages of the system are many, re- 







suiting in uniform molding with comparatively 
unskilled labor, each man conflning himself to 
one molding operation and an intelligent 
laborer can be taught his portion of the work 
very quickly. It has been found by actual op- 
eration and in the production of 400 wheels 
daily the average molding loss is about 2^2 
percent. All the pouring is done at one point 
near the mixing ladle, which avoids variations 
in temperature of the iron poured owing to 
its conveyance to a distant portion of the shop 
or near the cupola in an old system shop. 
The time of stripping all wheels is under the 
control of the man in charge which insures 
the pitting being done at the proper tempera- 
ture and the wheels follow each other uni- 
formly, exactly the same time elapsing be- 
tween the pouring and pitting of every wheel. 
This is impossible under the old floor system 
where the wheels are conveyed variable dis- 
tances before pitting. By this continuous sys- 
tem the heat from the pouring and stripping 
is entirely removed from the mold- 
ing section and all wheels are 
stripped and pitted in the shortest 
time possible, reduces the loss 
of heat by radiation, bottles it up 
in the pit for annealing and avoids 
roasting the men at the work. A 
trial of this system through two 
summers has proved the pouring 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



and stripping to be much easier than under the 
old floor system and is due to the fact that only 
one ladle of iron and not more than two wheels 
are radiating heat in the shop at the same 
time. Under the old system each molder and 
helper handles 4j/< tons of sand three or four 
times a day, which is done mechanically by 
this improved method, the whole operation of 
handling the sand, molten iron, hot wheels 
and flasks is reduced to a minimum and Mr. 
Sherman is now perfecting a molding device 
to complete the cycle of mechanical operations 
necessary to the manufacture of machine 
molded car wheels. 

The number of men required to operate a 
plant equipped as shown in the drawings is 
as follows: 

No. Wage 

of Men. Occupation. Per day. Total. 

I Painting Chills $1.25 $ 1.25 

12 Sand Rammers 2.50 30.00 

4 Finishers 4.50 1800 

I Clamp Up 2.00 2.00 

1 Pourer 3.00 3.00 

I Ladle Attendant 1.50 1.50 

6 Shaking Out 1.75 10.50 

2 Changing Flasks 1.50 3.00 

I Tempering Sand 2.50 2.50 

2 Pitting 2.00 4.00 

I Cupola tender 3.25 3.25 

I Cupola tender helper. 2.00 2.00 

2 Laborers 1.50 3.00 

Total $84.00 

The above number of men will produce 350 
good wheels in 10 hours which makes a total 
cost of 24 cents per wheel from molding to 
pitting inclusive and is a saving of 21 cents 
per wheel from molding with 35 cents for 
molding and 10 cents additional for foundry 
labor under the old system. With the applica- 
tion of the molding device for which a patent 
has been asked, there will be a further saving 
making the total aggregate 25 cents a wheel. 


In the February number of The Foundry I 
notice you gave considerable space to Alumino- 
thermics. Having had some experience with 
this metal I thought I would offer it to your 
valuable paper and if you deem it worth 
space it may be the means of assisting some- 
one who may have occasion to use thermit 
for mending. The W. H. Mullins Sheet 
Metal & Structural Works, of Salem, O., 

had a large 8-ton anvil for a drop hampier 
break at the point where one of the guides 
bolted on, and as the anvil was worth about 
$600, they thought it would pay them to Weld 
it with thermit. ^ 

Not caring to undertake making the molds 
they requested the Silver M. F. G. Co., of 
Salem, O., to do that part of the work. Mr. 
Homer Silver, the superintendent of the foun- 
dry department, assigned the writer to do the 
work. I will now describe as close as I can the 
way the work was done. Owing to large brace 
ribs on the anvil it was impossible to take the 
molds from the broken anvil and we requested 
them to take plaster casts from the broken an- 
vil and make a duplicate of the broken end of 
the anvil out of plaster. We then made a 
box which we nailed loosely together, made 
a cast core arbor and made the cores from 
the plaster duplicate. After the cores were 
rammed up and taken away from the plaster 
duplicate we pulled the box apart and took it 
away from the cores, thus saving the trouble 
of making iron boxes as was recommended by 
the circulars sent us by the thermit company, 
and I believe that the cores will dry better and 
a better opportunity is given the vent to es- 
cape. Also a better opportunity to guard 
against leak or runout by dispensing with the 
iron box. 

The mixture we used for the core where it 
came in contact with the thermit metal was 
40 percent china clay and 60 percent sharp 
sand ; this we used as a facing, filling the rest 
of the space with common core sand. After 
the cores were dry we mixed a clay wash 
with the china clay about as thick as milk, and 
into a quart of this clay wash we put one 
pound of a good quality of graphite facing 
and painted the parts of the core exposed to 
the metal with this wash. 

The core stood the metal and showed no 
scabs or blows. The cores were too large to 
handle by hand which made our job fitting 
them to the anvil a little more difficult. The 
lower core we left remain on the core plate 
placing it beneath the anvil,, we raised it into 
position and secured it there. We then fitted 
the top core in place temporarily, then tak- 
ing it away we cleaned out the molds and 
heated the anvil to about a red heat. The top 
core was then put in place permanently and 
clamped from the plate beneath the bottom 
core to the cast iron arbor in the top half 
of core. We then rammed sand above the 
joint to prevent a runout. The basin for the 
surplus metal was in the top half of core, the 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

slag basin we made by taking an old drag and 
lining it with common molding sand as one 
would do in makng a runner. 

The crucible was put in place and 350 lb. 
of thermit metal and 50 11^ of steel punchings 
placed in it as directed by the Thermit Co. 
The igniting fuse was lighted and the metal 
let stand one minute before tapping. Notwith- 
standing the short time it required the metal 
to run out of the crucible the heavy walls and 
metal jacket of the crucible were white hot 
on the outside by the time the metal was all 
out. To the naked eye it looked much brighter 
than an arc light. As for the violence of the 
reaction any one who has ever seen a mold 
btow up, and I think we all have, has seen more 
violence than the writer saw from the thermit 

The weld was successful but I would advise 
anyone contemplating using thermit to weld 
cast iron to multiply by three instead of two 
as directed by the Thermit Co. That is, find 
how many pounds of metal it will take to 
fill the fracture thermit collar gates and mul- 
tiply this by three and that will give the 
amount of thermit required if you wish to 
be sure of success. 

The Thermit Co. says to run as much metal 
through as is required to fill the fracture and 
thermit collar, but from what I saw of Ther- 
mit I don't believe that in welding cast iron 
that amount is enough. 

When I was making these cores I bared 
one of the spurs of the cast iron arbor and 
placed a wrought iron rod in the core beside 
the cast spur with the end exposed in a like 
manner to see which metal it would adhere 
to the best. When we stripped the molds 
off the wrought iron rod was welded to the 
thermit steel and in trying to get it away it 
broke off above the weld, but the cast iron 
spur did not even take hold which led me to 
believe that more thermit is required to weld 
cast iron than it would require to weld wrought 
iron or steel. 

As far as the foundry is concerned I do not 
believe that that thermit at its present price 
will be of much value. Unless the casting was 
a very valuable one it would not pay to at- 
tempt to mend it, and if a customer was paying 
a large sum for a casting he would hardly take 
one that was patched. Owing to the enor- 
mous shrinkage of thermit it is useless 
for filling holes in castings, and if a light or 
delicate casting were operated on with thermit 
it would surely weaken or break it. The only 
way in which I can see that thermit might be 

of use to the foundry would be in the blending 
of iron and steel. The iron could be drawn 
from the cupola and thermit melted in the 
crucible and mixed without the steel coming 
in contact with the impurities of the cupola 
which are so injurious to steel. But to the 
machine shop where the breaking of some 
part might cause the shutting down of the 
shop or a machine the value of thermit as a 
mending agent can be estimated only by value 
of the time which it would require to get a new 
part, which in some cases would be very great. 
The little experience I had with thermit was 
very interesting to me and I think there are 
many uses to which this metal will be put and 
by the exchange of our experience with ther- 
mit we will all learn its real merit. 

Patrick Redington. 








In answer to G. L. B.'s casting difficulty, I 
would suggest to him that on this particular 
job he ram the mold 
in the vertical posi- 
tion, taking the pre- 
caution to gate the 
mold where the draw- 
ing shows diameter of 
casting to be 3J/I in. 
This, in my opinion, 
should be the bottom 
end, as the shaft pro- ^ 
trudes more and has 
a better hold where the 
strain would be greatest, 
in addition to this gate I 
would still cut another 
slightly smaller at the 
top of the 41/2 in. diame- 
ter with the idea of fill- 
ing the mold up to the 
height from the bottom 
gate, then as the metal 
rises to a more or less 
dull degree than it left 
the ladle the upper gate 
will help to enthuse a 
new life to it with the 
result of a better casting, 
an extra inch of pat- 
tern to be turned off the upper end of casting 
would also be of benefit, but if this is not prac- 
ticable place a riser thereon. After securing 
by clamping, cast on end, as I do not know 
what kind of a flask you are using, great care 
will be necessary to overcome extra strain if 
tackle is weak. WM. LEARY. 




Digitized by 


April, 1905 




The Ingersoll Sergeant Co. have issued an- 
other small catalogue. 4^ x 3J4 in.i entitled 
"Air Compressors." In this, one machine of 
each type which they build is illustrated, and 
a short statement given as to its distinctive 
features and the work for which it is adapted. 

Warren- Webster & Co., of Camden, N. J., 
are sending out a reprint of a paper entitled 
"Circulation of Steam for Heating Purposes, 
at or below the Pressure of the Atmosphere." 
This paper was read by request before the 
American Society of Heating and Ventilating 
Engineers, by Reginald Pelham Bolton. In 
this paper the author treats very interestingly 
the subject of low pressure circulation for 
heating purposes. 

The Rockwell Engineering Co., of New 
York City, have issued a new catalogue des- 
cribing the Rockwell double chamber melting 
furnace. The catalogue is gotten up in very 
neat style and fully illustrates the use of this 
furnace, showing the method of operation in 
detail, also the method of lining. In addition 
to this, a comparative statement is given, show- 
ing the cost of operating this furnace and the 
ordinary style of crucible furnace. 

The Ingersoll-Sergeant Co. have started a 
set of bulletins which are being sent out from 
their pneumatic department. The first one is 
entitled Bulletin No. 2,000, and deals with 
the McDonald rivet forge. This forge would 
be a very handy device for use in a foundry 
where a limited amount of smith work was 


James S. Stirling, who was recently elected 
president of the Crescent Shipyard Corpora- 
tion and of the S. L. Moore & Sons Corpora- 
tion, subsidiary companies of the Bethlehem 
Steel Corporation, has risen rapidly during 
his business career. Mr. Stirling, who is not 
y^t 34 years old, entered the cost department 
of Harlan & Hollingsworth Co. in 1891, and 
in 1892 was made superintendent of the foun- 
dry department. In January, 1903, he became 
vice-commissioner of the National Founders' 
Association. He continued in that position 
until fie resigned to become associated with the 
S. L. Moore & Sons Corporation. Mr. Stirling 
was vice-president for three years of the Phil- 
adelphia Foundr>'men's Association and was 
a member of the third district committee of the 
National Founder's Association during 1901 
and 1902. 

Mr. Benj. J. Downs has bought an interest 
in and taken charge of the Harry A. Spears 
brass foundry, 130 Oliver street, Boston, Mass. 
Mr. Downs has had years of experience as 
foreman and is a progressive foundryman. 

Mr. Hugh McPhee, foreman of Eaton, Cole 
& Burnham Co.'s brass foundry at Bridgeport, 
Conn., gave a very interesting talk on molding 
before the Mechanical Club of the Y. M. C. A. 
of that city. He illustrated the talk by making 
a mold and pouring it with white metal. 

On March 2nd, Mr. E. H. Mumford, of the 
Tabor Mfg. Co., Philadelphia, Pa., read a 
paper on foundry molding machines before 
the Franklin Institute. 

Wesley R. Mason has been promoted to the 
position pi district manager at the Detroit 
shops of the American Car & Foundry Co., 
as successor to George Hargreaves, resigned. 
Mr. Mason, although a young man, has been 
connected with the company 17 years. D. W. 
Hawksworth, who has been mechanical en- 
gineer for the company at Detroit, will be as- 
sistant to Manager Mason. 

Mr. C. B. Murray, for may years chief chem- 
ist of the Carnegie Steel Co., at its Edgar 
Thomson Works, has associated himself with 
Mr. G. P. Maury in the active management of 
the Metallurgical Laboratory, 611 Bailey-Far- 
rell Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 


The foundry plant of the Rogers Machine 
Foundry Co., of Riverside, Cal., was damaged 
by fire to the extent of $3,000 on March 6th, 
with $2,000 insurance. 

The foundry plant of the Hardie-Tynes 
Foundry & Machine Co., of Birmingham, Ala., 
was damaged by fire on March 12th to the ex- 
tent of $20,000, which is covered by insurance. 
The fire evidently originated in the core ovens. 

The foundry of I. Droege & Sons, of Cov- 
ington, Ky., was visited by a serious fire on 
March 6th. The molding department was en- 
tirely destroyed, together with some new tools 
and a large amount of stock. The loss is esti- 
mated at $35,000, which is fully covered by 
insurance. The engine room, pattern and pat- 
tern storage departments and some other de- 
partments were saved. 

A fire which started in the molding shop of 
J. Fleury's Sons, Aurora, Ontario, Feb. 28, 
destroyed core boxes in use and did consid- 
erable damage to the roof. Loss $2,000. 

The Crawford- Speer Foundry & Machine 
Co.'s plant at Bridgewater, Pa., was destroyed 

Digitized by 




April, 1905 

by fire on Feb. 15, entailing a loss of about 
$9,000, which is offset by $4,000 insurance. 

The foundry of Engelman & Sons, of Benton 
Harbor, Mich., was slightly damaged by fire 
on Feb. i6th. 

The foundry plant of the Bovee Furnace 
and Grinder Works, of Waterloo, la., was 
destroyed by fire on March 3rd, with a loss 
amounting to $15,000, which was partially cov- 
ered by insurance. The work of the foundry 
will be done in other foundries in the city until 
the company can rebuild the burned structure. 

The plant of the Davis Foundry and Ma- 
chine Works, in West Rome, Ga., was de- 
stroyed by fire on March 3rd. The loss was 
about $9,000, partially covered by insurance. 

The foundry of the Flint-Lomax plant at 
Denver, Colo., was damaged by fire to the ex- 
tent of $2,500 on Feb. 23. The loss was fully 
covered by insurance. 

A fire in the plant of the Jones & Bruce 
Foundry, Cincinnati, Feb. 25, partially de- 
stroyed the plant, causing a damage of $2,500. 

The Lakeside Malleable Iron Works, Lake- 
side, Wis., three miles south of Milwaukee, 
was burned March i. The plant was valued at 
$125,000, and is a total loss. The Bruce Engine 
Co.'s plant and the Racine Iron & Steel Works 
were damaged. 

The Fort Payne Stove Foundry, of Fort 
Payne, Ala., was visited by fire on Feb. 23rd, 
and a large portion of the plant destroyed. 
The office, stables and pattern department were 
about all that were saved. 

McCormick & Co.'s foundry at Pittsburg, 
Pa., was slightly damaged by fire on Feb. 21. 

The plant of the Missouri Malleable Iron 
Co., of East St. Louis, 111., was visited by a 
fire on March 7th, with a loss of $100,000. A 
considerable portion of the plant, however, 
was saved. 

The foundry of the Cedar Falls Iron and 
Brass Works, of Cedar Falls, la., was de- 
stroyed by fire on Feb. 15th. The loss was 
$20,000, against which there is only a small 
amount of insurance. 

A portion of the foundry and the pattern de- 
partment of Pascal Amesse, Montreal, Canada, 
was damaged by fire on Feb. 24th. The dam- 
age is estimated at 1.500, being largely due to 
the destruction of valuable patterns. 

The foundry connected with the plants of the 
Barcus Horse Stock Co. and the Wabash Stove 
Co., of Wabash, Ind., was burned on March 
5th, with a loss of several thousand dollars, 
■upon which there was a small amount of in- 
surance. The most important loss was the pat- 

terns, among which there was a full set for 
automobile engines. 


Abendroth Bros., New York, will build a 
new molding shop 90 x 175 ft. at the plant in 
Newburgh, N. Y. They will also erect a 
machine shop 50 x 140 ft., six stories high. 

Plans are being perfected by Stanley G. 
Flagg & Co., Pottstown, Pa., for the erection 
of a building on the site of the foundry re- 
cently destroyed by fire. The new building 
will probably be larger than the old structure. 

The Central Foundry Co., of Vincennes, Ind., 
are planning to build an addition to their plant 
which will give them from 15 to 20 more mold- 
ing floors. 

The Butler Foundry & Iron Co., of Chicago, 
111., has taken out a building permit for a one- 
story addition to its plant, to cost $8,000. 

The Missouri Malleable Iron Works, East 
St. Louis, 111., will rebuild the annealing build- 
ing which was destroyed by fire March 7. The 
new structure will be no ft. wide by 150 ft. 
long, and will cost about $45,000. 

The Joy Stove Wotks, of Chicago, 111., are 
to construct a new plant at a cost of about 

M. A. A. Guilbert is making plans for a new 
foundry for the Lakeside Malleable Casting 
Co., of Racine, Wis., to take the place of the 
buildings recently destroyed by fire. The 
buildings are to be constructed of steel and 

Plans have been completed for a new fac- 
tory, including a foundry, for the Aldine Grate 
& Mantel Co., at Grand Rapids, Mich. They 
expect to build their plant in the near future 
and to have it in operation by August. 

The I. Droege Foundry Co., of Covington, 
Ky., expect to replace their plant, which was 
recently destroyed by fire, with a steel struc- 
ture. Temporary quarters for carrying on the 
work will be erected in the meantime. 

J. H. Newbury, of Middletown, N. Y., is 
planning to erect an addition to his foundry at 
Goshen, N. Y. The addition will be 40 x 100 
ft. and will be occupied for offices, while pres- 
ent offices will be fitted up for a machine shop. 

A building permit* has been granted to the 
Central Iron Works, of Syracuse, N. Y., for 
the construction of several buildings including 
a foundry. 

Work at the Kerbaugh plant, near Bellwood, 
Pa., is progressing rapidly. Several of the 
buildings are practically completed and it is 
expected that the plant will be in operation 

Digitized by 

Google I 

April, 1905 



May I St. The machine shop will be 120 x 230 
ft and the foundry 50 x 50 ft. 

The work of rebuilding the foundry of The- 
odore F. Conner, of Bloomsburg, Pa., has been 
begun and will be pushed as rapidly as possi' 

The J. B. Morris Foundry Co. will erect a 
large concrete addition to their foundry at 
Cincinnati, O. 

The Carroll Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Bucyrus, O., will erect a new steel foundry 
building 130 x 300 ft. during the coming sum- 

Work on the new Day- Ward foundry at 
Warren, O., is progressing rapidly. 

Jas. H. Rhodes, architect, 429 Broadway, 
Logansport, Ind., has plans for a four-story 
machine shop, 50 x 150 ft., and a one-story 
foundry building 60 x 100 ft. 

McCarthy & Malinski, of Cairo, 111., have 
commenced the erection of their new foundry 
and machine shops at Cairo, 111. 

The Prescott Co., at Menominee, Mich., con- 
templates erecting a foundry for the manufac- 
ture of steel castings. 

The Kalamazoo Stove Co., Kalamazoo, 
Mich., which recently increased its capital stock 
from $200,000 to $315,000, will erect a large 
warehouse 300 x 215 ft., and a power building 
to enclose a 350 H. P. Buckeye tandem com- 
pound engine, Union Steam Pump Co.'s pumps, 
condenser, Cahall boilers and a Crocker- 
Wheeler generator direct connected. 

The Detroit Steel Casting Co., Detroit, 
whose plant was recently destroyed by fire, will 
build on a much larger scale than at first con- 
templated. There will be a large additional 

The Harlan & Hollingsworth Co., of Wil- 
mington, Del., are making quite extensive 
changes in their plant, and are preparing for 
the erection of a new foundry. 

The Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co. have 
awarded a contract for the construction of 
the additions to their plant at Louisville, Ky., 
including a foundry and warehouse. The ad- 
ditions will cost about $50,000. The foundry 
will be 150 x 280 ft., and there will be several 
other large buildings. 

Work has been progressing as rapidly as 
possible on the plant of the Bacon-Collins Co., 
of Albany, Ga., but it is probable that their 
machine shop and foundry will not be com- 
pleted before May ist. 

Mr. Maddox, of Jacksonville, Fla., is plan- 
ning to erect a foundry and machine shop, 

which he expects to have in operation in the 
near future. • 

A foundry is being added to the Burns Boiler 
& Machine Co.'s plant at Jonesboro, Ark. This 
will enable them to do work which they have 
formerly had to get from Memphis, Tenn. 

The Davenport Locomotive Co., Davenport, 
la., will erect a large addition to its plant, a 
tract of 12 acres having been purchased re- 
cently for that purpose. 

The Olbrich & Clay Foundry at Cedar Falls, 
la., which was recently destroyed by fire, will 
be rebuilt. 

Geo. Clare, president of the Clare Mfg. Co., 
of Preston, Canada, recently visited Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, and made arrangements for the 
erection of a foundry plant by his company. 
They have purchased five acres of ground and 
will begin work in the near future. 


We are informed that the new works of Geo. 
G. Blackwell, Sons & Co., Ltd., Liverpool, 
England, for the manufacture of ferro-silicon 
are completed, and will be in operation early 
in April. They will have the largest output 
of ferro-silicon of any works in the world 
and will produce grades as follows: 25 per 
cent, 50 per cent and a third grade varying 
between 70 and 75 per cent. They will take 
great pains to have their alloys low in phos- 
phorus, and also state that their grades con- 
taining a high percentage of silicon are made 
in such a way that they will not crumble into 
a powder but will remain solid. 

Keith Furnace Co., Des Moines, la., has just 
completed the erection of a new building to 
be used for offices and a pattern room. The 
space in the main buildings formerly used for 
this purpose will be given over to the foundry 
and assembling departments. 

The new plant of the Leyner Engineering 
Co., at Littleton, Col., erected on state land, 
has been completed. The machine building is 
280 ft. long and is planned for lengthwise ex- 
tension to 400 ft. The forging building is 
61 X 161 ft., and the pattern building 41 x 
141 ft. 

At the recent annual meeting of the Ameri- 
can Hardware Corporation, New Britain, 
Conn., it was decided to increase the capital 
stock from $5,000,000 to $7,500,000, a part of 
the new capital to be used in purchasing the 
Corbin Cabinet Lock Co., which has a capital 
stock of $200,000. The stockholders chose the 
following directors: Philip Corbin, Andrew 

Digitized by 



April, T905 

Corbin, Charles M. Jarvis, A. J. Sloper, 
Charles H. Parsons, Charles^ Glover, Howard 
S. Hart, S. C Dunham, of Hartford; Frederick 
P. Wilcox, John H. Whittemore, of Nauga- 
tuck; Charles Miller, of Waterbury, and 
George W. Corbin. The last two named di- 
rectors were added to the board to represent 
the Corbin Cabinet Lock interests, and the 
board otherwise remains the same as last year. 
The corporation has recently increased its divi- 
dend from zVi pftr cent yearly to i percent. 
The directors' annual report of the American 
Hardware Corporation gave the total assets 
of the subsidiary companies as $7,992,201 ; the 
bills and accounts payable amounting to $868,- 
532, leaving the net assets $7,123,668. The net 
earnings during the year were $548,240, about 
the same as in 1903. 

The Niles-Bement-Pond Co., of New York, 
have purchased the plant of the Cresswell & 
Waters Co., Philadelphia, Pa., which includes 
a machine shop and foundry and some other 

The Johnstown Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Johnstown, Pa., has applied for a charter. 
The new plant is to manufacture iron and 
Lteel castings, mine cars and other machinery. 
This is a reorganization of the Cambria 
Foundry & Machine Co., and the incorporators 
are Geo. A. Hager, John W. Walters, N. 
Bruce Griffith, Harry M. Benshoff and John 
N. Horn. The company is to have a capital 
cif $30,000. 

The Globe Foundry Co., of Port Chester, 
N. Y., has been incorporated with a capital of 
$40,000. The incorporators ore C. H. Under- 
wood, Henry D. Merchant, and John C. Mer- 

The Davison-Namack Foundry Co., Ballston 
Spa, N. Y., recently incorporated, has bought 
out the business of Uline Bros., of that city. 
The plant, while not large, is in good shape as 
far as convenience is concerned. The foundry 
is a modern one, and work can be handled up 
to six tons. The new owners have been re- 
pairing the machine shop and have added a 
jig saw and buzz planer to the pattern shop. 
Other machinery and equipment will be in- 
stalled as the business warrants. The com- 
pany has land enough to enlarge, which it 
hopes to do within a year. 

The stockholders of the Tacony Iron Co., 
of Tacony, Pa., will meet in Philadelphia on 
April 27th to vote on an increase in the cap- 
ital stock of the company from $50,000 to 
$200,000, the funds thus provided to be used in 
increasing the capacity of the plant, which is 

located at Tacony, Pa., and consists of an 
iron foundry, brass foundry, machine shop, etc. 

Mr. C. H. Urick, of Erie, Pa., is at the head 
of the project for starting a new jobbing foun- 
dry in Erie. His three sons will engage in the 
business with him. They expect to spend 
about $25,000 in equipping a new plant and will 
have it in operation in about two months. 

The National Elevator & Machine Works, of 
Honesdale, Pa., has been sold to H. F. Gucr- 
ney, New York, N. Y. 

The Ohio Brass & Iron Mfg. Co., Cleveland, 
which recently increased its capital, does not 
intend to erect any buildings at present, but 
expects to use the new capital in extending its 
business. Three traveling salesmen have been 
added to the outside force. 

The American Castings & Register Co., of 
Akron, O., has been incorporated with a capi- 
tal of $25,000. The incorporators are Daniel 
Motz. Geo. N. Dugot, Edward H. Arend, Cloyd 
R. Quine and William H. Kroeger. The com- 
pany will take over the business of the Amer- 
ican Castings Co., the plant will be enlarged 
and general line of foundry business carried 
on in addition to the manufacture of hot air 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders of 
the Portsmouth Stove & Range Co., Ports- 
mouth, O., the following officers were elected 
for the ensuing year. President, F. V. Knauss ; 
F. M. Knauss, vice-president, and Robt. G. 
Bryan, secretary and treasurer. 

D. E. Dangler and Paul Schneider are inter- 
ested in the formation of a company to be 
known as the Best Foundry Co., of Bedford, 

John E. Angell & Co., East St. Louis, 111., 
have been incorporated with a capital of $25,- 
000, to conduct a general foundry and machine 
manufacturing business. The incorporators 
are: John K Angell, James G. McHale and 
W. T. Summer. 

The Tuscaloosa Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Tuscaloosa, Ala., has been formed to carry on 
a general machine shop and foundry business. 
The officers are Ed. W. McDonald, president 
and manager; F. L. McDonald, vice-president, 
and J. S. Hanson, secretary and treasurer. 

The Birmingham Stove & Foundry Co., of 
Birmingham, Ala., has been organized with a 
capital of $25,000. The incorporators are H. 
D. Maus, James M. Jolly, K M. Chestnutt, J. 
B. Gibson, W. G. Ester, C. E. Thomas, T. F. 
Thomas, and T. F. Wimberly. The company 
expects to manufacture stoves and ranges. 

The Whitman Agricultural Co., St. Louis, 

Digitized by 


April, 1905 



Mo., whose pattern building was recently dam- 
aged by fire, has not been seriously inconven- 
ienced. The plant is now in operation as for- 

The Cunmiings Machine Works has been or- 
ganized at Boston, Mass., to operate a foundry 
and machine shop. Henry H. Cummings is 
president and treasurer, and the capital stock 
is $25,000. 

The Hallcast Foundry Co., Providence, R. I., 
has been organized recently for the purpose 
of casting dies by a patent process. Mr. T. 
Parker Hall, Jr., is the manager. 

The Frazer & Jones Co., Syracuse, N. Y., 
have decided to enlarge their plant by erecting 
new buildings to be used as foundry and pat- 
tern shop. They have also elected the follow- 
ing officers for the coming year: President, 
R. W. Jones; vice-president, Fred Frazer; 
treasurer, Chas. R. Jones; secretary, O. P. 

G. W. Frazier and brother, of Frankfort, 
N. Y., have purchased of Wm. Dixon, his ma- 
chine shop at Adams, Jefferson county, N. Y. 
They will erect a foundry in the spring and 
will do general machine business. Mr. Dixon 
who is 82 years of age, retires after an honora- 
ble business career of over 50 years. 

John Gilroy and Henry Johnson have formed 
a partnership for the purpose of carrying on a 
brass foundry at 252 Whitesboro street, Utica, 
N. Y. 

The plant of the Baldt Steel Casting Co., of 
New Castle, Pa., is partly completed, the ma- 
chinery is being installed, and the furnaces 
gotten ready for operation. 

The Marshall Foundry Co., of Pittsburg, 
Pa., has been incorporated with a capital of 
$150,000. The directors are W. M. McCulloch, 
W. D. Marshall, Reid F. Blair, Wm. W. Wis- 
hart, of Pittsburg, and Joseph K. Killinghest, 

The British steamer Tantalion has arrived 
in Philadelphia with a cargo of 4,000 tons of 
pig iron from Middlesborough, England, con- 
signed to a Philadelphia firm to be used in the 
manufacture of cast iron water pipe and re- 
shipped to England. United States Consul H. 
Gay Evans, London, reports that 3»i50 tons 
of pig iron were shipped to the United States 
during December from Middlesborough. 

The Mahoning Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Youngstown, O., have purchased from the ex- 
ecutors of the Geo. B. Sennett estate the punch 
and shear plant. It is announced that the new 
owners will push the business more energeti- 
cally than ever before. 

The Stark Foundry Co., of Canton, O., has 
been incorporated with a capital of $5,000. The 
incorporators are G. P. Bonsky, G. A. Bonsky, 
G. F. Ebel, P. Bonsky and A. J. Bonsky. 

The Canton Malleable Iron Co., Canton, O., 
is rebuilding its foundry, recently destroyed by 
fire, as rapidly as possible. The firm is crowd- 
ed with orders in its foundry department 

The Loveland Foundry Co., Loveland, O., 
capital $10,000, has been incorporated by Daniel 
Donnelly, John A. Seymour, Harry Donnelly, 
George Chambers and Horace B. Jones. 

The Aetna Machine & Foundry Co., of War- 
ren, O., has changed hands, Mr. Fred Russell 
having purchased the interests of Mrs. Lloyd 
Booth, Chas. H. Booth, H. M. Garlick and 
Charles W. Bray. This gives him four-fifths 
of the stock, the remaining one-fifth being 
owned by his father, J. W. Russell, who is 
about to retire from active business. 

The property of the National Valve Co., San- 
dusky, O., was sold last week to the bondhold- 
ers, and a reorganization is to be effected. 

The Dennison Foundry Co., of Dennison, O., 
has been incorporated with a capital of $60,000. 
The incorporators are : M. Dunn, J. F. Digan, 
P. F. Smith, Jr., K D. Moody and W. A. 

The Ohio Brass and Iron Works Co., of 
Qeveland, O., has increased its capital stock 
from $50,000 to $100,000. 

The stockholders of the Kelly Foundry & 
Machine Co., of Goshen, Ind., have elected the 
following officers for the ensuing year : Frank 
Kelly, president and treasurer; H. B. Kelly, 
vice-president and manager of tank depart- 
ment ; Charles F. Kelly, secretary and superin- 

The Wayne Stove Co., of Fort Wayne, Ind., 
has been organized with a capital of 
$50,000. The incorporators are Wm. H. F. 
Moellering, Saml. M. Holtzman, Geo. B. Al- 
drich, Albert K Hart and H. W. Dickman. 

The old Dorner Truck & Foundry Co.'s 
plant, Logansport, Ind., is to be reopened and 
employment furnished to 75 men. The Dor- 
ner Mfg. Co., capital stock $100,000, has been 
incorporated to manufacture car trucks, etc. 
The directors are : H. A. Domer, R. D. Buck- 
ingham, Oscar Lund, B. H. Walrath and Uoyd 
J. Smith. Work will begin at once to put the 
plant in shape for operation. The defunct 
Dorner Truck & Foundry Co. was organized 
about four years ago, but through lack of 
funds and other difficulties was obliged to cease 

Digitized by 




April. 1905 

The Mattoon Stove Foundry, of Mattoon, 
111., which has been idle for some time, has 
started up once more. 

The Excelsior Mfg. Co., Chicago, has been 
incorporated with a capital of $2,500 to man- 
ufacture castings and machinery. The incor- 
porators are: L. H. Flint, L. A. Koepfle and 
Wm. J. Krueger. 

The plant of the Fountain City Drill Works, 
La Crosse, Wis., has been sold to B. E. Ed- 
wards, who has leased the plant to the Summit 
Stove Works, which will use it for the manu- 
facture of stoves. The building will be re- 
modeled and equipped with suitable machinery. 
Chas. Walker has started in business in De- 
troit, Mich., his company being known as the 
Walker Motor Foundry & Machine Co. 

The Oltmer Iron Works, Hoboken, N. J., 
recently incorporated with a capital stock of 
$25,000, has taken over the plant and business 
of Christian Oltmer, of that city, and will man- 
ufacture structural and monumental iron. 

Sumter Iron Works, Sumter, S. C, which 
has been conducted by W. E. and John I. Brun- 
son, has been incorporated with a capital stock 
of $12,000, and the following officers have been 
elected: John I. Brunson, president; W. E. 
Brunson, vice-president and general manager; 
E. W. Moise, secretary and treasurer. The 
company will be in the market for machinery 
for installation in its machine shop. 

By special act of the county commissioners, 
the new pipe plant of the Coosa Pipe & Foun- 
dry Co., at Gadsden, Ala., has been made ex- 
empt from taxation for a period of five years. 
The city has already exempted the company 
from city taxation. The new plant will employ 
500 men when it is completed. 

The Newport Foundry & Machine Co., 
whose plant at Newport, Ky., was recently sold 
to the strikers, has changed its name to the 
Weber Foundry Co., and purchased the foun- 
dry plant, contracts and good will of the Wess- 
ling Bros., who have operated a foundry at 
McLean and Sherman avenues, Cincinnati, on 
the Southern Railroad. The company will con- 
tinue to make gray iron castings. Henry J. 
Weber is president. 

The Wellsburg Heating, Ventilating & Foun- 
dry Co., of Wellsburg, W. Va., expects to 
make extensive additions to its foundry in 
future, which will greatly increase its output. 
The Davis-Forrest Machine Works, of Sa- 
vannah, Ga., expects to erect an iron and brass 

The Peacock Iron Works, Selma, Ala., is 
seeking another location, and may move to 

Chattanooga, Tenn. The company's specialty 
is car wheels and cars of all sizes and kinds. 
The company wishes to triple its capacity. 

The Exchange Machine Works, of Birming- 
ham, Ala., has filed a petition in the probate 
court to change its name to the Vulcan Ma- 
chine & Foundry Co., and to increase its capital 
stock from $2,000 to $10,000. 

Knoxville Foundry & Machine Co., Knox- 
ville, Tenn., has been incorporated with a cap- 
ital stock of $25,000. The incorporators are: 
John P. Staub, Frederick Staub, Charles H. 
Smith, James H. Weicker and R. H. Sanson. 

Nelson Story, Jr., of Bozeman, Montana, is 
planning to move his foundry from Bozeman 
to Billings, Montana. 

The Great Western Heater Co., of Des 
Moines, la., has been organized by Mr. R. J. 
Shank. The company will have its headquar- 
ters in Des Moines and will manufacture heat- 
ers. Mr. Shank has had long experience in 
this class of work. 

The Byron-York Machinery Co., Pueblo, 
Col., has been incorporated with a capital of 
$25,000. The company proposes to manufac- 
ture gasoline engines chiefly, but has made ar- 
rangements for general machine foundry busi- 
ness. The directors are: F. D. Wallaker, O. 
E. Byron, W. A. Borroughs, H. L. York and 
A. E. York. The factory is located in Peublo. 
The machinery for the new plant of the 
Grant's Pass Iron & Steel Works, of Grant's 
Pass, Ore., is being installed and Grant's Pass 
will soon have the largest foundry in the state 
south of Portland. 

The Tulsa Foundry & Machine Co., of Tulsa, 
I. T., has been incorporated with a capital 
of $5,000. The officers are : Ed. C. Reynolds, 
president ; M. B. Baird, vice president ; and W. 
I. Reneau, secretary and treasurer. 

The Union Foundry Co., of Seattle, Wash., 
has been incorporated with a capital stock of 
$18,000. The incorporators are: Axel Sjos- 
trom, Nels Kartvig and Adolph Swensen. 

The Canadian Fairbanks Co., Ltd., has been 
formed by Henry J. Fuller, of Montreal, Can- 
ada. They will take over all the interests of 
the Fairbanks-Morse Co., including all of their 
contracts, organization and warehouse stocks, 
and will establish a plant in Montreal to man- 
ufacture the Fairbanks scales and other special- 

The Ambrose Foundry Co., St. Joseph, Mo., 
has been incorporated with a capital of $i5iOOO- 
The board of directors will be composed of S. 
F. Rowley, S. F. Ambrose and J. M. Johnson. 

Digitized by 



Vol. 26, N^o. J. 


Whole No 153 

Brass Foundry of the Yale & Towne Mfg, Co., 

Stamford, Conn. 

Like the iron foundrj', this department has 
been very carefully equipped for the produc- 
tion of the special castings required for the 
line of manufacturing that is carried on by 
this company. The brass foundry proper is 
120 by 129 ft. At one end there are two 
rooms, each 34 by 78 ft., one of which is used 
as a core room. The most of the sand for 
the brass foundry is stored in the shed ad- 

which has been used, and with suitable grind- 
ing and sifting machinery for preparing the 
various facings. The furnaces are situated in 
the center of the foundry building, being ar- 
ranged in groups of 16 furnaces each. The 
pots are drawn from the furnaces and carried 
to the side floors on suitable trolleys supported 
from I-beams. They are then taken to the 
molds with ordinary shanks. 


jacent to the foundry and the sand mixing de- 
partment is located in a wing 20 by 24 ft. sit- 
uated on one side of the building. Great care 
is taken in the preparation of the sand for the 
different classes of work, the mixing depart- 
ment being equipped with a magnetic sep- 
arator for removing any iron from the sand 

Practically all the work is bench molding, 
each man being equipped with a bench, the 
necessary number of flasks and bottom boards 
and the required amount of sand. In most 
cases perforated iron plates are used as bot- 
tom boards. As the men prefer to ram their 
flasks with their feet, a rope is suspended over 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 


each tub to assist the man in jumping up on 
to the mold and as a support while using his 
feet for ramming. The flasks are very care- 
fully designed to receive the work being done. 
For all the more delicate work the molds are 
skin dried by placing them around stoves 
which are situated in the center of the building 
near the melting furnaces. The molds are 
smoked by placing them upon suitable racks 
and passing a pot of burning resin under them. 
The fine carbon from the resin smoke serves 
as a blacking or facing. 

The slag and waste material from the fur- 
naces is ground and cleaned in the depart- 
ment located at one end of the brass foundry. 

and the metal so recovered either used in the 
mixtures, or sold to dealers in this class of 

The castings are cleaned and trimmed in 
the department under the metal pattern shop, 
which is situated at one end of the brass 
foundry. This department is equipped with 
metal band saws, trimming presses, grinding 
machinery, pickling vats, sorting tables, etc. 

The vault for the storage of patterns and 
matches is also located at one end of the brass 
foundry and underneath the metal pattern 
shop. This vault is so situated that it can re- 
ceive light from outside windows without in- 
curring fire risk. The matches and patterns 


Digitized by 


May, 1905 



are supported on iron shelves carried on iron 
racks. The only timber work in the room 
which could burn is the 7>^-in. floor, the lad- 
ders and the receiving table and desk of the 
man in charge of the pattern vault. The gen- 
eral construction of the vault is shown by the 
accompanying illustrations. 



In this series of short articles, I propose to 
present as concisely and simply as possible the 
elements of Metallography with special refer- 
ence to the application of this testing method to 
foundry work I shall avoid dealing with hy- 
pothesis or with theories, which are still to a 
great extent of a speculative character, as well 
as with scientific considerations of no im- 
mediate practical application. In short it will 
be my aim to convey such a knowledge of 
metallography as will be of value to those en- 
gaged in the production of castings. 

The Fracture Of Cast Iron vs. Its Micro- 
Structure. — As is well known, foundrymen 
from time immemorial have been in the habit 
of judging of the grade of pig iron by the ap- 
pearance of its fracture. In recent years mod- 
erately successful efforts have been made to 
replace this relatively rough and uncertain test 
by the more accurate and scientific method of 
chemical analysis. Many foundrymen, how- 
ever, are still guided by the appearance of the 
fracture in selecting pig iron for their mixture. 
With all its shortcomings and limitations, the 
fracture test undoubtedly furnishes to the 
trained eye much reliable information regard- 
ing the chemical composition of the iron. The 
reason for this is to be found in the close rela- 
tion which exists between the aspect of the 
fracture of a metal and its physical and chem- 
ical characteristics. Indeed it may be con- 
fidently asserted that any treatment which 
affects the chemical or physical properties of a 
metal will also affect the appearance of its frac- 
ture. If this be so, it only remains for us to 
learn how to read and interpret these changes 
in the aspect of the fracture in order to obtain 
the needed information regarding the proper- 
ties of the metal. As might well be expected 
this will demand considerable experience on 
the part of the observer. The fracture of a 
metal is not an open book in which any one 
may read. A long preliminary schooling is 
generally required and even to the proficient 
student, the book yields, undoubtedly, but a 

very small part of the secrets which it encloses. 
The little which it does yield, however, is gen- 
erally of sufficient value to warrant the effort 
of acquiring the necessary training. Many in- 
stances of notable proficiency in fracture read- 
ing are on record, such, for instance, as the 
remarkable accuracy with which skilful and 
experienced smiths are able to determine the 
refining heat (recalescence point) of steel by 
the appearance of the fracture, and the close 
estimate made by crucible steel makers of the 
carbon content of their steel based solely upon 
fracture inspection. If it be considered that in 
this study of fracture reading we have hardly 
passed the spelling stage, we may confidently 
expect fruitful returns as a reward for further 

• Seeing the closeness of the writing and the 
jealous care with which the metal seeks to 
hide its secrets, it was quite natural that metal- 
lurgists should have called to their assistance 
those instruments of modern research which 
in other fields had been used with such won- 
derful results, namely the magnifying glass 
and the compound microscope. In examining 
the fracture of metals by means of a magnify- 
ing glass we are occasionally able to obtain in- 
formation which the naked eye could not se- 
cure, but it is, on the whole, of but slight as- 
sistance. The examination of the structure of 
metals, on the contrary, by means of a com- 
pound microscope opens up almost unlimited 
possibilities. A wonderful light is thrown on 
the page which we were reading so laborious- 
ly ; new words — new sentences — appear, and we 
have taken a step forward in our knowledge 
of metals which mark an epoch in their study. 

The compound microscope, however, cannot 
be applied to the examination of fractures, the 
magnification which it yields being so great 
that only perfectly plane surfaces can be ob- 
served. The inequalities of a fracture when 
so highly magnified become as many moun- 
tains and valleys: if we focus our eye upon 
the summit of a mountain the valley will be so 
far away as to be but dimly visible, while if we 
bring the valley within visible distance, the 
mountain tops lie so near our eye as to be 
quite undistinguishable. 

In order to apply the microscope to the 
study of metals, it is, therefore, necessary to 
use polished sections, suitably prepared. The 
micro-structure of the metal is in this way re- 
vealed. That a close relation must exist be- 
tween the fracture and the micro-structure 
seems likely, if not certain, but the fracture is 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

like a page roughly written with a blunt pen 
which can be read only imperfectly and with 
much labor, while the micro-structure may be 
compared to a beautiful page of calligraphy in 
which every letter is perfectly formed. 

It will be seen that the microscopical ex- 
amination of metals may be regarded as an ex- 
tension of fracture study. It is still an inquiry 
into the properties of metals by an ocular 
examination of its structural components, but 
it is an infinitely more searching and effective 
method than mere fracture study with the 
naked eye. 

The superiority, in some respects, of the 
microscopical examination over chemical an- 
alysis may be shown by the following consid- 
erations : The properties of a metal do not 
depend so much upon its ultimate composi- 
tion as upon its proximate composition. Some 
substances may have exactly the same ultimate 
composition and still have widely different 
properties because they differ in proximate 
composition. The chemical analysis of metals 
as conducted at the present day furnishes us 
only with the ultimate composition, that is 
with the percentage of the elements the metal 
contains: it yields no information with regard 
to the way these elements combined with each 
other to form the metal; in other words it 
fails to suggest its proximate analysis. The 
microscopical examination of a metal, on the 
contrary, is a step, and a most important one, 
towards this proximate analysis. It reveals 
the constituents of the metal such as they 
exist. It does not tell us that the iron con- 
tains so much carbon but so much carbide of 
iron (Fe*C), and it shows the way in which 
this carbide of iron is associated with the 
balance of the iron; it does not merely give 
the amount of iron present but the number of 
grains of iron with their size, shape and dis- 

Again it is well known that slight changes of 
heat treatment may greatly affect the proper- 
ties of a metal, while it generally leaves its 
ultimate chemical composition unaltered. In 
this connection chemical analysis utterly fails 
to assist us in detecting and interpreting these 
changes. The micro-structure of the metal on 
the contrary is closely related to any change of 
properties, and the effect of heat treatment 
may always be detected in the structure. 


Polishing. — As already mentioned in order 
to examine the structure of cast iron under the 
microscope it is necessary to prepare a polished 

section of the metal. As it is, of course, de- 
sirable to shorten as much as possible this 
operation, it is recommended that sections be 
prepared not exceeding one-half inch square 
or J4 square in. in area. After a little practice 
and with the assistance of a suitable polish- 
ing outfit, the time required to prepare a sam- 
ple of this dimension should not exceed 10 
minutes. Larger samples will demand consid- 
erably more time. 

Samples of cast iron suitable for micro- 
scopical examination may readily be cut from 
test pieces or other castings by means of a 
hand hack saw, or better still by means of a 
power hack saw. Samples of white cast iron 
must, of course, be broken or cut with a thin 
emery disc. 

The polishing should be conducted with care 
and a surface produced quite, if not alto- 
gether, free from even the minutest scratches, 
because such markings when highly magnified 
might seriously interfere with the resolution 
of the structure. 

If the sample has a very rough surface some 
time may be saved by filing it with a smooth 
file. It is then ready for the polishing opera- 

To remove the file or saw marks and obtain 
a surface free from scratches the sample must 
now be rubbed successively over several 
abrasive substances of increasing fineness for 
it is not possible to obtain such a specular 
surface in one operation ; the transformation 
must be gradual. 

In the following pages it will not be at- 
tempted to review the various methods which 
have been advocated by different workers, but 
merely to describe briefly those methods which 
I have found to yield the most satisfactory 

Hand Polishing. — Roughly speaking the 
polishing of samples of metals for micro- 
scopical examination consist in three treat- 
ments: (i) two or more polishings with 
emery (or carborundum) of increasing fine- 
ness, (2) polishing with an intermediate 
powder such as tripoli, crocus, diamontine, 
etc., and (3) polishing with jeweler's rouge. 
Some writers recommend the preparation by 
each worker of his own powders, but I find no 
difficulty in o1)taining very good surfaces with 
the best grades of the powders of commerce. 

While much time is to be saved by the use 
of some simple polishing machine, the opera- 
tion may be conducted entirely by hand, in 
which case the following procedure is recom- 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



mended. Four very smooth and perfectly 
level blocks of wood should be obtained meas- 
uring, say, 6 by 12 inches and i or i^/^ inch 
thick. Upon two of these blocks a piece of 
cotton cloth should be tightly stretched and 
fastened by tacks to the four sides, while upon 
the other two blocks, pieces of fine broadcloth 
should be similarly stretched and fastened. 

A small amount of emery powder No. 80 
should now be poured on one of the polishing 
blocks covered with cotton cloth, and mixed 
with sufficient water to form a thick paste. 
This paste should be spread over the block, 
conveniently by means of a spatula, and with 
the addition of a little more water, if neces- 

The sample of metal which should have been 
previously carefully filed with a smooth file 
should now be rubbed back and forth over this 
block at right angle with the file marks, with- 
out changing its position until the latter have 
been removed, and replaced by finer markings 
due to the action of the emery powder. The 
sample should be carefully washed — prefer- 
ably in running water— as well as the fingers 
of the operator, and then rubbed over the 
second polishing block, covered with cotton 
cloth and some flour emery of the best quality, 
precisely as before. The specimen should be 
held in such a way that the new marks cross 
the old ones at right angle, because the com- 
plete disappearance of the latter can then be 
more readily detected. The sample, after 
being carefully washed, is ready for the next 
treatment. Some of the tripoli powder should 
be spread, with the addition of water, over one 
of the blocks covered with broadcloth, and the 
specimen rubbed over this block until all the 
markings left by the fine emery are replaced 
by finer ones running at right angles. After 
careful washing the sample should now be 
rubbed over the last polishing block, covered 
with fine jeweler's rouge and water, until all 
the scratches have been removed. In the case 
of grey cast iron many small irregular cav- 
ities can be detected by the naked eye, but 
these mark the location of the graphitic car- 
bon, and will be readily distinguished from 
scratches. A magnifying glass is very useful 
in inspecting polished specimens. 

The polished sample should now be carefully 
washed and dried with a soft cloth — preferably 
an old piece of linen. Where an air blast is 
at hand, as is generally the case in chemical 
laboratories, it is advised to dry the specimen 
by means of this blast instead of drying it with 

a cloth, because by so doing we diminish the 
danger of scratching it. Even after drying by. 
the air blast, however, the sample will gener- 
ally have to be gently wiped with a cloth. 

In conducting the polishing operation, the 
student is advised to press the specimen light- 
ly over the polishing block, especially when 
using the fine powders. Great care should be 
taken not to carry any coarse powder over a 


polishing block upon which a finer powder is 
used, as the presence of but a few particles of 
coarser powder will greatly lengthen the 
operation. It is, therefore, of much im- 
portance to keep all the blocks carefully cov- 
ered when not in use, as well as the bottles 
containing the powders. Cardboard covers 
will readily be procured to cover the polishing 


The use of some simple power driven pol- 
ishing machine naturally suggests itself to 
hasten the polishing operation. In Fig. i is 
shown a device which has given excellent re- 
sults and which is widely used. It consists 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

of a grinding machine of the usual style, carry- 
ing four discs revolving in a vertical plane: 
the first disc is an emery wheel of suitable 
grade, the second a cast iron disc covered with 
canvas and the next two, wooden or cast iron 
discs covered with broadcloth. A simple 
arrangement permits the quick removal of 
torn cloths whenever necessary. Flour 
emery, tripoli powder and rouge are respect- 
ively applied at the center of the three last 
discs in the shape of a thick paste, conven- 
iently by means of a brush while the machine 
is running. Water may be added from time 
to time as needed in a similar manner. Shields 

earlier types, is well designed and is also sim- 
ple and easy to operate. Fig. i shows the ma- 
chine with the working parts exposed, the 
main portion of the complete machine being 
in one casting. The top of this is bored and 
faced to receive the core dies, one of which is 
shown laid by the foot of the machine; these 
dies are made interchangeable and are easily 
removed from the frame, when it is desired to 
make another size of core. The method of 
fixing being by means of a bayonet joint, a 
quarter turn by hand secures the die firmly 
in its place. 
A crosshead and rack carry a piston or 




are provided for catching the water thrown 
off the discs. The sample is pressed in succes- 
sion over these four surfaces, observing the 
precautions outlined for hand polishing. 

With such an outfit it should not require 
over ten minutes to polish a sample of cast 
iron measuring ^-in. square, and frequently a 
much shorter time will suffice. 


A core making or rather core forming ma- 
chine, which has several excellent features is 
shown by the illustrations, Figs, i and 2. This 
machine, while following the lines of some 

plunger rod fitted to suit various sizes of pis- 
tons as required, this rack and piston slide on 
a guide bar fixed to the frame casting; the 
hand wheel and gear wheel shown move the 
plunger when ejecting cores. 

On the guide bar a rule is fixed and by set- 
ting an adjustable stop to any length desired, 
cores of that length only can be produced. A 
vent pin is so fixed that the cores are vented 
as made, and is removable when not required. 

When operating the machine a quantity of 
sand is placed on top of the table, and after 
setting the adjustable stop to the desired 
length of core, the coremaker uses a suitable 

Digitized by 


May, 190S 



rammer with one hand and with the other 
feeds in the sand, until the die is rammed to 
the top; then by turning the hand wheel the 
core is forced out. By having dies with sev- 
eral small sizes the makers claim that an ex- 
ceedingly large output per hour can be ob- 
tained, while with a 2-in. die, cores 6 in. long 
have been turned out at the rate of eighty per 

Two sizes of these machines are made, the A 
size making cores up to 3^ in. diameter, and 
12 in. long, while the B size will deal with 
cores to 6 in. diameter and 15 in. in -length. 

Fig. 2 shows the machine ready for wotk, 
and illustrates how neatly Messrs. Riches have 
protected the working parts from the sand, 
while keeping them accessible. Zelde. 


We have read with interest the article on 
page 42 of last copy of The Foundry on "Shot 

We have not succeeded in solving the diffi- 
culty of using the "shot iron," and we are 
doubtful that it can be made to pay. In other 
words we fear that it will be as like "spending 
sevenpence to mend a broken sixpence," 

This foundry has been running for over 100 
years, but it was not until lately that we (like 
a great many other similar concerns) set to, 
to find out exactly the cost of metal as it runs 
from the cupola. 

We were at once struck by the waste of 
metal, and also by the manner in which this 
waste fluctuated. 

We have not any machinery for dealing with 
the cupola dump, etc., but we always screened 
it, and picked by hand out of it, such pieces of 
metal as could be seen. 

We used to charge it at the end of the cast 
to make firebars, etc., as it was so hard, that 
it was not suitable for anything else. 

It was very expensive to pick this by hand, 
and inevitably a large amount of the "shot" 
had to be thrown away as it could not be 
recognized from slag. 

We then tried putting the whole lot of 
"shot" into the cupola in small charges to- 
wards the end of the cast, so that the metal 
might be melted out, but then a question arose 
in our minds as to whether we got a result that 
paid for the coke consumed, so to define this, 
we charged the cupola with "shot" only. (Of 
course we used the usual charge of coke.) 

We waited, and waited, and blew, and blew, 
but never an ounce of metal came out at all. 

We would be glad to learn from Mr. James 
Boyle his experience of the waste of metal per 
ton of metal put into the cupola, previous to 
the April he mentions, including the 1200 lbs. 
per day, also what weight of metal docs he 
melt per day, and what is the consumption of 
coke per ton of metal put into the cupola, also- 
what weight of gits has he per ton of good 
castings ? 

Richard Perrott & Sons, Ltd. 

Meet 08 at the A. P. A. Conventioo, New 
York Clty» 00 June 6th» 7th and 8tti. 



In answer to the inquiry which you for- 
warded to me concerning the best method of 
making sash weights, I may say that the best 
method varies with the conditions. Many 
founders who have a small amount of hard 
scrap to dispose of that they cannot work into 
their regular mixture, dispose of it successfully 
by installing a molding machine using a card 
of patterns and having the gates so cut that the 
molds may be stacked. The machine is so 
arranged that it forms the cope and drags ex- 
actly alike, in other words, each piece has a 
cope side formed in the lower part of the sand 
body, and a drag side in the upper part. These 
are simply stacked up in piles about three feet 
high without clamps or boxes and are poured. 

In other cases, a stripping plate or match 
board is used and ordinary sand flasks made 
up. This is the usual case with all of the 
heavier sizes of sash weights. When fitting up 
to make the smaller sizes in very large lots, I 
am told that water cooled cast iron chills are 
frequently used, the chills being placed on end 
and one side being arranged so that it can be 
swung out of the way to remove the work 
from the chills. 

The Ansonia Smelting & Metal Co., An- 
sonia. Conn., are running a small brass foun- 
dry employing four molders, and expect to 
employ four more in the near future. 

The Wheeler Foundry Co., of Worcester, 
Mass., has been incorporated with a capital of 
$50,000, to take over the business of Edgar B. 
Pierce, who operated one of the oldest foun- 
dries in New England. The officers are, Ed- 
gar B. Pierce, president; Elisha Tolman, 
clerk and treasurer; general manager, Richard 
P. Power. 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

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Digitized by 


IMay, 1905 





In pattern shops you will find various sizes 
and designs of benches, drawing boards, etc. 
I send a few sketches, showing what I think 
is an up-to-date bench and horse, fitted with 
cast iron legs. Fig. i shows a bench 7 ft. 10 
in. long, 21H in- wide and 33 in. high from the 
floor to the bench top. I have found from ex- 
perience in a large number of shops that the 
height given is about right for the majority of 
men. If a tall man is to use the bench, it 
can easily be raised and a block put under 
each leg, so as to give any height required. 
The bench has two drawers, one at the end for 
the turning tools, and so arranged that it can 
be taken out»and carried to the lathe while 
turning. The other drawer is situated near 
the middle of the bench and is provided with 
two trays for holding brads, screws, etc., while 
the bottom of the drawer provides a space for 
dowels, wax, fillets, etc. This drawer is shown 
in greater detail in Fig. 2. An electric light 
holder is arranged upon the tool rack back of 
each bench, as shown in Fig. i. This holder is 
provided with a cast iron base supporting two 




StLud Paper • Fillets 
Dowel PiiuMd Wax 




pieces of gas pipe, so arranged that the light 
can be adjusted to any required position. It 
can also be moved from one end of the bench 
to the other. The tool rack is boxed, leaving 
an open spaq^ in the center. The bottom is 
open .so as to allow dirt to fall out. Such a 
tool rack protects the cutting edges of the 

A horse with cast iron legs is shown in 
Fig- 3. The bar in the top of the horse can be 
made of any required length, and if a higher 
horse is required, a wider bar can be used. 

The horse can be fastened to the floor with 
screws if required. The bench leg, with its 
various dimensions, is shown in greater detail 
in Fig. 4. 

The Wilkes Foundry Co., Toledo, O., has 
increased its capital stock from $62,500 to 

yi Blotted 


I F'9. 4 

N I 

I I 

o \\ o 

O I I o 

^'coi-ed holed 
for >j • lav »crow8 ^hb pattirnhakcr 



Fig. 3 


1 he open door policy and the free exchange 
of ideas are responsibie for America's 
supremacy in manufactures. The American 
Foundry men's Association stands for mutual 
helpfulness and better foundry practice. 
Convention at New York, June 6, 7, and 8. 

Digitized by 


112 "ReFouMdF^ May, 1905 

TEST BAE8. foundry knows that it is a mighty hard thing 

BY B. T. DUNNING. *^ duplicate conditions only in a relative sense. 

I am writing this article feeling very much Indeed, we do try to keep things uniform, 

at sea in reference to the question which I the same percentage of the different irons 

have chosen for the title of it, namely : What charged in the same way, and handled from 

Does the Test Bar Tell Us? the spout in the same manner each day. 

Now, to begin with, let me ask that I be not The test bars moulded by the same careful 

put on trial as a heretic, for I have not de- man, gauged and tested in the same manner, 

parted from the faith as taught by the elders care being taken to place bars in devices for 

concerning the test bar, for I am as orthodox testing the same side up, and keeping them 

as anyone on the test bar doctrine, but the that way throughout all the various tests, and 

interpretation thereof is open for discussion, after this a difference of 300 to 600 lbs. in 

and I am looking for light. transverse strength is found very often. 

For about five years I have been following As we use from 35 percent to 60 percent of 
the tests to a greater or lesser degree of care- scrap it might be thought that the variation 
fulness, but for the past three years I have may be accounted for in that fact, but when 
been in connection with a company who are we come to narrow our comparisons down 
striving to excel in quality of iron, and who from different heats, to the same heat, or bet- 
have been willing to go to considerable ex- ter yet, to two pieces of the same bar, it cer- 
pense and trouble to gain that end. tainly becomes confusing and hard to explain. 

We have a Riehle machine for transverse Now, before we rigged up our drop test I 

tests, which also gives deflection. We also thought I could, by comparing transverse 

have a drop test and a device for taking con- breaking point with deflection and contraction, 

traction. tell whether an iron would stand a shock of 

Our tests for each heat are as follows : a greater or lesser degree before breaking, but 

We cast three bars 14 in. long to be broken, I declare to you I have been so surprised at 

and also one bar 12 in. long cast in a yoke of the way the proportions and comparisons 

that span, micrometer measurement. The 14- jump around that I am brought to a point to 

in. bars are i in. square and are broken on feel that "these things are too wonderful for 

supports 12 in. apart, load applied at center; me,*' and "their ways are past finding out," 

the shrink bar is also i in. square. but of course this feeling comes because I am 

I am aware that the square test bar is not not well informed as to the causes, and this 

held in favor by a great many, but for com- piece is written in the hope that some good 

parison under like conditions (and the word brother will throw out the life line and give me 

"like" is not to be taken in its absolute sense) a lift. 

it should answer the purpose. When I began Now here are some of the things that come 

the tests I only took the transverse reading, up to trouble the "unwashed." 
and by noting the controlling elements in my In the first place if you were to come into 

mixture I got what I thought to be very good our little box stall (OFFICE) you might see 

results. . great gobs of writing pads covered with figures 

Well, being somewhat younger than at pres- and calculations something like this : 

ent, and very human at that, I followed the No. 2 Hubbard Scotch at 1.75 Si. 

way of all flesh and got quite puffed up, and use 30%=52SO 

thought that I could regulate things at will. No. 3 Hubbard Scotch at 1.45 Si. 

and "predict the things that would .come." but use 20 =2900 

as I grew in the business, and began taking Scrap (Home) Est, at 1.80 Si. 

tests in deflection, contraction, drop or shock, use 50 =9^ 

etc., I found that I yet had some things to 

learn, and that the sure ground of my cer- • 100 i7f^S^ 

tainty (?) was slipping from under my feet, Estimated loss in melting 20 

and that I was getting into a region of uncer- Si. in mix 1.5^ 

tainty, and up against conditions that were And likewise calculations for the other ele- 

not so easily controlled as I had thought, ments, and often checking these over to make 

Now, I hear someone say that if we can dupli- sure we are O. K. we think we have something 

cate conditions each day, that we ought to get good and we try it. 
like results, but any one who has ever run a Now the above mixture ought to give a 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



strong close iron, just what we want for cer- 
tain castings. 

After charging what we want of the above 
mixture we figure for a softer mix by using a 
different proportion and adding enough ferro- 
silicon to balance it up to where we want it. 

The next morning I say to my office man: 
Ed. you get those test bars ready for testing 
and I will show you a bar worth seeing. 

So Ed. gets the bars and we gauge them and 
proceed with our testing, starting with the 
strong (?) one. Now that bar ought to go 
2800 or 3000 before breaking as they some- 
times do, but behold this one, lets go at about 
2300 or 2500, but the deflection is good 19-100 
so we predict it will stand a severe test on the 
drop 12 or 16 blows at least. 

Now our bars on being broken on the trans- 
verse machine leave two pieces about 7 in. 
long, which we use for our drop test, so you 
see we have two trials on the drop to one on 
the transverse. 

Our drop tests are as follows : A weight of 
a given heft falls a given distance (which dis- 
tance may be regulated) striking the pieces of 
test bars placed in position. 

Well we place one piece in position and let 
the weight fall once, only once, and bang goes 
the test bar broken as easily as a moulder's 
New Year resolution. But we have one more 
trial, and we put the other end of the same bar 
in position and it stands thirty-five or forty 
blows from the same weight, falling the same 
distance, so our stock goes up a little at this, 
but what have I learned from my test bars? 
Chiefly that I am more positive, that I know 
that I don't know, and perhaps that's a good 
place to get a start for knowledge. 

Of course I am aware of this fact : that when 
we get under certain limits, we are not getting 
a satisfactory iron, and as a constant prod to 
our watchfulness in this direction the test bar 
is all right as it keeps us dissatisfied, and "dis- 
satisfaction is the main-spring of progress." 
But as to their being a sure guide in telling us 
the strength of the iron that we are getting in 
our castings, I am afraid that they do not al- 
ways tell the truth, at least they do not within 
quite a range, I think. 

And as to formulating a mixture that will 
give a test bar, or an iron of a uniform char- 
acter day after day, in all respects seems to me 
to be a hard thing to do, for after we have the 
chemical composition where we want it, there 
seems to be so many physical conditions that 
can effect our iron and test bars, that it ap- 

pears to me that it is only within quite a range 
that we shall be able, to get our results uniform 
in every day practice, under the conditions 
which prevail in most shops, and over which 
we at present have very little control. 

Now T expect somebody will come back at 
me and talk about "molecular structure" "cry- 
staline formation," etc., and other fine haired 
points ; well we recognize all these factors, but 
how are we going to control them? and do the 
test bars tell us much about our castings? 
When a bar only 14 in. long, broken in two 
pieces, can show such a wide difference in each 
piece we wonder if we are getting very near 
the truth after all. 

We always take a test bar from the crane 
ladle just before pouring certain castings, and 
sometimes when one of these castings is bad, 
and we have to break it we find that, although 
the test bar for that particular casting was a 
weak one in all its tests, that the casting itself 
is one of the hardest ones to break, the iron 
will be close and tough and as strong as any 
grey iron could be expected to be. 

And again under the same circumstances the 
opposite will be true, and again we wonder 
what the test bar tells us? Now these various 
tests and observations were not taken in a 
careless haphazard manner, but with a care- 
fulness which comes of a desire to get at the 
truth of the matter. 

Now I would like to know if there are others 
who have been troubled in reaching a satis- 
factory conclusioi¥ in this matter, and just what 
they have decided as to "what the test bar tells 

Send your foreman to the American Foun- 
drymen'8 Association Convention in New 
York, June 6tli, Ttii and 8tli. 

Messrs. E. H. Mumford and C. S. Lovell, 
who have formerly been connected with the 
Tabor Mfg. Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., have 
formed the E. H. Mumford Co., of Philadel- 
phia, Pa., and will manufacture molding ma- 
chines. They expect to develop a special line 
of machines which will be very strong and ef- 
ficient, and will also contain a number of new 
and valuable features. The latter will be thor- 
oughly covered by patents. 

The Central Foundry Co., Vincennes, Ind., 
will put in operation a second cupola to in- 
crease its capacity. The report that the com- 
pany expected to build an addition to its plant 
is erroneous. 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

The Foundry 


The Penton Publishing Co. 
cleveland, ohio. 

CHICAGO : IIM Monadnock BIk. 

PITTSBURG 429 Park BIdg. 

NEW YORK : 150 Nassau St. 

The subscription price of Thb Foundry is li.OO 
a year to points in tlie United States. Canada and 
Mexico. To Great Britain : Eight Shillings. Single 
copies 15 cents each. 

Practical articles pertaining to the trade in all its 
branches are solicited and will be paid for. 

When sending in articles be sure to place your name 
and address on the article and on the drawings. 

Entered as second-class matter at the Fast-Office at 
Cleveland^ Ohio. 


Brass Foundry of the Yale & Towne Mfg. 

Co., Stamford, Conn 103 

Metallography Applied to Foundry Work. 105 

A British Core Machine 108 

Shot Iron 109 

Making Sash Weights 109 

Patternmakers* Benches and Horses iii 

Test Bars 1 12 

Trade Outlook 114 

Convention of the American Foundrymen's 

Association 1 14 

Winona Technical Institute Trade Schools 115 

Back Numbers of The Foundry 115 

Railroad Rates to the A. F. A. Convention 115 

Fresh Air 115 

Headquarters of the Associated Foundry 

Foremen at the A. F. A. Convention . . 1 16 

Manganese Bronze 116 

Pattern Shop System 118 

Associations and Societies 125 

Testing of Fragility 125 

Reviews 136 

Metals in Foundry Practice 138 

Cast Iron Notes 138 Foundry Notes 139 

Malleable Cast Iron Notes 140 

Fluor Spar 140 

A Large Piston Ring 141 

New Books 141 

Removal of American Steel Foundries 142 

Summer School for Artisans 142 

Prize Offer 142 

Casting in Brass Molds 142 

Revolving Brushes 143 

Personals 143 

Deaths 143 

Fires 144 

New Construction 144 

General Industrial Notes 146 


The month of April shows no startling de- 
velopments in the trade outlook. It has sim- 
ply been a month of healthy growth in the 
trade, with very slight changes in prices, either 
of raw material or finished product. There is 
evidence in many regions that the general 
jobbing trade is picking up to quite an extent. 
Many of the special foundries, especially the 
pipe foundries, have been exceedingly busy for 
some time, and the general foundry trade is 
beginning to feel the same revival. It is nat- 
ural that the heavy work foundries would be 
the last to feel the movement, on account of 
the fact that their work comes as the result 
of extensive improvements and extensive in- 
stallation of power plants, etc. 

The price of Southern foundry iron is held 
pretty steadily at $13.50 per ton for No. 2 foun- 
dry at the furnace, while Northern furnaces 
arc asking from $16 to $16.50 at the furnace. 
Foundry coke at the ovens in the Connellsville 
region brings from $2.65 to $3, 

The general indications are that the summer 
will be a fairly busy one. Many of the blast 
furnaces are closing contracts for iron to the 
end of the year, and some few contracts have 
been placed for the first quarter of next year. 


The eighth convention of the American 
Foundrymen's Association will be held in 
New York City on June 6, 7, 8, and possibly 
on the Qth also. Arrangements are now being 
made for headquarters, hotel accommodations, 
and reduced railroad rates, announcements con- 
cerning which will be made later. The indi- 
cations are that there will be a very large at- 
tendance and a large number of interesting 
papers will be presented, but it is especially 
urged by the secretary that those interested in 
the foundry business throughout the country 
send anything which they have that they think 
would be of interest, in the shape of papers or 
subjects for discussion. We believe that the 
able work of Dr. Moldenkc should be appre- 
ciated and assisted by the foundrymen 
throughout the country by sending in such 
matter for the convention, as only in this way 
can the greatest amount of valuable infor- 
mation ^e brought together and the associa- 
tion be made of the greatest benefit to its 
members and to the foundry business in gen- 
eral. It is stated that special pains will be 
taken to take care of the ladies at the conven- 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



tion, and it is hoped that there will be a large 


The Winona Technical Institute, which is 
located at Indianapolis, Ind., is starting a 
series of technical courses giving instruction 
in various trades, the intention being to enable 
the students to master trades much as they 
would in the old apprenticeship days. They 
already have in existence courses in lith- 
ography, electrical work, and house, sign and 
decorative painting. They are now planning 
to start a course in foundry work. 

A number of prominent foundrymen 
throughout the country are interesting them- 
selves in the subject, and it is hoped that be- 
fore long there will be a well equipped 
foundry, capable of turning out both good 
castings and good molders. 

The foundrymen of this country must cer- 
tainly arrange to support some system of edu- 
cation by which molders, foundry foremen, 
etc., will be educated. With the increasing 
specialization of our foundries it becomes 
more and more necessary that such education 
should be imparted by some institution in 
which the education of the workmen is one, 
if not the prime, object of the institution, and 
it is to be hoped that the proposed school in 
connection with the Winona Technical Insti- 
tute will fill this long felt want. 

If these results are to be attained, however, 
it means that the foundrymen throughout the 
country must rally to the support of this in- 
stitution, both with the necessary funds and 
with the necessary moral support in the way 
of interest in the school, to see that the in- 
struction is carried on properly and also to 
see that the shops always have an abundant 
supply of work. 


One of the prominent engineering libraries in 
New York City wishes to complete their file 
of The Foundry, and as our files are exhaust- 
ed for many of the numbers, it is impossible 
for us to furnish them all of the numbers de- 
sired, and we would like to know if some of 
our many readers who have preserved the pa- 
per cannot furnish the numbers required. 
These include Nos. i to 54, which represent a 
little less than the first five years of The 
Foundry. They also lack Nos. 91 to 98. 

The library is willing to pay a reasonable 

price for them, but their funds are limited, 
and as the placing of this file in the New York 
library will place it in a position where any 
engineer visiting New York can consult it, we 
hope that some of our readers will be able to 
send in the desired numbers. 


Dr. Richard Moldenke, secretary of the 
American Foundrymen's Association, notifies 
us that the Eastern Trunk Line Association 
has granted a i 1-3 rate on the certificate plan. 
In this connection it will be necessary for each 
delegate to pay full fare to New York and se- 
cure a certificate from his local ticket agent at 
the time he purchases his ticket. When this 
certificate is countersigned in New York, it will 
entitle him to purchase a return trip ticket for 
one-third fare. 

We wish to urge upon all who attend the 
convention the necessity of securing these cer- 
tificates, as it is necessary to have a certain 
number of them to secure the rebate, but if 
members are careful in this point, there should 
be no difficulty whatever. 

Plans are being made for a general excur- 
sion of special cars over the Lake Shore Line, 
which will enable those wishing to attend the 
convention from Milwaukee, Chicago, Qeve- 
land, Erie, Buffalo, and the territory tributary 
thereto, to go to the convention in the same 

Definite announcement concerniner this plan 
will be made later, or any one wishing infor- 
mation can write to the office of The Foundry 
in Cleveland. 


With the rapid increase of our manufactur- 
ing industries many exceedingly smoky cities 
are appearing in the United States. Manufac- 
turing cannot be carried on without the making 
of drawings and the smoke and dirt from the 
shops is always a big nuisance in the drawing 
rooms and offices. This department could un- 
doubtedly be carried on much more economic- 
ally if clean air, free from dust could be fur- 
nished to the workmen. That this can be ac- 
complished has been proven by the fact that in 
building the H. K. Porter building in Pitts- 
burg a system for cleaning and preparing the 
air has been installed. The equipment was de- 
signed and installed by the B. F. Sturtevant 
Co., Boston, Mass., and consists of fans which 
draw air in through a regular coke scrubber 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

such as is used for purifying gas. This con- 
sists of a frame work conUining coke, over 
which water trickles. The water absorbs the 
dust and dirt and carries it to the bottom of 
the structure, where it is removed. After the 
air has been washed clean it is heated and cir- 
culated through the building. The fact that 
a slight pressure is kept on the building con- 
tinually by the ventilating fans results in out- 
ward leaks at all points and this effectually pre- 
vents the introduction of outer air. The same 
plant can be used for furnishing cool pure air 
in the summer by simply omitting the heating 


The Murray Hill Hotel, Forty-first street 
and Fourth avenue, has been selected as head- 
quarters for the Associated Foundry Foremen 
during the A. F. A. Convention in New York 
City, and there are indications now that there 
will be a large number of foundry foremen in 



The chief application of manganese in met- 
allurgy is that of a deoxidizer and to some ex- 
tent as a desulphurizer. In these two respects its 
application in steel and cast iron is familiar. 
However, quite apart from cleansing action, 
the presence of manganese in an alloy confers 
distinctive properties. With bronzes, such al- 
loys are known as "high tension" and they give 
in comparison with ordinary bronzes high 
breaking loads and fair ductility. For instance 
the following tests were obtained from a sand 
casting : 

Max. Stress 

Tons per sq. in. Elongation percent. 

28 26 

Therefore in view of these high values and of 
the practical interest possessed by manganese 
bronze it will not be without interest to exam- 
ine some of the properties of this alloy. 

Manganese bronzes are essentially yellow 
brasses containing greater or less amounts of 
manganese, iron and aluminium. The two fol- 
lowing are typical analyses of commercial 
bronzes one containing aluminium and the oth- 
er iron. 

Analyses of Manganese Bronze. 
I. 2. 

Copper 53.0 60.0 

Zinc 42.0 38.0 

Manganese ... 37 0.5 

Aluminium ... 1.3 

Iron 1.5 

Evidently in the first case cupro manganese 
has been used, whilst in the second ferro-man- 
ganese has been employed to add the mangan- 
ese. The low content of manganese in No. 2 
will also be noted and it may be remarked in 
passing that many of the so-called manganese 
bronzes contain no manganese, although the 
cleaning action of this metal may have been 
utilized in making the alloy. Very often when 
manganese is low or absent, aluminium and 
iron are present in distinct quantities. Natur- 
ally these elements exert some influence on the 
final properties and^ it will be well to quote 
the individual effect of each element first 

As manganese bronzes represent high zinc 
alloys with additions, such an alloy without ad- 
ditions will form a suitable base for compari- 
son. Thus an alloy containing approximately 
60 percent copper and 40 percent zinc will when 
cast under the best conditions yield the fol- 
lowing mechanical properties. 
Max. Stress 
Tons per sq. in. Elongation percent. 

18.0 15.0 

If to this alloy iV^ percent of iron is added 
and zinc reduced by this amount the breaking 
load will be increased by about four tons per 
square in., whilst the extensibility will remain 
the same. The iron must of course be alloyed 
with the copper and zinc and not held in 
suspension as mechanically free iron. Alum- 
inium added to a high yellow appears to have 
a very variable action on the mechanical prop- 
erties. However, ignoring as far as possible 
these variations, the presence of aluminium in 
low quantities appears to raise the mechanical 
properties. Thus 0.5 percent of aluminium 
added to an alloy of 60 percent copper and 
39.5 percent zinc gave an alloy which in its 
cast condition yielded a breaking load of 20 
tons per square inch and an extension of 25 
per cent. When aluminium exceeds 2 percent, 
the tensile strength of the resulting alloys 
shows a considerable increase which is, how- 
ever, associated with a marked decrease in ex- 
tensibility and some increase in fragility. 

Manganese added to a high zinc alloy in- 
creases tensile strength and extensibility. Thus 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



60 percent copper, 38.5 percent zinc and 1.5 
percent manganese in the cast condition yield- 
ed a breaking load of 22 tons per square inch 
and an extension of 30 percent. 

From the foregoing it is evident that iron, 
aluminium and manganese, when individually 
present in amounts not exceeding 1.5 percent 
considerably increase the mechanical properties 
of the resultant alloys. That this increase is 
maintained when the three are collectively pres- 
ent in a copper zinc alloy is shown by the tests 
already given of a typical manganese bronze. 
The complexity in composition of manganese 
bronze is readily shown by the foregoing notes. 
This very complexity suggests several features 
of which we will note a few of the more im- 

The base of a high tension manganese bronze 
has been stated as approximately 60 percent 
copper and 40 percent zinc and the tensile prop- 
erties of such an alloy have been given. Turn- 
ing to an alloy of lower zinc content, the fol- 
lowing tensile tests are t3rpical of an alloy cast 
under the best conditions. 

Copper percent. Zinc percent. 

73 26 

Max. Stress 
Tons per sq. in. Elongation percent. 

12.5 40 

Comparing these figures with the 40 percent 
zinc alloy it will be noted that the tensile 
strength is lowered by 5.5 tons per square inch, 
whilst the elongation is 25 percent higher. 
Therefore in order to obtain the necessary ten- 
sile strength the content of zinc must be com- 
paratively high in the base used for the pro- 
duction of a high tension bronze. A content of 
38 to 40 percent zinc gives the requisite rigidity, 
whilst the additions of aluminium and mangan- 
ese, partly by their individual action on the al- 
loy, but probably more by their "cleansing" 
effect, and tendency towards the product of 
sound and close grained castings, contribute 
largely to the maintenance of high ductility. 
Iron as already shown increases the tensile 
strength. However, this metal is not purposely 
added, its presence being the natural result of 
the employment of ferro manganese as a source 
of manganese. 

The usual precautions essential to the pro- 
duction of any alloy are necessary in the case 
of manganese bronze, it may be well, however, 
to specially emphasize the three following: i, 
loss of zinc ; 2, casting temperature ; 3, method 
of casting. 
Loss of zinc. — During fusion a considerable 

loss of zinc occurs, the actual amount lost vary- 
ing with melting conditions and atmospheres. 
In any case this loss is seldom below 25 per- 
cent, but should be determined for the condi- 
tions under which the alloy is melted and al- 
lowed for. If large quantities of ready mixed 
alloy are melted in an air furnace, the best 
method of allowing for the loss during melting 
is to add the requisite quantity of zinc to the 
ladle before tapping. 

Casting temperature is of exceptional mo- 
ment. Reverting to the dual copper zinc al- 
loy the following tests show the influence of 
varying casting temperature on the tensile 
properties of castings poured from one cru- 
cible within a short interval of each other. 
Chemically the three castings are identical. 





ture C. 

Max Stress 

Tons Per 

Sq In. 







The writer has examined many types of al- 
loys and in every case similar temperature va- 
riations have a similar effect on the mechanical 
properties. The following results obtained 
from manganese bronze were obtained by Guil- 
lemin : 

Casting Temperature Max Stress. Elongation 
°Q Tons per sq. in. percent. 

1400 15.2 13 

1300 19.7 45 

1250 21.6 35 

1200 22.9 30 

These results sufficiently emphasize the im- 
portance of casting at a suitable temperature. 
In judging a suitable heat the appearance of 
the alloy in ladle or crucible is at present the 
only guide. With manganese bronzes this ap- 
pearance is somewhat confused by the alumin- 
ium present, for as is well known this imparts 
a characteristic skin to the surface of the molt- 
en alloy. The practical effect of this is to 
make the alloy appear colder and less fluid than 
is really the case. However, careful observa- 
tion readily overcomes this difficulty. 

Casting Manganese Sronj^.— Manganese 
bronzes have a high contraction coefficient, 
hence if the casting is at all likely to "pull" it 
should be eased in the mold soon after solidi- 
fication. In order to obtain castings free from 
"draws' large gates and rising heads are essen- 
tial. For large castings "plug heads" should 
always be used. This type of head is familiar 
being simply a dry sand head with a plug fitted 
into the runner. The head is filled with metal 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

and the plug lifted, the ladle keeping a constant 
level of metal until the mold is filled. 



There is no department connected with the 
modern machine shop in which a good system 
of management, administered by a careful, 
methodical man, in a quiet and orderly man- 
ner, will be of more benefit to the establish- 
ment in general than the pattern shop. It is 
too often the case that this department is 
looked upon as being non-productive; a 
source of continual expense; not producing 
anything which may be sold at a profit; and 
consequently should be managed as cheaply as 
possible. Therefore we see the pattern work 
done in a part of the shop not at all fitted for 
such work, possibly in one end of a machine 
room and subject to the iron dust and dirt 
which is not shut out by even a board partition, 
and sometimes by one only half the height of 
the room. We find it poorly equipped with 
inadequate and often obsolete machinery, sup- 
plied with poor lumber and lacking many of 
the essentials for producing good work. Often 
men are employed because of the low wages 
they are willing to work for, rather than those 
of the requisite ability in their chosen trade. 

There is always a vast difference between 
cheapness and economy, as the terms are gen- 
erally understood, and these false ideas of 
economy generally result in the expenditure of 
more money finally than if such short-sighted 
ideas gave way to the policy of seeking for the 
best, being willing to pay for it, and then ex- 
pecting high efficiency of employes and the 
production of good work that would stand the 
test of hard usage, rather than that which must 
be frequently repaired and strengthened in 
order to keep it in use. 

While these facts should be strenuously ad- 
hered to as to the regular work of the pattern 
shop intended for permanent use, we should 
not lose sight of the occasional jobs of pat- 
tern work intended for only a few castings, 
and therefore should be made with this end in 
view, and often at one half the expense of a 
thoroughly made, permanent pattern. 

That there has been a good deal of im- 
provement along these lines within the last 
few years is undoubtedly true, yet the fact re- 
mains that there is still in many shops room 
for more changes for the better, both in mat- 
ters of economy of expense and a higher 
standard of workmanship. 

The following plans and systems of handling 

the work are the result of practical experience 
as well as years of observation of this and 
kindred work and it is hoped that they may 
offer practical suggestions to men having the 
responsibilities of administering the affairs of 
such a department. 

In arranging the working force of the pattern 
shop a definite plan should be followed. This 
plan will depend to a great extent upon the 
kind of work that is to be done. That is, 
whether it is to be for large, medium, or small 
pattern, or perhaps a portion of each. Also, 
whether it is to be a good deal of new work, 
or a large proportion of the work is in altering 
patterns, or changing standard parts of them. 
In any event the one essential point to be con- 
sidered is, to employ skilled, or high priced 
pattern makers only on such work as need 
such ability, while all work that can be done by 
apprentices, or less skilled men, shall be done 
by them. For this reason, getting out dimen- 
sion lumber, making core prints, bosses, var- 
nishing and marking patterns, and similar 
work, may be done by men at from half to 
two-thirds of the pay that the skilled pattern 
maker receives. Therefore such machines as 
the planer, jointer, circular saws, etc., may be 
handled by the men who may be classed as 
"mill men," who, while they are not conver- 
sant with pattern making as a trade, can get 
out such dimension lumber as the pattern 
makers require in less time and at much less 
cost. So it is with the man running the band 
saw in getting out segment work, and then 
laying it up. Being employed on this class of 
work continually, he can, not only do just as 
good work, but sometimes better, than a man 
who only does it occasionally, and of course, 
do more of it and do it more economically. 
Putting in fillets, puttying, plugging screw- 
head holes, varnishing and rubbing dowTi pat- 
terns, etc., is the work of an apprentice and 
not that of a skilled workman. 

To obtain the most efficient and economical 
results fro.Ti this department, assuming that 
the work will be in the usual proportion of 
new work, alterations, repairs, etc., its force 
and the duties of the men should be classified 
somewhat as follows : A force of 14 employes 
would consist of say, one foreman, six skilled 
pattern makers, one lathe man, one planer 
man, one circular saw man, one band saw and 
segment mai.. one finisher and varnisher, one 
man for keeping pattern records, lettering pat- 
terns, etc., and one laborer. For a force of 
ten employes there should be: one foreman, 
four skilled pattern makers, one lathe man, one 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



band saw and segment man, one man for keep- 
ing pattern records, finishing, varnishing and 
lettering patterns, etc., and one laborer. For 
a force of seven men there would be: one 
foreman, three skilled pattern makers, one 
lathe, band saw and s«»gment man, one planer, 
jointer and circular saw man, and one man 
for keeping pattern records, finishuig, varnish- 
ing and lettering patterns, etc. A laborer must 
be called from the 3'ard or some part of the 
shop v.'hen wanted. By finishing a pattern, is 
meant putting in filltts, plugging screw-head 
holes, puttying, etc. In a force of ten men 
the lathe man will do whatever other work 
the foreman desires when he is not engaged 
on his special work. The man who keeps the 
pattern records looks after the issuing of pat- 
terns to the foundry and the storing of them 
when they are returned. An apprentice should 
be able to put in fillets, putty, varnish, rub 
down, etc., and where there are only a few 
men the foreman will keep the pattern records. 
It should be understood that when We speak 
of a skilled pattern maker we mean one who 
thoroughly understands his business, and this 
is a matter not always properly understood by 
men who have not had practical shop experi- 
ence in this particular line. He must be able 
10 read drawings quickly and thoroughly. He 
must have a good practical knowledge of mold- 
ing from the patterns in the foundry, and of 
the behavior of the various metals in casting, 
particularly of the different qualities of cast 
iron, of their liability to distortion, and the 
varying degrees of shrinkage He must have 
a practical idea of the effect of distortion of 
castings from patterns of different forms and 
proportions. He should know the correct 
amount of stock to allow for machining a cast- 
ing when this is not specified on the drawings, 
and many other things besides the mere 
mechanical work of building up the pattern. 
In this part of the work he must know about 
the behavior of lumber when made into a pat- 
tern ; how to so build up his pattern as to se- 
cure the greatest rigidity ; to so dispose of the 
pieces of wood composing the pattern that its 
contraction and expansion shall not distort the 
pattern, or the wood be split from the severe 
strains produced by wet sand, which is always 
a severe trial for a pattern. He must have his 
pattern divided in a proper place to mold easily 
and without unnecessary time to be spent by 
the molder. All of these and many minor 
points relating to his work he must get by 
study and experience in order that he may be 

classed as a skilled pattern maker, and to 
accomplish this he must be a man of con- 
siderable ability to begin with, consequently 
we must not expect him to be a cheap man. 

A great deal of care should be exercised in 
selecting lumber for use in making patterns 
and it will usually be found difficult to obtain 
really first class stock of this character. Prop- 
erly dried and seasoned lumber is not easily 
found, and even if it is said to have been kiln- 
dried it may have been left exposed to damp 
atmosphere afterwards and so absorbed suffi- 
cient moisture to make it necessary to keep it 
stored for quite a time in order to have it fit 
for use. It is almost impossible to know just 
the condition of lumber when it is purchased, 
either in the rough or planed. It is there- 
fore one of the great conveniences, if not a real 
necessity, to have a dry-room, heated with a 
steam coil, so that lumber may be thoroughly 
"dried out" before be-ng taken into the pat- 
tern shop for use. Care should be taken that 



Fig. 2 


Fig. 3 

Fig. 4 

this dry-room is not kept at too high a tem- 
perature, as such a condition will result in 
"season checks" in the surface and the ends 
of the lumber, owing to the too rapid contrac- 
tion of the surface before the center of the 
plank, or bojird, is thoroughly dried. And even 
after it has been through the dry-room it 
should not be piled up horizontally, with the 
flat sides together, but kept on edge, in racks 
suspended from the overhead timbers of the 
pattern shop, and in v.'hich the lumber is held 
in position by vertical strips. Previous to be- 
ing placed iU these racks the lumber should be 
planed to certain regular thickness from a 
quarter of ?n inch to one inch by sixteenths, 
and from one inch to two inches by eighths. 
Lumber thicker than two inches should ordi- 
narily be left in the rough until wanted for 
use, unless there are many large and heavy 
patterns to be made. This lumber may be 
piled horizontally with strips laid between the 

Digitized by 



May, 1905 

planks every six feet or less, and directly over 
each other. 

As to the kind of lumber to be used, white 
pine is the most common, although much 
cherry is used for small patterns and should 
be used for the smaller loose pieces of pine 
patterns. In the western states the writer has 
seen butternut used to good advantage for 
patterns, particularly where the pattern has 
much hand work with the gouge to be done. 
It cuts easily and smoothly and is stronger 
than white pine. Mahogany makes a very nice 
f.mall pattern, but is unnecessarily expensive 
for any other patterni!. 

In selectirg lumber for patterns care should 
be taken to get that which has been properly 
cut from th- log, that is, lumber in which the 
edge of the grain shoivs on the side of the 
hoard. Otlierwise it will be very liable to 
warp, no matter how much care has been taken 
to dry it, or to keep it well protected. This 
will be better understood by referring to the 
engravings. Fig. i, shows a cross section of a 
board cut irom the iog in a proper manner. 
Fig. 2 shows the result of cutting the board 
from near the surface of the log, making what 
is technically known a*^ a "siding." The dotted 
lines show how it w'll warp. This is due to 
the fact that the sap, or outer portion of the 
log, which .'S of newer growth is less dense, 
and will contract more in the process of sea- 

It is usuol to cut up logs in the manner 
shown in Fig. 3. The boards taken off near 
the surface of the log are trimmed with an 
edging saw and should be sold as sidings, for 
inferior woik, but never used as good pattern 
lumber, unless in a pUce where they are held 
and confined so firmly that they cannot warp 
or distort the pattern. For use as pattern 
lumber, or for any really good work, the log 
should be cut up as shown in Fig 4, which 
preserves the grain in a proper direction as 
nearly as possible, but is not as economical, 
as to the value of the lumber, as it makes a 
number of quite narrow boards. The furniture 
manufacturers term of "quartered oak" refers 
to a log cut up as shown in Fig. 5, which is 
the most nearly correct so far as getting all 
the good lumber possible out of the log. 

Pattern lumber is nearly always expensive, 
no matter where it may be purchased, and 
much more care should be used in cutting it 
up in the shop than is usually the case. If 
this matter is properly considered and thor- 
oughly understood, very little need be wasted. 

It is well to have a series of shelves, placed 
conveniently to the circular saws, upon which 
such scraps as are likely to be useful may be 
arranged according to their size or shape, so 
as to be convenient to find when small pieces 
are wanted. When a board or plank is cut 
and a considerable portion of it is left it is 
customary to stand it up against the wall, or 
in some convenient comer. This is repeated 
until a quantity accumulates, the lower ends 
of the pieces projectmg further and further 
out from the wall, occupying more and more 
of the floor space, continually "kicked and 
cussed'* until the nuisance becomes unbearable 
and a cleaning-up process usually results in 
throwing a good many pieces into the scrap pile. 
This might easily be avoided by making a rack, 
consisting of a piece of 3 x 4 in. scantling, in 
which are fixed hard wood pins one inch in 

Fig. 5 


diameter, placed about six inches apart, and 
projecting about a foot. This scantling is 
spiked to the wall in a horizontal position, 
three to four feet from the floor, with the pins 
projecting outwardly from it. Pieces of lum- 
ber four to eight feet long may be conveniently 
set up on end between the pins, and any piece 
wanted may be readily removed without dis- 
turbing any of the other pieces. The length 
of this rack will, of course, depend upon the 
available space that can be <5pared for it. One 
near the circular saws, in addition to the scrap 
shelves described above, will be found very 

One of the best methods of working up the 
accumulation of small scraps is to have an 
apprentice make them up into core prints and 
bosses of all the various sizes in common use, 
keeping the different sizes in suitable boxes 
or bins built against the wall. This will, not 
only use up the scraps, but will save a good 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 


deal of the time of the pattern makers, whose 
time is too vahiable to be spent at this common 

Another point needs attention in most shops, 
and that is the too frequent disposition to use 
f«rst-class lumber for such parts of a pattern 
as cleats, stop-off pieces, core box backs, the 
inside framing of a boxed-in pattern, etc., 
when lumb^^r at half the price would be just as 
good and cost no more to work up. A con- 
siderable saving in lumber bills may be made 
by attention to these matters, and the standard 
of good work not lowered for any practical 

Fillets and dowel pins can be much cheaper 
purchased than made m the shop. A good deal 
of discussion as to the relative merits of wood 
and leather fillets has been indulged in. The 
pattern maker's time will no doubt be saved 
and good pattern work be the result of using 
wood fillets for st might work and leather 
fillets for curves. The patented brass dowel 
pins should be put into all patterns that are to 
be in continuous use, and the malleable iron 
rapping and lifting plates, let into the pattern, 
should be used on all patterns large enough to 
need them. A stock of these convenient and 
very necessary articles should always be kept 
on hand and ready for use. 

The system of marking and listing patterns is 
usually arranged in the drafting room, and the 
lists furnished to the pattern shop for use and 
guidance. The plan recommended is to desig- 
nate each machine built, by a letter of the al- 
phabet, or a combination of two of them, and 
to indicate the individual patterns of each ma- 
chine by numbers. Similar parts of machines 
of the same type take the same numbers. Thus, 
if the letter of a machine is B, the patterns 
will be marked Bi, B2, B3 and so on. When 
a change is made in a pattern, a letter X, is 
added, making the pattern B3, read B3X. If 
changed a <iecond time it will become B3XX. 
Further changes would be indicated by one X, 
followed by a number to indicate the number 
of changes that had been made. For instance, 
if it had been changed the fourth time it 
would be marked B3X4, If the swing of a 
lathe is to be increased; or a planer to be 
widened, by a special order, the new patterns 
made nece<isary by this change would be 
marked with both of ihe letters indicating the 
machines, as for instance, the letter K, indi- 
cating a 30-in. planer, to be widened to 36 in., 
the letter boing L, the new patterns necessary 
would be mr.rked K-L, the hyphen being used 
to indicate that two machines are meant. Where 

a machine c-esignation necessitates two letters 
of the alphabet in consequence of the fact that 
the letters are exhausted by the variety of 
machines buHt, the hyphen is omitted. The let- 
ters I O X are omitted as designating letters, 
as the first two so nearly resemble figures, and 
the letter X, is used to indicate alterations of 
the patterns. 

Pattern letters and figures should be formed 
with two sharp points on the back, which may 
be forced into the wood of the pattern and 
thus hold them securely. The addition of a 
little thick shellac varnish will hold them more 
firmly. These letters and figures may be pur- 
chased, or they may be cast in the pattern shop, 
and as a large numbei of them are used this 
will be the more economical way to obtain 
them. A brass mold in two parts, hinged to- 
gether, may be made, one part having the let- 
ters formed in it, and the other with tapering 
holes for forming the points on the back of 
the letters. The metal used is lead, to which 
is added a small quantity of antimony. A still 
better alloy is composed of lead 70 parts, anti- 
mony and bismuth, each 15 parts. The mold 
is heated over a gas flame, while the metal is 
melted over a bunsen burner. Care should be 
taken not to overheat either of these alloys. 
They should be just hot enough to burn a pine 
stick to a rich brown. 

These letters and figures should be of the 
style known as sharp faced gothic, size three- 
eighths, or half-inch, and are used only for in- 
dicating the letter of the machine, the num- 
ber of pattern snd the changes that have been 
made in it. The letters for the name of the 
firm, or company, which appear in prominent 
places on the machine^ should be also of the 
sharp faced gothic style and of a size suitable 
for the available space They should be pur- 
chased and kept in stock in proper boxes or 
cases. Usually three or four sizes will be suffi- 
cient. These pattern letters having flat, smooth 
backs, are often fastened to the pattern with 
small wire brads, which hold them very se- 
curely, but are likely to show roughly on the 
casting unless the job is very carefully done. 
A much neater and quicker job may be done by 
first putting a coat of light shellac on the 
backs of the letters, then a rather thick coat 
on the pattern and pb-cing ihe letters on this 
before it is dry. In either case a line should be 
drawn on the pattern for the tops of the letters, 
and they should all be laid on and the position 
of each marked before fastening them to the 

The reason for using the sharp gothic style 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

of letters in preference to roman or faiKy 
styles, is that there is such a large amount of 
draft to the sides of the letters that they draw 
very easily from the sand, and also, that for 
nearly all classes of castings the plainest letters 
have a much better appearance than the more 
ornamental or complicated ones. 

Pattern letters and figures should be kept in 
convenient cases or boxes so as to be securely 
protected and readily found when wanted. The 
most convenient form of case is that shown in 
Fig. 6. This case is 20 in. wide and 28 in. long. 
The strips around the ends and back are five- 
eighths inch thick and one and a quarter inches 
wide; the front is the same thickness and one 
and three quarter inches wide ; the bottom be- 
ing half an inch thick. The partitions are a 


eifl. 6. 



quarter of an inch thick, and are "notched 
together" as in a type case. The letter boxes 
are 3 x 4J4 in-i except for the letter X, which 
is 4%. X 6J4 Jn-i as many of these are used in 
marking changes of pattern. The figure boxes 
are 2x3 in., except that of the figure 6, which 
?lso answers for the 9, the 1k>x being 3 x 4J/^ 
in. Each case is furnished with two drawer 
pulls, and the front should be plainly marked 
with the size of the letters and figures con- 
tained in it. 

The care of wood fillets, co as not to injure 
the feather edges is important, and a safe 
receptacle should be provided for them. In 
order to have these articles, as well as leather 
fillets, brass dowels, wood dowels, rapping 
plates, etc., properly cared for and arranged in 
an orderly manner where they can be readily 
found, the case shown in Fig: 7 is designed to 
meet these requirements. The lower part of 
this case is 59 in. wide, 20^ in. deep and 26 in. 
high, and contains six of the cases for pattern 
letters and figures, as shown in Fig. 6, twelve 

bins for malleable iron rapping plates, and 
three drawers properly divided for holding 
brass dowels. The upper part of the case is 
85/2 in. deep and contains at the top; six spaces 
for wood dowels, and beneath these six spaces 
for wood and leather fillets, both kinds being 
placed in the same space. The wood fillets 
being made in four foot lengths there is ample 
space for them. This case should be made of 
% in. pine, with a back l4 in. thick. It will be 
found a great convenience, as well as a means 
of saving these articles from waste and in- 

There should be another case with shelves 
10 in. wide for holding steel wire brads and 
wood screw fv There should be shelf room 
enough to show at the front one package of 
each size that may be used. 

Several other packages of the 
same size may be piled behind the 
front one as reserve stock. These 
cases should not be much over five 
feet high, and arranged against the 
walls in such a situation as to be 
most out of the way and yet conve- 
nient for the men to get at. They 
should be built of J4 in. boards. The 
shelves for any articles as heavy as 
wood screws, brads, or steel wire 
nails should be supported by uprights 
about 30 in. apart. These cases 
should have two coats of light shel- 
lac varnish. It is always best to 
have these and all similar fixtures 
present a neat and clean, as well as orderly 
appearance. It will have a good effect on 
the workmen and they will take more in- 
terest in their work and have more respect for 
the shop and its management to realize that all 
these matters relating to their wants are fore- 
seen and properly attended to. 

All patterns should be so colored in the var- 
nishing as to show the material of which they 
are to be cast. To effect tliis all core prints 
should be red. Patterns for grey iron castings 
should be black; for malleable iron castings, 
brown; for steel castmgs, blue; for brass cast- 
ings, yellow; and for bronze castings, orange. 
These colors may be easily made by the addi- 
tion of Vermillion, lampblack, burnt umber, 
ultramarine blue or chrome yellow to ordinary 
shellac varnish. The colors should be pur- 
chased in a dry state and cut with a little 
alcohol before being added to the varnish. 
The brown and blue may need to be made 
a little lighter in color, which may be effected 
by adding a little dry white lead, cut with 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



alcohol as before. To make the orange, add 
a little red to the yeliow. This method will 
save a great deal of needless trouble and an- 
noyance from patterns being cast of the wrong 
material, as colors will always appeal to the 
eye and are more easily remembered than any 
written, printed or oral directions. 

The pattern loft should be so arranged that 
the groups of shelves are located between the 
windows, projecting out from the walls so as 
to form alcoves, or passages between them 
about four feet wide. The best form of shelves 
will be those supported in the center, near each 
end by a vertical standard of wrought iron 
pipe, set in a cast iron base resting on the 

belonging to one machine should be confined 
to one section, or group of shelves as much as 
possible, the larger ones on the floor or the 
lower shelves, and the smaller ones on the 
upper shelves. The name and letter of the 
machine should be plainly marked on a strip 
nailed to the front of a shelf four or five feet 
from the floor. If different colors are used 
to designate different machines, or types of 
machines, these signs may be painted the same 
colors, for convenience in finding such pat- 
terns as may be wanted. 

The patterns for machines of the same gen- 
eral type should be grouped in one part of the 
loft, occupying adjacent groups of shelves, if 




* -s'.; 





floor. Fixed at proper heights on these pipes 
are cross bars of cast iron, upon which the 
planks composing the shelves are supported. 
This leaves the edges of the shelves clear of 
any obstruction, greatly facilitating the hand- 
ling of patterns. A similar arrangement of 
shelves may be made with wooden vertical and 
cross supports, the former being fastened to 
the floor below and the overhead timbers 
above. Space should be provided on the floor, 
or on low supports, or a low platform, for 
large and heavy patterns, so as to have them 
in a convenient position for handling. Over- 
head tracks and trolley hoists may run through 
the center of the pattern loft for convenience 
in handling large patterns. They may thus be 
handled very quickly and economically. 
In storing patterns ni the pattern loft, those 

necessary to use those of more than one group. 
Patterns for castings of malleable iron, steel, 
brass and bronze should be kept on one of the 
shelves in the same group as those for grey 
iron castings. If special shelves for all the 
patterns for any one of these materials are 
kept together there is more liability to mistake 
in sending the proper ones to the foundry. 

The foreman should have a record of the 
location of aU patterns in the pattern loft. The 
system which will be found to require the 
least amount of writing and will be the easiest 
to keep correct from day to day will, no doubt, 
be the card system. To render this system 
useful there should be a card for each pattern, 
and written upon it the letter designating the 
machine, the number of the pattern, its name, 
and a list of all loose pieces that should go 

Digitized by 




May, IQ05 

with it. These cards may be of ordinary card- 
board stock, cut 3 X 4 in. and requiring no 
printing or ruling. The cards representing 
the patterns of each machine should be grouped 
as for instance, an engine lathe, divided into 
such groups as the bed, headstock, tailstock, 
carriage, etc., and these groups separated by 
guide cards, which may be cut sH x 4 in., 
with these designations written on the exposed 
quarter of an inch. Such a guide card will 
stand more hard usage in constant handling 
than those cut with the usual small tabs. 

These cards should be kept in small, plain 
drawers, each holding the cards for one ma- 
chine, the letter and name of which will be 
marked on its front. As cardboard stock ihay 
be had in twelve or more colors and shades, 
these should be utilized for machines of the 
same general type, as a matter of convenience. 
Or, if desired, cards of different colors may 
indicate the material used in the castings. For 
instance, a grey card for grey iron castings; 
a brown card for malleable iron castings; a 
blue card for steel castings; a vellow one for 
brass castings; and an orange one for bronze 

When the patterns are in the pattern loft the 
cards remain in the usual card drawers. When 
the patterns are sent to the foundry the cards 
representing them are moved from their ac- 
customed drawer to one or more large draw- 
ers marked " At the Foundry," and are re- 
placed when the patterns are returned. If the 
dates when these changes are made should be 
required the cards may be made a little larger, 
and the dates of the issue and return of the 
patterns be entered on them with a rubber 
dating stamp. The backs of the cards as well 
as the fronts may be thus used. When all 
available space has been utilized a new card 
may be made out. There appears to be only 
one objection to the use of cards and that 
can be easily overcome by a reasonable degree 
of care and attention. This is the liability to 
put a card in the wrong place, thus causing 
considerable loss of time to again locate it. 
When a scheme of different colored cards is 
used the liability of this error is much lessened. 
The card system still remains the quickest and 
least complicated, as well as the most flexible 
one in use at present. 

The time of all employes should be kept on 
cards in a time recording clock, a day time 
card being registered for the use of the time 
keeper, and also on job time cards, each of 
which represents the time spent by a single em- 
ploye on a single job, or order number, these 

aggregating, at the end of the week, the same 
number of hours as the day time cards. In 
addition to these cards there is a material and 
cost card, kept by the foreman, which contains, 
on one side an account of all time spent on tlie 
job by all who have worked on it, and on the 
other side an account of all material used and 
properly chargeable to that order number. 
This card is turned in to the cost clerk when 
the job has been completed. These cards 
should be 5 X 7 in. and of thick card, ruled 
and printed similarly to that used for the same 
purpose in the machine shop departments, 
except that the articles enumerated will be, 
white pine lumber, cherry lumber, wood 
screws, wire hails, wood fillets, leather fillets, 
wood dowels, brass dowels, rapping plates, pat- 
tern letters, etc. The cost of gum shellac, 
alcohol, glue, dry colors, etc., will be charged 
upon a percentage plan, the amount used in a 
month being kept once or twice a year and its 
relative value to the value of patterns made in 
the same period being sufficiently accurate for 
the purpose. 

If the system herein described is faithfully, 
consistently and carefully carried out it will 
be, found to exercise a good effect upon the 
employes by interesting them in its methodical 
and orderly management; it will save much 
time usually lost in this class of work ; it will 
produce more good work with the same num- 
ber of men, or the same expense; every man 
will know his duties and responsibilities; the 
daily routine of the shop will run smoothly 
and without friction ; and there will be a preva- 
lent air of economy and efficiency in the de- 
partment that is seldom found where the usual 
methods, with their wasteful disregard for time 
and material are in vogue. Properly managed, 
the pattern shop may be one of the best and 
most economical departments of the entire 
plant, but carelessly managed it is no small fac- 
tor in reducing the profits on manufacturing 

When you purchase your ticket for the 
A. P. A. Convention at New Yorlc, be sure 
and be at the station twenty minutes or 
luiif an hour early, so as to secure a cer- 
tificate or receipt from your ticlcet agent* 
which will entitle you to a return ticlcet for 
one third fare. 

The plant of the Toledo Castings Co., Tol- 
edo, O., has been sold at sheriff sale to R. W. 
Kirklcy for $9,001, two-thirds of the appraise- 

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May, 1905 




I^hiladelphia F6undrymen's Association. 

Howard Evans, Secretary, care J. W. Paxson Co. 

The 146th meeting of the Association was 
held at the Manufacturers' Club, 1409 Walnut 
street, Philadelphia, on Wednesday evening, 
April 5th, President Devlin occupying the 
chair. Howard Evans. Secretary, read an invi- 
tation from Dr. Richard Moldenke, of the 
American Foundrymen's Association, request- 
ing the members to attend the annual meeting 
to be held in New York City on June 6th, 7th, 
8th, and possibly the 9th. Mr. Evans stated 
that the 15th anniversary of the Philadelphia 
Foundrymen's Association would occur in May, 
1906, and it was almost a foregone conclusion 

The speaker explained that his knowledge of 
the subject was based mostly on translations 
from the French of Mr. Fremont's papers to 
the Society for the Encouragement of the Na- 
tional Industry, together with a personal ac- 
quaintance with Mr. Fremont at Paris in 1900. 
In addition, he had been able to make various 
experiments on one of the Fremont machines 
at the laboratory of Tinius Olsen & Co. The 
speaker illustrated his address by the use of 
lantern slides, some of which are reproduced 
here through the courtesy of the Engineers' 
Club of Philadelphia. Mr. Olsen said in part: 
"According to Mr. Fremont, the test of ten- 
sion owes its great growth to research work 
on iron and steel by Mr. David Kirkaldy in 
i860, together with the development of the 

) U»tU»^J 

FIG. I. 

that the next annual meeting of the American 
Foundrymen's Association would be held in 
Philadelphia. The President then introduced 
Mr. John A. Makem, of the evening School 
of Accounts and Finance of the University of 
Pennsylvania, who read a paper on "Foundry 
Cost Accounts." There was considerable dis- 
cussion of the paper, after which the meeting 

Test for Fragility.* 
Thorsten Y. Olsen, of the firm of Tinius Ol- 
sen & Co., Philadelphia, was called upon to 
read his paper entitled "The Fremont Method 
of Determining the Fragility of Iron and Steel." 

^ ♦Paper read before the Philadelphia Foundrvmen's 
Association on March 1, 1905. 

Bessemer steels. From this time the test of 
tension increased in importance, while that of 
shock or impact lessened. With tension test- 
ing definite results mav be obtained; in fact, 
the standard machines of today are far more ac- 
curate than the homogeneity of the metal war- 
rants. Today all the formulre on which en- 
gineering problems are based are derived from 
results obtained from tension testing. Stand- 
ards have consequently been adopted for va- 
rious materials, varying with the known 
stresses they may be subjected to. 

"Due to the lack of homogeneity of a steel 
and to the unknown stresses which must fre- 
quently take place, factors of safety are stipu- 
lated. Thus, if a boiler or a rail is designed 
properly it should break only by an unknown 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

fault in the material. Accidents occur; but 
should they be called accidents when possibly 
they might be avoided? The defects in the 
steel are either lack of homogeneity or exces- 




2 Kgm 3.5 Kgn 


9.B Kqm 

Through lack of method, machine and :4ar(!- 
ards, the consumer and producer alike have 
been compelled to ignore the fragility of their 
steel. Mr. Fremont, intent on relieving this 
state of affairs, commenced a series of investi- 
gations to determine the best means of test- 
ing for the fragility of steel. 

•*In France, testing as done in this country is 
looked upon as an extravagance, and only the 
largest companies can afford a moderate sized 
testing machine. The cost of the material and 
preparation of tension-test pieces are also con- 
sidered a great expense, and hence Mr. Fre- 
mont, considering this, together with the desire 
of testing portions of plates nearest to the por- 
tion actually used, and of testing thin plates, 
made his test specimen very small throughout 
his various experiments. Thus his specimens 
are 10 mm. wide by 8 mm. thick and 30 mm. 
long, with a notch cut crosswise in the center 
of one of its broad sides, i mm. wide by i mm. 
deep. Fig. t shows the comparison of some 
tensile specimens with those of the Fremont 
type. Mr. Fremont first experimented with 
tlie bending test, and ])ent his small specimen^ 

sive fragility, or both. While the 
manufacturer has been plodding 
on, testing his material as re- 
quired, being then safe from fur- 
ther responsibility or criticism, 
the scientist has been endeavoring 
to obviate, to the best of his 
knowledge, these two faults of 
steel. The first fault may be elim- 
inated only slightly by making a 
greater number of tests; the sec- 
ond, fragility, by an impact or 
shock test. Today there is an im- 
pact test prescribed for a rail ; why not for 
a boiler plate, wheel tire, or any portion of a 
mechanism subjected at some time or other to 
an abrupt or intermittent stress? 

** 'Fragility* is a known factor as far as the 
knowledge of its existence, but no fun her. 

over a die 20 mm. long, with a punch-shaped 
tool in a machine. This machine was arranged 
with an autographic apparatus for producing 
the stress-strain diagram of the test. 

"Now take the two steels which have given 

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May, 1905 



approximately the same diagram by the tension 
test. Call these two steels No. 9 and No. 16, 
as in Fig. 2. Subject the same material to a 
oending test. The second set of curves were 
obtained from these two steels tested both with 
the rolling and at right angles to it. These 
curves show that in both cases No. 16 broke 
with a greater amount of work than No. 9, al- 
though the reverse was shown by the test of 
tension. Then, again, at C is a bending diagram 
of a steel which gave a similar tension diagram. 
This, as can readily be seen, gives a far better 
bending test than either of the other two 

"These bending tests reveal some quality of 
the steel not revealed by the tension tests. Does 
the bending test reveal all? Will h reveal 
this quality on a less ductile steel? Take a 
soft steel, prepare a specimen as formerly, 
placing a notch at its under side to reduce 
the elongation, then polish one side and sub- 
mit it to a partial bending. The deformations 

as the preceding, but the extremities of the 
major axes do not coincide. The two ellipses 


FIG. 4. 

are easily seen in Fig. 3. They consist of the 
interposition of two elementary deformations 
more distinctly shown in the diagram. One 
deformation is that of swelling; the other that 
of depression. The depression E F G B H 
is nearly an ellipse, of which the major axis 
coincides with the line A B joining the point 
of impact to the notch. The swelling is a por- 
tion of the ellipse having the same major axis 

FIG. 6. 

have the part A G B H in common, and thus 

the two deformations are in part neutralized. 

The other portion of the ellipse produces the 

maximum deformations, and the rupture 

takes place along the syiKlinal lines. 

"Take now the case of a fragile steel 
as shown in Fig. 4. In this case the 
ellipse caused by the compression or the 
swelling is reduced to nearly nothing. The 
rupture is made downward by tension 
following the line A K in the diagram, 
«ind the rupture is effected abruptly with 
a very small expense of work. For 
steels of intermediate quality, the two 
ellipses will vary from one extreme to the other. 
The rupture of these steels depends upon the 
position of the point K of the ellipse compres- 
sion. Tf the point K goes to A the metal will 
not be weak, while if the point K rests in the 
neighborhood of point B, the metal will be ex- 
tremely weak. Thus both the prominence of 
the swelling and the position of the point K 
are important factors in this determination for 
the fragility. 

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May, 1905 

*'H€re again in connection with these de- 
formations Mr. Fremont states that in the 
period of permanent deformations the neutral 
surface is neither parallel to the faces nor at 
equal distances from the faces. The position 
of this surface may vary with the condition of 
the test, and, conditions being equal, with the 
quality of the metal; in other words, the more 
fragile the steel, the closer the neutral surface 
approaches the compressed side, and vice versa. 
As the neutral surface is not at equal distanceb 
from the faces, especially for fragile steels, the 
idea is inferred that a difference exists between 
the elastic limit for tension and for compres- 
sion; thus ^Ir. Fremont, in a note to the 

of rupture. 2. The total resistance of the metal 
could not be measured. 

Let us take a slightly different form of drop 
testing. Take a bar and mark it off by small 
notches and place it under a hammer, dropping 
the same through successive heights, until a 
point is reached when an increase or decrease 
will rupture or prevent rupture of the bar. 
This gives the result only after testing a great 
number of bars; it also supposes the metal to 
be homogeneous ; and finally it does not reveal 
accurately the fragility of the steel, because a 
steel breaking with an amount of work equal 
to N ft. lb. produced by a height of fall equal 
to P will break with a quantity of work less 

FIG. 5. 

French Academy of Science, stated that *a steel 
is fragile — that is to say, it breaks abruptly by 
bending with the expenditure of a small 
amount of work — or non- fragile — that is to 
say, it breaks only in exerting a quantity of 
work proportional to that exerted for rupture 
by tension — according to whether the ratio of 
the elastic limit of tension to the elastic limit 
of compression is less or greater than unity/ 
This would not be an absolute means of judg- 
ing the fragility, as the elastic limits would 
be taken from static tests, and not b}' means of 
a blow or impact. 

*'It has been proposed to require all steel to 
stand a certain drop of a hammer, and keep 
this a standard. Then, however, two points for 
discus<iion would ari<;e : i. The possibility of 
an arbitrary appreciation of the commencement 

than N produced by a fall greater than P. To 
illustrate this, Mr. Fremont took from the 
same steel six specimens of the same size and 
marked them r, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 3. He then tested 
them by shock at increasing speeds of from 
I meter to lYi meters. These specimens so 
broken are shown in Fig. 5. The first five ap- 
pear about the same, the sixth, or Xo. 3, alone 
being broken off abruptly. The metal had thus 
become fragile for a speed of 1^2 meters. 

**To explain this fact it is supposed that the 
transmission of the forces in the material is 
not instantaneous and so depends on the speed 
of impact. The volume of the metal concerned 
will var>' inversely with the speed of impact. 
In the product of the resistance by the defor- 
mation, the factor 'deformation' decreases as 
the speed of impact increases, and the rupture 

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May, 1905 



will be made with a less expenditure of work. 
"The scientist Carnot in 1889 stated : *If we 
suppose a steel or iron submitted to a continu- 
ous slow force, it is understood perfectly that 
this persistent force transmits itself successive- 
ly from molecule to molecule in such a manner 
that all the molecules are submitted to like 
forces. In the contrary case, when the force 
is abrupt or instantaneous, it is understood 
that all the molecules touched can be disag- 
gregated from the beginning, while the other 
molecules will support no apparent effort* Ac- 
cording to this, then, metals can exhibit very 
different qualities when submitted to a slow 
force or to an abrupt one. 

"In tension testing the speed is a more or less 
important factor, depending on the ductility of 
the steel, and it is well known that an increase 
of speed increases the resistance of the metal 
but decreases the elongation. 

**By comparing tests effected by rupturing 
specimens by a repetition of blows and by a 
single blow, Mr. Fremont found that some 
steels ruptured by a single blow required but 
one-third to one-fourth the amount of work 
required by the repeated blows, and thus im- 
pact testing employing a repetition of blows is 
little better than a bending test. Steels ap- 
pearing non-fragile by the first method would 
appear fragile when subjected to a single drop 
of a hammer just sufficient to break the bar. 
As the shock test varies with the speed of im- 
pact and the deformations become smaller, 
the fragility slightly shown in the bending test 
will ai^pear in its true form in the impact test. 

"The rate of molecular transmission of 
force through a steel may be one way of de- 
fining its fragility. It is also a fact that for 
the same steel this rate approaches a limit in- 
dependent of the speed of impact when twice 
that sufficient to rupture the specimen. Know- 
ing the desirability for an accurate and easy 
means for shock testing, Mr. Fremont pre- 
sented a communication to the Academy of 
Science in 1897 proposing a method of register- 
ing the amount of work required to produce 
rupture by this means. 

"As the speed of impact is a great factor, 
it is necessary to make the speed of the ham- 
mer sufficiently great to rupture the specimen 
with one blow, whatever the quality of the 
metal. If the steel then proves non-fragile 
to a drop of this kind it has been proved non- 
fragile to the test of a cannon. To determine 
the amount of work absorbed to produce this 
rupture, it is necessary to measure the residual 

work that is possessed by the hammer after 
rupture of the specimen. After numerous testi 
by shock Mr. Fremont finished a machine em- 
bodying principles by which this residual force 
could be measured. First, 'crushers* were em- 
ployed from which the residual force in the 
hammer could be measured from their known 
compression ; this, however, was not very prac- 
tical, and in the commercial machine a set of 
springs is used to measure this residual force. 
"The machine as built today is shown in 
Fig. 6. The whole of the machine is 18 ft. 
high; the part shown is about 7 ft. This rep- 
resents the lower portion. The design is made 
double; i. e., it is arranged so that two may 
operate on the same machine at the same time. 
The base of the machine is composed of two 
parts connected by bolts. Between them, and 
held tightly by them, is a central I-beam 
marked I. This carries the six cast-iron sup- 
ports, at intervals, to which are bolted the 
four rolled steel guides marked G. Two anvils 
are bolted on opposite sides of the base, the 
whole weighing more than 1,500 lb. The 
weights of the hammers are 20 and 30 lb., or 
about 1-70 of the total weight of the machine. 
The anvils marked A contain in front and in 
hack of the matrix vertical cylindrical holes 
serving for the lodgment of two springs. A 
cap of hard steel is placed directly over them. 
It is this cap or platform which receives the 
•hammer after the rupture of the specimen. 

"The hammer compresses the springs and the 
.•^pace traversed by them is then measured. As 
the springs rebound after the t)low, it violently 
repels the cap, and so to offset this new shock 
the cap is held by two small springs, one of 
which is visible on the front of the anvil at K 
These springs thus serve merely as a deadener 
to the cap when rebounding. On each side of 
the base and to the right of the operator is a 
windlass marked W, by which the hammer is 
easily and quickly raised. A ratchet and lever 
placed at P prevent the downward motion of 
the hammer when placing the specimen in posi- 

"Each hammer has inserted at its lower ex- 
tremity a hardened steel punching tool, as at 
M. A gripping device at N holds the hammer 
to the pulling cord until automatically released 
at the top of the machine. It is also released 
at any point by attaching a cord near N. 

"To operate the machine we first raise the 
weight enough to allow room to place the 
specimen in position, notch side down, with 
notch directly to the center of the die. Then 

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May, 1905 

we turn the windlass, raising the weight to the 
top, where it is automatically released, and 
falling, breaks the specimen, which in turn falls 
through the die into the pocket at the side 
of the machine. Having broken the specimen, 
it is necessary to measure the work required 
to cause the rupture. The cap covering the 
springs pushes down a light steel tube at F, 
which is held by friction so as to give an accu- 
rate measurement of the deflection of the 
springs. This deflection is further multiplied 
by the aid of the instrument shown at Z. 

"To calibrate the machine the hammers are 
raised through successively increasing inter- 
vals of height and dropped on the platen cov- 
ering the springs. Corresponding marks are 
placed on the card of the instrument. Thus, 


FIG. 7. 

the machine can readily be calibrated at any 
time with al^out ten minutes' work. 

"The method, by using small specimens, re- 
duces the cost of test pieces and their prepara- 
tion, thereby furthering the great production 
of tests and thus aiding in establishing a stand- 
ard homogeneity test. A second advantage is 
that the small specimen permits of testing thin 
plates, both with and across the rolling, as well 
as the possibility of testing parings or clippings 
from actual material used, or those nearest to 
any section subjected to the greatest known 
stress. In the third place the machine affords 
an accurate method of measuring the work nec- 
essary to produce rupture under standard con- 

ditions, always maintaining the same speed of 
impact. The machine as manufactured in this 
country will have a standard drop of 13 ft. 
with hammers weighing 20 and 30 lb., as these 
arc the nearest English units to that used in 
the metric system. 

"The specimen will be H in- wide, 5-16 in. 
thick, and V/i in. long, with a saw-cut 1-16 in. 
deep. The die is 13-16 in. wide. The machine 
can be shifted from the one standard to the 
other without any material change. The speci- 
mens may be prepared either by hand or In 
quantity by a small machipe constructed for 
the purpose. 

"Fig. 7 represents the section of a rail show- 
ing the method of cutting out Fremont speci- 
mens from the entire section. Thus, any rolled 
form can readily be tested to determine the 
effect of the rolling on any portion of it. The 
rail after the test is shown in Fig. 8, the pieces 
bent having been subjected to the bending test, 
while those appearing broken abruptly were 
tested by shock. 

'Tn testing cast iron for fragility a machine 
similar to that described can be used where 
neither the drop nor the weight of the hammer 
need be as great, and thus lighter springs could 
be used which would show smaller differences 
in the material. As cast iron is extremely 
fragile, the speed necessary for rupture need 
not be much greater than that necessar>' to pro- 
duce rupture for steel, or in other words the 
amount of work required to produce rupture 
would not vary to such an extent with the 
speed of impact as in the case of steel. Thus, 
although cast iron may be tested on a machine 
as described, it would not be necessary on ac- 
count of maintaining the same conditions of 
test. A smaller and cheaper machine could 
thus be made for such work.*' 

A. E, Outerbridge Jr. : The machine is dif- 
ferent from one with which I am familiar,. 
where the residual force is measured in an en- 
tirely different way. I would like to ask Mr. 
Olsen if he tested any of those pieces on a 
rigid, non-yielding anvil? I understand the 
anvil is practically supported on springs which 
give at the moment of impact, and the residual 
force is determined by the compression of the 

Mr. Olsen : The specimen is not connected 
with the springs; that lies on the anvil itself. 
After the specimen is broken then the hammer 
falls on the plate connected with the springs. 

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May, 1905 



Mr. Outerbridge: The residual force in the 
hammer is measured by the compression of the 
springs ? 

Mr. Olsen : Yes. I have some broken speci- 
mens which in a tension test showed the same 
elastic limit, ultimate strength and elongation, 
but when subjected to shock test broke in vari- 
ous manners. Some show a fibrous struc- 
ture, while others show a crystalline structure. 
Those exhibiting the fibrous structure broke 
with. 300 to 400 percent greater work than the 
crystalline structures. 

Mr. Outerbridge : It may be interesting to 
the members if I give you a brief account of 
an impact testing machine which has been in 
use in William Sellers & Co.'s works for about 

no account has ever been given of the ma- 
chine I am about to describe now. We first 
made a machine on the same principles as the 
one described, which is what -we called a "gal- 
lows" machine, where the weight, 14 lb., is 
allowed to fall from a certain height and the 
residual force is measured by the hammer. We 
subsequently modified that machine by making 
an improved form of hammer, somewhat like 
this mallet. This may represent the hammer, 
which was in this case 20 lb., having a steel 
nose put on the end ; in fact, the whole hammer 
was a piece of steel on a rigid arm, which was 
supported about 3 ft. in length on ball bearings, 
so that the friction was reduced to the smallest 
possible degree. This hammer is raised to a 


FIG. 8. 

ten years. It is intended for impact tests of 
cast iron, but I think it would be equally useful 
for steel. W'e made a great many tests of that 
kind and the same difference is observable in 
cast iron that we have heard about tonight in 
steel ; that is to say, you may have bars of cast 
iron which show a very high tensile strength, 
and of course there is very little elongation in 
testing cast iron, but when you subject two 
pieces of cast iron (the companion bars having 
shown approximately the same tensile strength) 
to an impact test where you are able to meas- 
ure the residual force remaining in the hammer 
after the break, you will find there is some- 
times an enormous difference in resilience 
amounting to several hundred percent, and that 
is a very important matter. So far as I know, 

certain point where there is a trigger that holds 
it. When that trigger is released the hammer 
falls, and if there is no intervening object to 
impede its force, it will, of course, swing to the 
full length of the arc, that point being meas- 
ured by a moving pointer which travels with 
the hammer and remains at rest at the extreme 
distanc'% thus recording the swing of the ham- 
mer on a graduated arc. Tlie hammer, if 
started, will continue to swing something like 
a quarter of an hour, each time the hammer 
going a little less far until eventually it will 
come to rest. It takes more than 15 minutes 
to come to rest, owing to the fact that the 
friction is reduced to a minimum by the ball 
bearings. Just at the vertical point there is a 
rii^id support for cast iron test pieces. It is 

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May, 1905 

a support similar to that which we use for 
transverse tests of cast iron. The bar is 
I X I X 15 in. and put in with the supports 12 
in. apart and rigidly fixed so that there is no 
movement. In this case there are no springs. 
There is alongside this test piece a pointer 
which is just sufficiently rigidly supported so 
that when you mov£ it out to any point it will 
stay there — it won't fall back. The arc is grad- 
uated in inches up to the extreme end. As I 
say. when there is nothing interposing, the 
hammer will swing out to the extreme end and 
then come back. The pointer will be carried 
with the hammer and left at the extreme point 
to which the hammer swings. Then, if you 
want to measure the amount of decrease each 
time the hammer swings you simply move that 
pointer back and then the hammer carries it 
forward again. Of course there is a trifling 
resistance offered by the pointer, but it is the 
same in all cases, so that this is negligible. 
This hammer is so arranged that you break 
the bar on the first blow on all occasions. If 
you have a piece which offers very considerable 
resistance — take a piece of very strong cast 
iron for example — the resistance offered by 
that piece will be quite considerable, and of 
course the hammer will not go out so far, and 
the pointer will rest at the place of its extreme 
swing. It will never be moved by the second 
swing, and the moment the piece is broken it 
falls out of the way. We have made a large 
number of tests of cast iron with that machine 
and have many records. I am not prepared to- 
night to give an account of these records, but 
we found by that machine that there is a very 
much greater difference in the resistance to 
impact than was revealed by the transverse 
test machine, either from the resistance to 
strain or from the bending record; in other 
words, the ductility or resilience, or bending 
quality, or resistance to shock of cast iron 
cannot possibly be measured accurately by 
either the transverse or tensile tests alone. 
There is no measuring by compression springs 
whatever in this machine. It is simply the re- 
sistance given by the breaking of the metal 
that is recorded by the swing of the hammer. 

Mr. Olsen: I believe there is a machine of 
that kind at the Lehigh University. In steel, 
where you require a certain speed of impact, 
which according to the Fremont method is ab- 
solutely necessary, it would be useless. If you 
increase the height of fall you will break the 
specimen with a less amount of work, so one 
specimen passing your test will fail when sub- 

jected to the Fremont test. If I raised my 
hammer up to half the height I would break 
the bar, but it would take a greater amount 
of work. If I raise it twice that height it will 
take a less amount of work. 

Mr. Outerbridge : The same principle applies 
where it is a swinging hammer. It is still 

Mr. Evans: Is the drop of that weight the 
same as the impact of a cannon ball? 

Mr. Olsen: The speed of the Fremont ma- 
chine is equivalent to the speed of a cannon 
as far as the breaking of the specimen is con- 
cerned. After you reach a certain point any 
further increase in speed will not change the 
transhiission of the force through the mole- 
cules. There seems to be a limit. If you get 
a less speed it is within the limit. The trouble 
with the pendulum machine is that you cannot' 
increase the speed sufficiently for testing steels, 
and the specimen is not placed on a rigid anvil. 
You could not easily get a speed of hammer 
equivalent to a drop of 13 ft. That is neces- 
sary for the steel test. If you get a much lower 
you will get within the limit before mentioned 
Mr. Outerbridge : The first weight we made 
was 40 lb., and we found that that was exces- 
sive, so we reconstructed the machine and re- 
duced the weight to 20 lb. 

Mr. Olsen: If you increase the height of 
fall any further the amount of work required 
to break the bar will not decrease. There 
.seems to be a limit where the transmission of 
the forces will not decrease. 

Mr. Outerbridge : We found a very curious 
thing in connection with the cast iron drop 
testing machine. I had occasion to describe 
that in i8q6 in a paper read before the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining Engineers. We found 
if we had a dozen bars of iron cast of the same 
size, from one ladle of iron in one mold, pre- 
sumably under precisely the same conditions, 
by allowing this drop weight of 14 lb. to fall a 
height of 12 in. it would break any of the 
pieces ; and before we had means of measuring 
the residual force we did not know whether 
that piece would have broken by a drop of the 
hammer of 6 in. or 12. This drop fell vertical- 
ly in guides. There was no ^rrction at all, be- 
cause it fell in free space. In order to ascer- 
tain whether the fall of 12 in. was excessive- 
more than necessary for the break — ^we took 
one of those companion bars and raised that 
drop by inches, i in., then 2 in., 3 in., 4 in., 
5 in., 6 in., 7 in., 8 in., 9 in., 10 in., 11 in., 12 in. 
It would naturally be supposed that the bar 

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May, 1905 



would break before the hammer was raised to 
12 in., because it had been subject to 11 blows 
at constantly increasing heights. We were 
surprised to find that in no case did the bar 
break at 12 in., whereas, in every case, if you 
allowed that hammer to drop from 12 in. in the 
first place, the bar would break. The question 
was, what was the cause of that difference? 
In a large number of experiments we showed 
conclusively that it was owing to the fact that 
each slight blow that you gave to the cast iron 
enabled it in a measure to relieve itself of the 
cooling strains, and therefore after it had been 
subjected to .1 number of blows, from a height 
not sufficient to break the bar, the bar was so 
much increased in its shock-resisting quality 
that it would not break. In some cases I have 
found that it took 20 blows from a height of 
12 in. after the hammer had been allowed to 
fall from a lesser height several times to break 
the bar. These experiments are all recorded in 
the paper which I read before the American 
Institute of Mining Engineers in 1896. Every- 
body has known for a long time that if you 
strike a sharp blow on the rim of a pulley 
that has been cast (supposing the pulley is de- 
fective, or for some reason you want it broken 
up"), there will be a concussion and the pulley 
will open so you can put a knife blade very 
readily in the crack. Sometimes you can put a 
steel wedge in the opening. It may open as 
much as a sixteenth of an inch ; but if you 
strike an old pulley that has been run in the 
shop for a length of time — a worn-out pulley 
that you want to break up — and if you give 
it exactly the same blow, when you break it 
you will find there is no sudden snap and no 
wide crack ; you could not put a piece of tissue 
paper in it. This marked difference is due to 
the fact that the cooling strains have been re- 
lieved by the mechanical action of vibration in 
service. Steel is an entirely different metal 
from cast iron and the same conditions do not 
exist. It might be a good thing, however, 
to try these tests on steel; instead of letting 
the hammer fall from the ultimate height, take 
a duplicate piece and give it 20 blows from one- 
half the height and then raise it by inches to 
the ultimate height and ascertain whether the 
• piece will break by a blow from a height which 
was sufficient to break a companion piece with 
one blow. 

Mr. Olsen : In cast iron of small dimensions 
I do not think, if it is shown by the repeated 
blow as in using large specimens, it would 
show up. 

Mr. Evans : According to that the tumbling 
barrel for cleaning castings must make the 
castings stronger. 

Mr. Outerbridge : Yes ; that is true. It was 
formerly the rule with us that all fragile cast- 
ings must be cleaned in the pickling tub, and 
must not go to the tumbling barrel for fear of 
breaking the small pulleys. Now that rule has 
been entirely reversed. All fragile castings 
are put in the tumbling barrel now. 

After the adoption of a vote of thanks which 
was extended to Mr. Olsen for his presentation 
of the subject, the meeting adjourned. 

New EnslaiMl Foandrymeo's AMOclatlon. 

Pred F. Stockwell, Secretary, care of the Barbour- 
Stock well Co., Gambridgeport, Haas. 

The regular monthly meeting of the New 
England Foundrymen's Association was held 
at the Exchange Club, Boston, April 12, at S 
p. m.. Vice President W. B. Snow, in the chair. 
Routine business was disposed of, after which 
the chair appointed Messrs. Henshaw, Stock- 
well and Fitch to serve on a committee for 
revising the constitution to comply with the 
present conditions of the association. Owing 
to the lateness of the hour it was voted that 
the discussion of the quiz questions be omitted. 

After a short intermission the meeting ad- 
journed for dinner. Following this the chair- 
man introduced as the speaker of the evening 
Mr. V. A. Trundy, assistant secretary of the 
American Mutual Liability Insurance Co., who 
gave an address on "Liability Insurance." 

Pittaburg Foundrymen'8 Association. 

F. H. Zimxners, Secretary, care Union Foundry and 
Machine Co. 

At the meeting of the Pittsburg Foundry- 
men's Association, held at the rooms of the 
Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, 
at Pittsburg on April 3, two papers presented 
by David McLain, of Milwaukee, were read. 
One treated the production of steel castings 
historically, while the other was on the **Melt- 
ing of Brass with Oil in Steel Furnaces." H. C. 
Babbitt, of the Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. 
Co., briefly related his experience with the use 
of a Tropenas converter for the production of 
steel castings, and H. M. Lane, editor of the 
Foundry, also addressed the meeting. In May 
a smoker will be given by the association, and 
an effort will be made to organize the foundry 
foremen and superintendents into an associa- 
tion as an adjunct of the Pittsburg association. 
^Ir. McLain's paper on melting brass with oil 
in steel furnaces follows: 

"While I was in charge of a crucible steel 

Digitized by 




May, 1903 

and iron foundry some years ago, our con- 
cern wanted to make their own brass castings 
as they had considerable trouble in securing 
service — their castings being light and very 
intricate. I had never handled a brass shop, 
and began looking around for a man to take 
charge of it. I had been wondering where we 
could place the new department; and, as we 
had plenty of room in our foundry, decided to 
place the brass molders near the steel fur- 
naces. I could not see why we could not melt 
brass in our furnaces, as we could regulate the 
flame to suit the work. I went around among 
my friends in the brass business, trying to 
find out whether I was right or wrong before 
I started . 

"Before telling what they said, I will give 
you the conditions that existed in our foun- 
dry: We had six furnaces, two melting 
chambers to the furnace, and two pots to the 
chamber. At this time we operated from two 
to four furnaces per day, and six heats or 
twelve pots was the day's work, and the 
melter was through at from 2:30 to 3:30 
o'clock, and the oil turned off for the day. 
We did not look for our steel pots to make 
more than three heats per pot, when the best 
of them were picked over and set to one side, 
and the balance thrown out. The ones we set 
aside we intended to use in case onc.of our 
pots burst in the furnace. Now, I figured, if 
we could use these old crucibles for meUing 
brass it would be saving the price of brass 
pots; and if we could place the pot full of 
metal iji tjie furnace after turning off our oil, 
that would Help us, greatly, as our company 
did not want to build a: brass foundry until 
they wiere larger users than they were at this 

"Now, this was the way it looked to me, 
and it looked right, but, as I said, I wanted 
to know what my brass friends thought. When 
I told them that I intended to melt with oil 
they told- me it would not do. No, they had 
never used oil, but they knew it would burn 
the metal and so forth. They told me that it 
was a crazy idea to use those old pots ; they 
would have small particles of steel in them 
and would spoil the metal. I had told our 
manager that I thought we could work it this 
way, and I wanted to try it before telling him 
it was no good. But it proved to be all right, 
so far as using the old pots and the oil was 

**We would place our filled pot in the fur- 
nace immediately after pulling our last steel 
pot, and would have our metal melted in from 

35 to 40 minutes. The castings gave good sat- 
isfaction, but, as we were a young and grow- 
ing concern, we had to builds brass foundry, 
as we needed the room for our iron and steel 
molders, and we put in six brass furnafces of 
the regular type. But it demonstrated to our 
entire satisfaction that brass could be melted 
with oil in a steel furnace, both after our 
steel was melted and when we chose to light 
a furnace if we were in a hurry for some 
castings. It also proved that we were right in 
thinking that we could use those old pots. 
We have gotten as many as 16 heats from an 
old discarded steel pot — ^but about eleven heats 
were the average. 

"After we started our brass foundry I had 
placed there one of the best men I could find 
to take charge of it — a studious, thorough 
mechanic. I advised him to see what he 
could do with those old pots, and he has 
gotten as many as 18 heats, but this is an ex- 
ception. We talked the matter over and fin- 
ally decided he should take a new steel pot, 
and see what he could get from that Although 
he was afraid at first that probably the steel 
pot might affect the metal, and besides the 
steel pot was not as handy; but when he 
took the steel pot he cut a lip on each side to 
make easier pouring. We watched the cast- 
ings in the machine shop and they were all 
right. We got 32 heats from the first pot, and, 
if I am not mistaken, 35 from the next, and 
our average was 31 heats for the first six 

Buffalo Fouodrymen's Assoclatioa. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Buffalo 
Foundrymen's Association was held in the 
Builders' Exchange on Tuesday, April i8th. 
President L\Tnan P. Hubbell occupying the 
chair. Twenty-seven members were present 
and after the regular routine business the pres- 
ident introduced Mr. W. H. Carrier, of the 
Buffalo Forge Co., who presented a paper on 
"Air Blast for the F^oundry Cupola." After 
some discussion of the paper, a vote of thanks 
was tendered ^Ir. Carrier and the meeting ad- 

The Associated Foundry Foremen. 

Frank C. Everitt. Secretary. 2413 Third Ave., New 
York, N. Y., care The J. L. Mott Iron Works. 

The Associated Foundry Foremen have sent 
out a circular letter to foremen of the different 
foundries throughout the United States, call- 
ing attention to the objects of the association 
and asking all interested to join. The circu- 

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May, 1905 



lar al:5o calls attention to the arrangement 
made with The roundry, by which all mem- 
bers of the Foundry Foremen's Association 
receive The Foundry as a part of the return 
for the dues which they pay. This arrange- 
ment was made with the Foundry Foremen at 
their request and does not signify that The 
Foundry is the official organ of the association, 
or that there is any closer bond than has exist- 
ed in the past, but as The Foundry stands 
for the best possible foundry practice, and as 
the organization of the Associated Foundry 
Foremen stands solely for the improvement of 
foundry methods, it is unnecessary to say that 
the closest bond has existed and always will 
exist between this organization and The Foun* 
dry, and as the interests of each lie in the 
same field, it is but natural that each should 
help the other in every way possible. 

In this circular letter it is stated that if 
application for membership is received during 
the year, the dues will only have to be paid 
for the balance of that year ending June i, 
and not for the full year. The dues will then 
be renewed on the first of the following year. 
The dues for the Associated Foundry Fore- 
men's Association are two dollars per year, 
payable in advance. In cities where locals ex- 
ist, there is an additional pa>Tnent due to the 

Elsewhere in this issue we publish a state- 
ment concerning the headquarters of the As- 
sociated Foundry Foremen at the convention of 
the Associated Foundry Foremen and the 
American Foundrymen's Association, which is 
to be held in June. 

Milwaukee Foundry Foremen. 

Thomas GlaAHcook, Dist. Vice Pres,, care Pawlinf? & 
Hamischfeger Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

The Milwaukee Foundry Foremen met on 
April 3, with 28 members present. One new 
member was elected and the regular business 
transacted, after which Mr. AIcLain read a 
paper on steel casting, in which he reviewed 
the progress in steel foundries for the last 25 
years. He also gave a talk on melting brass 
in a steel furnace. Copies of these same pa- 
pers were read before the Pittsburg Foundry- 
men's Association and are printed in connec- 
tion with their meeting. 

The question came up for vote as to whether 
they should have one or two meetings a month, 
and it was decided that it would be the best 
to have one meeting a month. 

Mr. Henry Beagel, of the Allis-Chalmcrs Co., 
is to read a paper at the next meeting. 


One year ago the Erie Foundry Foremen's 
Association tendered a banquet to the Foundry- 
men of Erie and on April ist the foundrymen 
entertained the foundry foremen of Erie. The 
banquet was an affair long to be remembered 
for the quality of the menu, for the originality 
of the menu card, and for the sparkling wit 
displayed in the toasts and speeches. The fol- 
lowing is taken from the menu card, showing 
the menu and the program. 

foremen's association by the ERIE 

April I, 1905. 


Matthew Griswold Jr., Toastmaster. 

**Why we organized the Erie Foundry 
Foremen's Association and the bene- 
fits resulting therefrom,'*... 

Mr. Wm. F. Grunau. 

"Good fellowship among the foundries 

Mr. Chas. W. Davenport. 

"The possibilities of our organization". ... 

Mr. Jas. A. Murphy. 

"Agreements and their value to the foun- 
dry" Mr. U. P. Rossiter. 

"The Ladies" (in the core room) 

Mr. Harry E. Kies. 

"Foundry System".' Mr. B. J. Walker. 

"Tlie 'Machine' in the foundry" 

Hon. ^latthew Griswold. 

"Cast Iron Thoughts". . .Mr. Thos. E. Durban. 


Sand cut up at 7:30 p. m. 

Oyster Cocktail, high in sulphur. 
Hull Ladle Consomme. 

Olives, well pickled. Sanded Almonds. 


Follow Boarded Shad. 


Small I'illet, Mignon a la Cherron. 

Punch, well annealed, a la Roman. 

Hants Sauterne. Cigarettes. 

Guinea Hen. core oven roasted. 

New Bermuda Potatoes, sand blasted. 
Spinach, a la Francais. Pommard 1881. 

Lettuce, with large header and Tomatoes, 
French facing. 

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May, 1905 

Ice Cream, chilled. Cake. Fruit. 

Roquefort Cheese, well vented. 

Cafe. Water Crackers. 

Moulds a la Havana (a three sprue job.) 

German Brew. 

A little explanation of some points of the 
menu will be of interest. For instance, the 
follow board shad was planked shad served 
on little follow boards. The cigarettes were 
passed in a hand ladle. The last item, entitled 
"Molds a la Havana," consisted of individual 
flasks served to each person. These were 
small flasks with follow boards all clamped up. 
Upon removing the clamps it was found that 
each box contained three excellent cigars. The 
pouring off then occurred. 

A very good model of a regular cupola 
about two feet in diameter had been built at 
one side of the banquet room. It was con- 
nected with blast pipes and all the regular 
paraphernalia of the genuine article. After 
the blast was put on, they waited some time 
and then tapped the cupola, when, to use the 
words of the secretary, "Fluid iron (?) poured 
forth, covered with a white, foaming slag." 
The precious liquid was caught in a shank 
ladle and passed around to the individual 
workmen (?) and every one poured off his 
own work. It was past midnight when the 
bottom dropped, and even then the unusual 
statement was made — "Let the heat go on; 
we'll work after the whistle blows." All pres- 
ent certainly had a good time and one which 
they will remember for many years. 

Erie Foundry Foremen. 

W. F. Qranau, Dist. Vice Pres., c»re Erie City Iron 

The regular meeting of the Erie Foundry 
Foremen's Association was held Monday, April 
3, with President Grunau presiding. There 
was a large attendance and after the regular 
routine business, an interesting paper on "Cost 
Keeping in the Foundry," was read by W. F. 
Grunau. The members also spent some time 
in discussing the banquet which had been ten- 
dered them by the local foundrymen's associa- 
tion on April ist. 

Cleveland Foundry Foremen* 

W. H. Nicholls, fiOft Gordon Avenue, District Vice 

The Cleveland Foundry Foremen are ar- 
ranging for a banquet to be held May 6th, to 
which all of the foundrymen of Cleveland and 
vicinity are invited. It is expected that there 
will be a large attendance. Dr. Moldenke is to 

be present and several others will respond to 
toasts. The Cleveland Club of Associated 
Patternmaker Foremen has been asked to co- 
operate with the Foundry Foremen in this ban- 

W. P. Cunningham, Secretary, Pencoyd, Pa. 



S. M. WilUamB, Dist, Vice Pres., 221 Third Street, 

Elizabeth. N. J. 

David Spenee, Dist. Vice Pres.. 142 Bunker Si. 


W. H. Holmes, Dist. Vice Pres., care American 

Fonndry Ca 



A. Chase, care Sawyer & Massey Co., Secretary and 



sciEir CE nr the ieon fouhdet. 

The Iron and Coal Trades Review, Feb. 24- — 
The famous iron master, Mr. J. K Stead, F. R. 
S., F. C. S., etc., delivered an address before 
the Cleveland (England) Institute of Engi- 
neers recently, in which he reviewed the prog- 
ress made in the foundry by the aid of science. 
Science in the foundry, he holds to be, "the 
exact knowledge of things relating thereto, 
which have been proved by demonstration." 
Only recently has the study of cast iron been 
taken up, and it now receives a great deal of at- 
tention. Analyses of castings vary very much, 
yet the first rate ones of the several classes al- 
ways run within certain well defined limits. 
Hence it is the object of the founder to build 
up his mixtures to conre out to these several 
compositions. The founder must demand pig 
irons from the furnaces which have uniform 
composition, so that his mixtures made with 
them will work out well. The oW-time grad- 
ing by fracture must now be set aside alto- 
gether, and the new order of things adopted. 
Back in 1885, Mr. Stead advised the mixing of 
two kinds of iron, one a "glazed iron," the 
other a white iron, both being unsalable, and 
predicted good gray castings from the mixture. 
A Mr. Wood tried it and met with perfect suc- 
cess. The "glazed** pig had 4.43 percent silicon. 
As the result of this trial, the glazed pig iron 
became an article much sought after, and 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



originated the introduction of ferro-silicons in 
the foundry. 

Mr, Stead thinks that sulphur does not do 
much harm in the iron as long as it is not al- 
lowed to harden it. In other words, the silicon 
must be kept high where this is likely to occur. 
Founders who make very light castings for 
high speed machining are not likely to indorse 
this view, and will keep sulphur out at all haz- 

A founder should get a good metallurgist to 
care for his mixtures and general practice. He 
seldom finds such a man, as most chemists, 
while capable of determining the constituents 
of cast iron, are not good metallurgists. Hence 
there is a field for properly trained foundry 
metallurgists, and these men must at the pres- 
ent time be trained in the foundry or "made." 
Mr. Stead advises that a foundry metallurgist 
should give his employer a review of all pub- 
lished foundry literature regularly, in abstract 
form, to show that he has absorbed it, as well 
as to post the foundryman along this line of his 

In the discussion which followed, Mr. Hutch- 
inson, a furnaceman. recited his experience 
with the foundrymen of Germany, Austria and 
England. He found that they did not want 
iron by analysis at all, but bought by fracture 
grading altogether. The furnace had chemists, 
and sent the proper iron for the work the 
foundryman had to make. In America we have 
things different. The heavy kickers who want 
special fractures get beautiful ones in their 
metal sent them. Those who know, however, 
get just the composition they want, irrespective 
of fracture, and fare much better. They will 
arrive at this point in England after a while 
also, and Germany is fast following the Amer- 
ican footsteps herein also. 

Other foundrymen taking part in the discus- 
sion gave distinctively favorable views on the 
foundry laboratory. One foundryman, how- 
ever, thought it would take thirty years to get 
the English foreman to mix his iron b^ analy- 
sis. He ought to take a trip to America and 
see how the foremen take to scientific mixing 
of metals here. 

In reply to the questions and criticisms of his 
paper, Mr. Stead simply remarked that a piece 
of pig iron (shown by Mr. Hutchinson), 
which would be photographed as a frontispiece 
to his published paper, having a No. i and a 
No. 4 fracture on the same surface, and yet 
was of uniform composition, would be his best 
answer. Where would the practical grader 
come in on this? 


The Ironmonger, Feb. 25. — At a recent meet- 
ing of the Staffordshire Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute, Mr. O. F. Hudson read a paper on the 
above subject. Cast iron, on account of its 
great impurity, presents more difficulties under 
the microscope than steel. By considering cast 
iron as a steel, with its graphite scattered 
throughout the mass in flakes, the study of this 
material is greatly simplified. That iron, which 
has the least combined carbon, or, in other 
words, has the mildest steel as a matrix, is 
necessarily the softest and easiest to machine, 
and the graphite forms a good lubricant for the 
cutting tool. 

Prof. Turner, in the discussion that followed, 
is quoted as saying that cast iron is easy to 
study under the microscope, as specimens can 
quickly be polished and etched, and from the 
structure its adaptability for the purpose in- 
tended can readily be told. It is a question if 
Prof. Turner has not been misquoted, and that 
steel was meant ; for all students of cast iron 
are eagerly awaiting the man who will make 
the microscope avafiable for practical use in the 
foundry. So far we are quite a ways off. 

The Mobile Foundry Co., of Mobile, Ala., 
has been incorporated with a capital of $10,000. 
The incorporators are: J. H. Mahler, Harry 
W. Ollinger and C. J. Mahler. 

The Western Machine & Foundry Co., of 
Wichita, Kan., succeeds the Wichita Bridge & 
Iron Co., which was forced into the hands of 
a receiver about a year ago, but paid off 90 
cents on the dollar and has been reorganized 
and placed on a firm financial basis, with Geo. 
Christopher, of Wichita, president, H. Anthony, 
vice president, and James Warren, secretary 
and treasurer. 

Jack Goodwin, of Caldwell, Idaho, is or- 
ganizing a stock company with a capital of 
$10,000 for the purpose of putting in a foundry 
and machine shop to look after local trade. 

W. B. Hayes, formerly of Bradford, Pa., has 
recently returned from Burmah, India, where 
he was employed by the Burmah Oil Co. This 
co.Tipany is operating extensive oil fields in 
Burmah and Simla, and in order to obviate the 
necessity of transferring materials to and from 
the fields for repairs, etc., they have installed 
machine shops, foundries and a general repair 
department in the oil fields. A number of 
Americans are employed with this company. 

Digitized by 




May, 1903 


Devoted to inquiries from Practical Poandrymen on 
subjects reiatinjr to tiie Meitlnjr and Using of Cast iron, 
Steelp Brass and Bronze. 

Tiie following experts answer questions in tills 
department : 

W. J. Keep, Cast Iron. 

J. B. Nau, Metallurgy of Steel and Steel Castings. 

Dr. Ricliard Moldenke, Malleable Castings. 

C. Vickers, Brass Castings. 

We iMve also made arrangements witli several others 
to act as special contributors upon Brass, Bronze and 
other subjects. All biqulries shouki be addressed to 
the Editor of THE FOUNDRY, and they will then be 
forwarded to those in charge of the different subjects. 



Castings for Auionwbile Cylinders. 

1'he iron needed is close grained with low 
shrinkage and soft enough to tool with ease, as 
good cylinders can be made in the United 
States as in France. The making of cored 
automobile work is improving and advancing 
the art of molding and casting of iron more 
rapidly than could have been done in any 
other way and will have a great influence on 
other inventions requiring complicated and 
intricate cored castings. 


What is the powder that is put into the 
ladle to produce semi-steel? Our machine 
shop turns out a large amount of steel bor- 
ings and turnings. To use them should we 
put them into wooden boxes the same as we 
do cast iron borings or would you put them 
in the ladle and tap the iron on to it? 

Answer. — Semi-steel is ordinary cast iron 
containing from 10 to 20 percent of wrought 
iron or steel. The steel should be put into the 
cupola along with the pig iron. You can place 
100 lb. of clean steel borings in a pine box and 
nail the cover on and charge instead of 100 lb. 
of pig iron. You can find by experiment how 
nnich borings you can use. It is usual to use 
steel scrap in larger pieces such as the planing 
chips or strips cut from boiler plates. 

This mixture would not be fluid enough 
to run freely into a mold and would throw 
ofl:* gas which would cause the casting to be 
unsound. Aluminium in some form is placed 
in the ladle before the iron is tapped into it. 
Pure aluminium in chunks is by far the best 
with perhaps a little larger amount of granu- 
lated fcrro-manganese, say one-tenth of one per- 
cent of aluminum. ITie granulated ferro-man- 
ganesc is much better than the powder. 

The base of any flux for semi-steel is alum- 

The strength of semi-steel will be more than 
20 percent greater than ordinary iron castings. 


We make a fairly good grade of gray iron 
castings, only we would like to be able to get 
closer grained iron and not have it too hard. 
Can you put us in communication with any 
one who could give us information for using 
aluminium by applying it in the molten metal 
to give the above effect, or how should it be 
applied? What is carbonese used for in con- 
nection with the molding trade? 

Ans7ver. — Softness will depend upon the per- 
centage of silicon in the iron, therefore, you 
must first find how much you need and then 
get it into the mixture. You can purchase 
pig irons that contain the right amount of sili- 
con or you can use some pig containing too 
much and other pig with too httle, making the 
average correct. 

This decided, the closer the grain of the pig 
iron the closer the grain of the castings, or 
you can introduce a liberal amount of ma- 
chinery scrap, which always has a close grain. 
Stove plate scrap has a very close grain and 
is expected to contain about 2.75 percent of 

Aluminium placed in the ladle will soften 
the iron slightly and will produce sound cast- 
ings. Purchase commercially pure aluminium 
but never the cheaper casting aluminium. Use 
about one-tenth of one percent or less and it 
will instantly mix through the molten iron and 
remove gases and make solid, strong castings. 
Carbonese is a trade name for a flux com- 
posed wholly or nearly so of ferro-manganese. 
The latter can be purchased in lumps and 
placed in the cupola and melted along with the 
iron or can be purchased in a granulated form, 
when it is placed in the ladle and the melted 
iron falls upon it. If you cannot purchase 
granulated ferro-manganese in small quantities 
you had better use carbonese. It removes sul- 
phur and removes gases and in that way makes 
sound castings. Some like it and some do 

By keeping the silicon high enough to make 
the castings soft you can get the required 
grain by a careful selection of close grained 
pig irons and scrap without the addition of 
any medicine. You i^ill generally find that 
the close grained irons have low silicon. Using 
such irons and increasing the silicon by the 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



use of a six or eight-percent silvery iron will 
give you closer grained castings than a mix- 
ture of pig irons, each of which contains the 
silicon needed in the casting. 




Inquiry. — Kindly let us know what we can 
put into the slag that forms in our brass cru- 
cibles that will enable us to melt this brass or 
slag and recover the brass which it contains. 

Answer. — The accumulation of slag on the 
walls of a crucible can be largely prevented by 
careful attention on the part of the furnace- 
man. After every heat the walls of crucible 
should be scraped with a long chisel pointed 

A slagged crucible is very expensive, as it 
takes longer to melt the brass, the slag being a 
non-conductor, prevents the passage of heat 
through the walls of the crucible, and also 
greatly diminishes its capacity. 

Cleaning the crucible while hot will greatly 
help to prevent slagging, but in spite of this it 
will form and become so hard that the bar will 
not detach it, without danger of breaking the 
pot. In that case place the crucible in the fur- 
nace after the first heat is out and the fur- 
nace is well heated. Coke up the crucible but 
ilo not charge it ; let it become white hot, then 
the slag can be all scraped from the wall of pot 
with a poker while it is still in the fire, then 
throw a little charcoal on the slag to reduce it 
and proceed with the heat as usual. Some 
founders try to remove the slag when the pot 
is cold. This is a tedious job and injurious 
to the crucibles. 

The precautions above stated will keep the 
crucible fairly clean, but a worn out crucible 
will generally have some slag sticking to the 
walls. Break up the crucible, detach the slag, 
and pound it up, mix with fine charcoal and 
place the whole in the bottom of the new 
crucible taking the place of the old one; the 
charcoal will reduce the oxide to metal. Never 
allow slag to accumulate, never keep old pots, 
but let every new pot succeed to the slag from 
its predecessor. But if there is a pile of slag 
on hand, pound it, mix with charcoal and pro- 
portion amongst the heats until used up. 



Inquiry. In the United States and Canada 
there is a composition very largely used which 
is approximately a whiter mixture than brass 
and also cheaper. It is a recognized metal and 
usually sold nickel plated. It is sometimes 
called electro nickel on compo. Could you 
give us the composition of this metal, that is, 
the compo? 

Answer. White alloys may be divided into 
three distinct classes, viz: — First, the alloys 
of copper, with nickel and zinc, known as Ger- 
. man silver, nickel bronze, etc. Second, the 
soft white metals, consisting of tin with cop- 
per and antimony, or, lead and tin, lead and 
antimony and so forth. 

These alloys are known under the names of 
"Brittinnia," "pewter," "babbitt," "white-met- 
al," "stereotype metal,'* "antimonial lead," and 
so forth, percentages of zinc are also often car- 
ried by the soft white metals; and third, the 
white brasses, in which zinc predominates. In 
these alloys, copper, iron, tin, etc., are added to 
the zinc, to change its crystalline nature. Any 
white alloy which resembles brass in that it is 
harder, and more infusible than the soft white 
metals, and is at the same time cheaper than 
brass, belongs to this third class, and contains 
zinc as its base, because if it was a brass whit- 
ened by nickel, its cost would be greater than 
ordinary brass or bronze, therefore the com- 
position alluded to by this correspondent must 
belong to this class. 

A few examples of these alloys are given : 
Decoration Metal. 

1. Yellow brass, 15 lb.; melt, add gradually, 
zinc, 75 lb. ; aluminium, 3 lb. 

2. Yellow brass, 15 lb.; zinc, 75 lb.; tin, 10 

3. Yellow brass, 15 lb.; zinc, 80 lb.; iron, 
2 lb. 

Melt the yellow brass first, add zinc grad- 
ually, then the iron in the form of cast iron 
!)orings. or in the shape of ferro-zinc. 

Harder alloys are: 

1. Copper, 40 lb. ; zinc, 60 lb. 

2. Yellow brass clippings, 50 lb. ; zinc, 40 lb. 
Note — Great care must be exercised while 

melting not to burn the zinc away by overheat- 
ing. C. ViCKERS. 

The Pendleton Iron Works, Pendleton, Ore., 
successor to May & Zeiger, have elected the 
following officers : Marion Jacks, president ; 
Fremont Arnold, secretary and treasurer ; and 
W. L. Zeiger, manager. 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 




M. E., of Montreal, P. Q., writes asking 
what kind of malleable castings were meant 
when in the March number of The Foundry, 
page 31, it was stated that in America we were 
selling them from 2.2 to 3 cents per lb. In 
reply we would say that at the time the March 
Foundry was issued malleable castings for car 
purposes, which are admittedly among the best 
made, so far as quality, but not good looks, 
are concerned, were selling for 2.15 up to 2.25 
cents a lb. delivered. We know of cases where 
some malleable works, to fill up, were taking 
this work for a shade over 2 cents, and there- 
by selling at cost, if not under. Today the 
price has gone up to 2.50 to 3 cents, and it 
should be still higher, and will be after the 
concerns with porcine proclivities have filled 
up. As this class of castings comprises over 
50 percent of all the malleables made, the 
price is a fair criterion for the rest of the in- 
dustry. The smaller the casting, of course, 
the higher the price. Those above referred to 
ran from a few ounces to 50 lb., the average 
for the orders taken being some 6 lb. apiece. 

M. E. further asks what the average analysis 
of the pig irons in America used for malleable 
purposes may be. Here it is. Silicon 0.75 to 
1.50, for very light work, up to 2.00; mangan- 
ese preferably below 0.60, though sometimes it 
runs higher, and then simply has to be burned 
out to prevent trouble in the anneal. Phos- 
phorus, below 0.200, though for charcoal irons 
it may run up to 0.225 ; sulphur not over 0.04 ; 
total carbon immaterial, though it runs from 
3.50 up to 4.15. These figures are for the best 
quality malleable. If the sulphur is exceeded 
corresponding detriment will follow. 

Good foundry practice demands goad fore- 
men. To keep good your foreman must 
keep leamiag. This means atUnd the 
American Foundrymen's Association Con- 
vention, New York City. June 6th, 7th, and 



There has been much criticism of late upon 
the use of fluor spar for foundry purposes. 

Undoubtedly its value in this line has been 
somewhat exaggerated. 

We find on looking into the use of this flux 
in the foundry line that possibly many of the 
users of fluor spar are not aware that one of 
the most valuable methods of using this article 
is by putting a small quantity in the bottom of 
the ladle, then drawing the molten iron upon 
it, thus facilitating the mixing of the flux with 
the metal. 

I, personally, have made several experiments 
which have brought about satisfactory results. 
For instance, one of my tests in gray iron was 
to put in the bottom of the ladle 3 percent of 
ground fluor spar, drawing the molten iron up- 
on it. By the time the molder had reached the 
mold with the ladle, the excess slag was quite 
apparent, rising to the surface and forming a 
heavy mass, which he stirred a half minute in 
order to be sure of a perfect mixture and then 
skimmed off. This shows the powerful action 
of this material upon iron. We poured two 
test bars from this ladle. We also poured two 
bars from the regular iron. These bars, when 
broken by a breaking test machine, showed that 
the bars in which the flux was used showed 11 
percent greater breaking strain. 

In malleable iron, the test was even more 
interesting. I sent four regulation rods, two 
with and two without the flux, to a university 
that professed to be very much interested in 
this line of work, and upon which I knew I 
could depend for a fair test. In fact, nothing 
was known about the material which was being 
tested. The report received from them showed 
in round numbers an increase from 55,000 lb. 
tensile strength, to 60,000 lb., and an increase in 
elongation from 4 to 5 percent ; this, of course, 
provuig the superior malleability of the bars in 
which the flux was used. I sent some of this 
material to a firm who are making frogs. They 
reported satisfactory results. At the time I 
sent this, I knew nothing of their trouble, but 
they told me that it prevented, to a large ex- 
tent, cracking, with which they had had a great 
deal of trouble. My own experiments so far 
have met with the same success. 

I have also made some experiments with 
fluor spar m brass; it has increased the 
strength of the metal and given better results 
in the finished casting. 

You have noticed in the above that I have 
given no chemical analysis; the reason for 
this is that I consider the results will speak for 
themselves, but I have one or two analyses 
which prove the average betterment in prac- 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



tical tests, showing from 10 to 12 percent gen- 
eral improvement. This flux seems to leave 
no impurity untouched, but reduces them all; 
and the strangest part of it is that experiments 
>ho\v that the reductions are in proportion, 
that is. not reducing the percent of one im- 
purity more than another, thus when you have 
u<ed this flux you have not changed the nature 
of your casting, but have made a general bet- 
terment, which, in the majority of cases, will 
not injure the casting for the purpose intended, 
making gray iron softer, but still holding its 
wearing power, making malleable iron more 
malleable, but increasing its tensile strength. 

Then we laid off the pockets and cut the slots 
for the loose blocks, as shown at O. The sides 
were then made with the edge the same radius 
as the outside of the print, the ends being put 
on the same angle as the pockets. On account 
of the blocks being beveled ic was necessary to 
cut holes through the one side and pull the 
blocks out before taking out the core; further 
it was necessary to dowel the one side, as 
shown, on account of the sides having a bevel 
to form the ton and bottom of the pockets, as 
shown at C. There is another advantage in 
having the one side loose and that is so the 
core can be turned out on the straight side. 

Dowel FJii 

30 Pockets 


Pure Pattern 


Core Print 
Fig. 2 



Recently we had a large piston ring to make 
and while the pattern and core box are very 
simple when explained, I do not think any pat- 
ternmaker would make them without a little 

Fig. I shows two views of the ring, also en- 
larged se<;tions. Fig. 2 shows how we turned 
the pattern after building it in the regular way, 
of segments. You will notice how we made 
the pattern solid and let the core print run all 
the way around the same depth as the pockets, 
giving the part of the pattern from the print 
up plenty of draft so it could be lifted off in 
the cope. 

Fig. 3 shows three views of the core box. 
First we made the block A, the radius of the 
top of it being the radius at the bottom of the 
pockets in the ring, and then laid off the length 
which we made just one-sixth. This can be 
made either one-sixth or one-eighth, the length 
depending entirely on the size of the ring. It 
should be made so It can be handled easily. 


Fig. 3 


"Smoke Prevention and Fuel Economy," by 
Booth and Kershaw, published by the Norman' 
W. Henley Publishing Co., New York, N. Y., 
price $2.50. While this book is written from 
an English standpoint, it is certainly of very 
great interest to both English and American 
engineers and to all interested in the preven- 
tion of smoke. 

It deals first with the subject in a general 
way in the introductory chapter, and then has 
one or two pages on domestic smoke. This is 
followed by a consideration of the chemistry 
of combustion. Next there is a chapter on 
present methods of burning fuels and their 
defects, and in this the writer takes up not 
only boiler furnaces, but crucible and other 
styles of furnaces used for metallurgical work. 
The advantages and disadvantages of the dif- 
ferent styles of boiler furnaces are very care- 
fully considered, and it may be said that the 
authors condemn some of our American prac- 
tices very severely, and, judging from the. 
amount of smoke coming from some of our 

Digitized by 




May, 190S 

chimneys, we cannot but feel that the condem- 
nation is warranted. 

In another chapter improved methods of 
burning fuel are considered and compared, 
both for boiler firing and for furnaces for 
metallurgical work. The fifth chapter is de- 
voted to the examination of gases, and sets 
forth the various methods commonly used for 
taking and testing samples, both for snap 
samples and for continuous sampling. 

There is an appendix of over 40 pages deal- 
ing with patent abstracts, including American, 
English and foreign patents. The appendix 
also contains useful tables. The book is very 
well indexed, and is written in a cle^r, concise 
manner, which makes it exceedingly interest- 
ing reading. All who have anything to do with 
the burning of fuel will certainly be profited 
by reading this work. 

The American Foundrymen's Association, 
with its affiliated Foundry Foremen and 
Foremen Patternmaicer Sections, stands 
simply for good foundry practice. It never 
has had anything to do with labor 
questions. Convention at New York, June 
6, 7 and 8th. 


The executive officers of the American Steel 
Foundries until lately were located at No. 74 
Broadway. With the object of concentrating 
all of the departments of this well known con- 
cern it was found necessary to lease the entire 
-eleventh floor of the recently completed build- 
ing known as No. 42 Broadway, and hencefor- 
ward communications should be sent to this 
new address. 

It is well known that in the new movement 
toward consolidation of allied industries one 
of the chief elements of success involved the 
systematizing and harmonizing of every branch 
of the business. With this end in view the 
executive officers of the American Steel Foun- 
dries are inaugurating, simultaneously with the 
removal, a new system of accounting and dis- 
tribution of orders, which will improve the 
organization and simplify their work. This 
will assist them in taking care of the many 
large orders they are receiving due to the 
increased demand for new equipment by the 
railroads and other large producers. The out- 
put of their eight plants for all kinds of steel 
castings is enormous, and they are always in a 
position to undertake new work and make 

prompt deliveries. With the acquisition of the 
Simplex Railway Appliance Company they are 
even better equipped than ever to fill the re- 
quirements of railroad companies and car 


A summer school for artisans under the 
direction of the College of Engineering of the 
University of Wisconsin will begin June 26 
and continue for six weeks. The principal 
subjects are as follows: Steam engines and 
boilers, electricity, materials for construction, 
fuels and lubrication, and shop work. Under 
the latter heading they will take up the use of 
tools, both in wood and metal, and such sub- 
jects as blacksmithing, patternmaking, etc. 
The work is very similar to the ordinary shop 
work of the college, except that a greater pro- 
portion of time is given to the practical prob- 
lems. The requirements for admission do not 
extend beyond a working knowledge of Eng- 
lish and arithmetic. Students taking corre- 
spondence courses in engineering have found 
the Summer School for Artisans extremely 
useful, as a place in which they could obtain 
experience along the lines concerning which 
they had been studying. 


The Engineering News Publishing Co., of 
220 Broadway, New York, N. Y., have offered 
two prizes amounting to $35o» ^or the two best 
papers on "The Manufacture of Concrete 
Blocks and Their Use in Building Construc- 
tion." The subject of concrete construction is 
of interest to all classes of manufacturers. This 
is certainly a worthy offer on the part of The 
Engineering News Publishing Co., and should 
result in bringing out some valuable literature 
on this new and interesting subject. . 


A writer in the Manufacturing Jeweler, of 
Providence, R. I., states that for casting soft 
metals in brass molds, it is necessary first to 
have a good groove cut in the molds for a vent 
for the escape of the gas and air, and second, 
that the molds must be blued, this being 
accomplished by dipping the mold in sulphuric 
acid and then placing it on a gas stove until it 
is a dark blue color. Without this bluing, it 
is impossible to obtain a sharp casting. We 
should like to hear from others upon the sub- 
ject of casting soft metals in brass and bronze 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 




The April number of Graphite, published by 
the Jos. Dixon Crucible Co., of Jersey City, N. 
J., is a special issue in which they illustrate a 
large number of structures which have been 
painted with Dixon's paints. They also give 
considerable information concerning the use 
of paints for protecting structures. This is 
certainly a subject in which all foundrymen 
are interested, and the Dixon Co. informs us 
that they will be glad to send a copy to any 
one desiring the same. 

The C. W. Hunt Co., of West New Bright- 
on, N. Y., have gotten out a catalogue entitled 
"The Hunt Noiseless Conveyor." In this cata- 
logue they describe machinery intended pri- 
marily for the handling of coal and similar 
materials. There seems to be no reason why 
it would not be equally efficient for materials 
about a large foundry. The catalogue is very 
fully illustrated. 

The Double Friction Coil Clutch Co., of 
207-42 River street, Chicago, 111., has recently 
brought out a new device for joining shafts for 
power transmission. It consists of a specially 
designed clutch containing a double friction 
coil capable of transmitting a very large 
amount of power at either high or low speeds. 
The company is sending out a neat little cata- 
logue 314 X 6 in., describing its device very 

Ck>od Fellowship, 

Good Papers on Foundry Subjects, 
Good for Your Own Business, 
The American Foundrymen's Association 

Convention, New York, June 6th, 7th and 




In an article by Oscar Leyde on the cleaning 
of castings, the subject is very nicely explained, 
but the revolving brush is not mentioned. The 
revolving brush, mounted upon an emery 
wheel stand, is in my estimation the best thing 
for cleaning between the teeth of gears and in 
similar cases. Our gears were formerly 
cleaned with the hand scratch brush and file, 
but it was a very slow job, when the results 
were compared with the revolving brush driven 
by power. There are different grades of 
brushes obtainable, some stiffer, others softer. 

Such brushes are especially useful for clean- 
ing castings intended for patterns. In fact, by 
using a medium or fine brush, good castings 
can be cleaned and polished so well that they 
will require no subsequent scraping or filing. 
I believe that after any foundryman has once 
used a revolving brush he will never be with- 
out it again. 


Mr. James Wilson has just returned to Buf- 
falo, N. Y., after an absence of four years in 
England in the interest of the New York Car 
Wheel Works, of Buffalo, N. Y. During this 
time the British Griffin Co., of Barrow-in-Fur- 
ness, England, has been put in operation and a 
very prosperous business built up in chilled 
wheels and castings. 

Mr. Wm. McGrail has resigned the foreman- 
ship of the Allen Fire Supply Co., to accept the 
foremanship of the Textile Machinery Co.'s 
brass foundry at Providence, R. I. 

Lewis B. Reed, Omaha, Neb., who after 
graduating from Harvard University, two years 
ago, entered the employ of the American 
Radiator Co., Chicago, has been placed in 
charge of the European business of that com- 
pany. He sailed on Mar. 29, and will make his 
headquarters in London. 

Mr. Isaac Taylor, formerly foreman of the 
Textile Machine Brass Works foundry of 
Providence, R. I., has accepted a position as 
foreman of the Allen Fire Supply Co., of 
Providence, R. I. 

Mr. Chas. A. G. Winther has resigned his 
position as general superintendent of the Chap- 
man Valve Mfg. Co., of Indian Orchard, Mass. 

Wm. T. Nicholson Jr. has accepted a posi- 
tion as New England agent for the Water- 
bury Crucible Co., of Waterbury, Conn., with 
headquarters at Providence, R. I. 

Mr. David McLain, of Milwaukee, Wis., has 
gone over to Madison, Wis., to take the place 
of superintendent of the Gisholt Machine Co.*s 

Mr. H. B. Abbot, formerly manager of the 
Terrell Iron Works, Terrell, Texas, has ac- 
cepted a position as manager of the Green- 
ville Foundry & Machine Works, Greenville, 


James McQuiston, aged 76, died at his home 
in Pittsburg on April 11. Mr. McQuiston 
spent several years with the Atlas Foundry 
Co., after which, in 1870, he established the 
Pittsburg Galvanizing Works, of which he was 
the proprietor at the time of his death. 

Digitized by 




May. 1905 

Henry Hanna, a wealthy and honored citi- 
zen of Cincinnati, died at his home Mar. 27. 
Age 93 years. Mr. Hanna was a heavy stock- 
holder in many business enterprises, including 
the Newport Iron & Steel Works, the Addy- 
ston Pipe Foundry and a number of banks. He 
was actively engaged in business until about a 
year ago. 

Moses Atwood, vice president and generr.l 
manager of the Pittsburg Valve, Foundry & 
Construction Co., died at his home in Alle- 
gheny Mar. 18. Mr. Atwood was 57 years old 
and had been connected with various industries 
in and about Pittsburg. He was active in the 
business enterprises which resulted in the 
merging of several companies to form the 
Pittsburg Valve, Foundry & Construction Co. 
in 1900. 


The Bowler Foundry Co., of Cleveland, O., 
was damaged by fire to the extent of $2,000 
on Mar. 29. The fire is said to have been 
caused by the overheating of a journal box 
on one of the shafts. 

The plant of the Star Iron & Foundry Co., of 
Montreal, Canada, was destroyed by fire on 
Mar. 27. The fire also destroyed a number of 
adjacent buildings. 

The steel department of the Youngstown 
Foundry & Machine Co., of Youngstown, O., 
was destroyed by fire on Mar. 19. The loss 
is $20,000, partially covered by insurance. 

The foundry and machine shops of the 
Stroh-Morris Foundry & Machine Co., Charles- 
ton, W. Va., were destroyed by fire Mar. 16. 
Loss, $25,000. 

The foundry of the American Foundry Co., 
of Toledo, O., was damaged to the extent of 
$5,000 by fire on Mar. 29. The loss is covered 
by insurance and the plant will be rebuilt at 

The Fisher Machine Works, of Leaven- 
worth, Kan., were destroyed by fire on April 6. 
Valuable machinery and patterns were de- 
stroyed, including some new machinery ready 
for shipment. 

The foundry of Enirick Bros., Hastings, 
Neb., was damaged by fire to the extent of 
$2,500 on April 15. The loss is practically 
covered by insurance. 


The Norwood Engineering Co., Florence, 

Mass., will soon erect two additional buildings. 

"le 130 X 70 ft., and one 40 x 30 ft. It will 

also build an addition to the foundry, 70 x 60 

The Weir Stove Co., Taunton, Mass., will 
build an addition to its molding shop and a 
building to increase the company's capacity for 
mounting and storing castings. 

The Westinghouse Machine Co., Pittsburg, 
in the summer of 1903 laid foundations at At- 
tica, N. Y., for a plant for the manufacture of 
stokers. The foundations were entirely of 
concrete and were laid for four buildings be- 
sides the office building, consisting of a ma- 
chine shop 250 X 150 ft, a foundry 60 x 500 
ft., a pattern shop 35 x 250 ft. and a power 
house 30 X 100 ft. When the preliminary work 
was completed, in 1903, it was the intention of 
the company to construct the buildings the 
following year; but owing to a general de- 
pression in business this plan was not carried 
out. It is now announced that at an early 
day work will be begun and the construction 
of the buildings will be completed. 

The new brass foundry of the Consolidated 
Car Heating Co., of Albany, N. Y., is nearly 
completed. The old foundry is being demol- 

The American Steel Foundries Co. have an- 
nounced that they will spend $65,000 on their 
Sharon, Pa., plant. 

The Pittsburg Malleable Iron Co., of Pitts- 
burg, Pa., has taken out a permit for an iron 
clad foundry building to cost $4,000. 

The American Pulley Co., 29th and Bristol 
streets, Philadelphia, Pa., will build an addi- 
tion to its plant, 50 x 150 ft, one story. 

The Globe Foundry Co., Johnstown, Pa., will 
double the capacity of its plant by an addition 
which will cover an area of about 5,000 sq. 

The Bromell, Schmidt & Stacey Co., York, 
Pa., has added a large boiler shop to its plant. 
The old shop has been converted into a foun- 
dry annex, which makes the foundry three 
times as large as it originally was. The foun- 
dry will be rebuilt 

W. M. Currier, B. E. Taylor and Ralph 
Lloyd will build a machine shop and foundry at, Pa. The building will be 210 x 
^36 ft. 

The Stacey Mfg. Co., Elmwood Place, Ham- 
ilton Co., O., has built a new plant at Elm- 
wood Place, which is a suburb of Cincinnati. 
The main building is 150 x 510 ft. The power 
house is a separate building, 50 x 65 ft The 
general offices are on the second floor of the 
main building. The new plant is equipped with 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



the most modern machinery and appliances, 
including two ten- ton electric traveling cranes 
having a 65-ft. span. The company employs 
from 150 to 200 men. The foundry and cast 
iron departments are still located at Cincinnati, 
but the company proposes to erect another 
building either this summer or fall, on the east 
side of the main building at Elmwood Place, 
to take care of these departments. 

The Columbus Pneumatic Tool Co., Colum- 
bus, O., is now located in its new plant and 
has largely increased its output, having been 
greatly overcrowded with orders at the old 
plant. The company owns the entire square 
in which the plant is situated, and some time 
in the near future expects to establish a large 
foundry in connection with the present works. 
The present foundry department is a small one, 
having been established as an experiment, but 
it has proved so successful that arrangements 
will be made for erecting a much larger one. 

The Best Foundry Co., Cleveland, O., re- 
cently incorporated, will erect a foundry at 
Bedford, near that city. The main building 
will be 180 X 400 ft; finishing department, 50 
X 275 ft., and pattern storage building, 40 x 40 
ft. Plans have been prepared by Kaltenbach & 
Griess, Cleveland. 

The American Foundry Co., Toledo, O., 
whose plant was recently destroyed by fire, will 
rebuild on a larger scale. 

The Day-Ward Foundry Co., of Warren, O., 
has replaced the foundry which was destroyed 
by fire last year with a new building, which 
has just been completed. The new building is 
80 by 200 ft. and of brick and steel construc- 
tion. It is fitted with a S-ton Pawling & 
Harnischfeger electric crane. 

Work has been started on the plant of the 
Stark Foundry Co., at Canton, O. The owners 
hope to have the plant completed by the first 
of June. The structure will be 50 by 100 ft. 
They expect to do a general jobbing business in 
gray iron castings. 

The Favorite Stove & Range Co., of Piqua, 
O., is making quite extensive additions to its 
plant, including an addition to the foundry, 
which is 20 by 70 ft. 

The Conway Stove Co., Toledo, O., has de- 
cided upon Fremont, O., for its permanent lo- 
cation, and will begin at once the erection of a 
brick building 700x80 ft. 

The Hamilton Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Hamilton, O., is making extensive additions 
to its plant. 

Ground has been broken at New Castle, 

!nd., for the erection of a new plant by B. F. 
Allen & Son. They will manufacture brass 
and iron castings. 

The Wayne Stove Co., Fort Wayne, Ind., 
recently incorporated with a capital stock of 
$50,000, has not yet decided whether it will 
build this year. The company has received of- 
fers of buildings and land in several cities, 
but has not as yet accepted any of the offers. 

The Barcus Horse Stock Mfg. Co., of Wa- 
bash, Ind., whose plant was recently destroyed 
by fire, have let a contract for a new stone 
building 60 x 126 ft. to replace the building 

The Home Stove Works, Rockwell street 
and i8th place, Chicago, will build a three- 
story structure mill construction, 56 x 125 ft., 
to be used as a shop and warehouse combined. 
Part of the plant will be used as a mounting 
shop and japanning department for piano plates. 

Plans are being prepared for enlarging the 
plant of the Oregon Foundry & Machine Co., 
Oregon, 111. The company is doing a prosper- 
ous business. 

F. W. Reese, of Paris, 111., is constructing an 
addition to his foundry. 

The recent fire at the plant of the Lakeside 
Malleable Castings Co., Racine, Wis., des- 
troyed the foundry and core room completely, 
but left the other buildings untouched. A 
new foundry and core room will be built, and 
will be about 25 percent larger than the old 

The Valley Iron Works Co., Appleton, Wis., 
is building an addition to its brick foundry and 
installing a traveling crane, which is being 
built by Pawling & Harneschfeger, Milwaukee, 
which will be running in about three week& 
Plans for additional machinery are not yet 

The Malleable Iron Works, Waukesha, Wis., 
are being improved and some additions are be- 
ing made, including two annealing ovens. 

The Marshall Furnace Co., Marshall, Mich., 
is erecting an addition to its foundry, 30 x 
45 ft. 

Work on the new office and manufacturing 
buildings of the Aldine Grate & Mantel Co., 
Grand Rapids, Mich., will be begun this month. 
The foundry will be 50 x 100 ft. The factory 
for wood and iron working will be 50 x 125 ft. 

The West Allis Malleable Iron & Chain Belt 
Co., West Allis, Milwaukee, will build an ad- 
dition to its foundry, which will be 70x220 
ft. An addition 64 x 70 ft., two stories, to the 
machine shop is also arranged for. The addi- 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

tions will double the capacity of the plant. 

Loeflfelholz & Co., Milwaukee, Wis., are plan- 
ning to build a new foundry, which will be of 
frame with hollow tile composition roof, to 
cost $3,000. 

The foundry extension of the Brown-Cor- 
liss Engine Co., of Corliss, Wis., is being very 
rapidly pushed toward completion. The com- 
pany is now working night and day. 

John Elliott, of Faribault, Minn., has an- 
nounced that he will build a new foundry and 
machine shop in Northfield, Minn., the build- 
ing to be 46 X 48 feet, and to be in operation 
about May ist. 

The first building to be erected by the Otto 
Gas Engine Works at its new plant in Wil- 
mington, Del., will be 175 x 500 ft. Negotia- 
tions are pending to erect a large foundry on 
the land already purchased by the Otto Com- 
pany. The foundry is an independent concern 
but will do work for the Otto Company. 

The Fort Payne Stove & Foundry Co., Fort 
Payne, Ala., has decided to rebuild its pknt 
which was burned some time ago. Work will 
be begun at once. 

The foundry of the Hardie-Tynes Machine 
& Foundry Co., of Birmingham, Ala., which 
was recently destroyed by fire, will be rebuilt 
as quickly as possible. 

Ground was broken a few days ago for the 
erection of the new plan^ of the Southern 
Skein & Foundry Co., at Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Wagon skeins will be the principal product. 
About 150 men will be employed. 

The contract for the erection of the main 
buildings of the Coosa Pipe & Foundry Cp., of 
Gadsden, Ala., has been let by the general 
manager, M. W. Bush, to T. F. Marlow. The 
main building will be 175 by 250 ft, in ad- 
dition to which there will be several smaller 

The Johannigman Foundry Co., of Coving- 
ton, Ky., were forced to remove from their old 
position on account of the fact that it was 
purchased by the railroad, and they have se- 
cured a new site on which they will erect a 
new $35,000 foundry. 

The Tuscaloosa Foundry & Machine Co., 
Tuscaloosa, Ala., has completed its new foun- 
dry, 50 X 70 ft., and will build a machine shop, 
30x80 ft. The company will do a general 
foundry and machine business. 

The Fulton Foundry & Machine Works, At- 
lanta, Ga., are preparing plans for the proposed 
foundry and machine shop buildings to be 
erected on the site recently purchased. 

The High Point Pipe & Foundry Co., re- 
cently incorporated with a capital of $100,000, 
will build a plant at High Point, N. C, to have 
a daily output of from 10 to 12 tons of pipe. 
The officers are: President, J. Q. Adams; 
vice president, E. M. Armfield, and secretary- 
treasurer, O. N. Richardson. 

The Swege Foundry Co., Covington, Ky., 
will rebuild its plant which was recently 

The plant of the Davis Foundry & Machine 
Works, Rome, Ga., recently destroyed by fire, 
will be rebuilt. The capacity is to be doubled. 

Golden's Foundry & Machine Co., of Colum- 
bus, Ga., is erecting a new foundry, 100 by 
250 ft. 

It is stated that the pipe foundry of the Min- 
nequa plant of the Colorado Fuel & Iron Co., 
at Pueblo, Col., will be enlarged at some time 
in the near future. 

Mr. John McKinney expects to have his 
new foundry at Woodbum, Ore., in operation 
by the latter part of May. 

It is reported that the Dickson Car Wheel 
Co., Houston, Tex., is planning to construct an 
iron foundry on the site recently purchased by 

The Hart-Parr Co., Charles City, la., will 
build an addition to its main building, 85 x 185 
ft, and will extend the foundry by an addition 
60 x 75 ft The capacity of the plant will be 
nearly doubled. 

The York Foundry Co., of York, Neb., is 
building additions to both its foundry and ma- 
chine shop. 

Work on the new building of the Swab 
Foundry Co., of Elizabethville, Pa., is being 
pushed as rapidly as possible. 

The National Foundry, Mfg. & Supply Co., 
Williamsport, Pa., has nearly completed an 
addition 30 x 48 ft. 

Geo. W. Beard & Co., contractors, are push- 
ing the work on the new plant of the Reading 
Stove Works, at Reading, Pa., as rapidly as 
possible and expect to have the additions com- 
pleted in a few weeks. 

The C. O. Bartlett & Snow Co., of Cleveland, 
O., whose plant was partially destroyed by 
fire on April 11, resulting in a loss of $60,000, 
immediately began repairs for reconstruction, 
and will be able to complete contracts and fill 
orders with little delay. It can now fill small 
orders from stock which was not damaged. 

The Toledo Stove & Range Co., Toledo. C 
has let the contracts for additions, 167 x 75 ft* 
three stories. 

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May, 1905 



A foundry building, 67 x 127 ft, is being 
added to the plant of Ames & Frost, bicycle 
sundry manufacturers. M. J. Moorehouse, 
Fisher building, Chicago, is the architect. 

The Monarch Coupler Co., Detroit, Mich., is 
preparing to erect in Delray, near Detroit, a 
large plant for the manufacture of steel cast- 
ings in addition to couplers. As soon as the 
structural steel can be obtained the erecting 
will be commenced. Xl^e capital of the Mon- 
arch Coupler Co., which is $100,000, will be 
increased to $250,000 or $300,000. The new 
buildings will be erected on the land owned 
by the McMillan interests back of the plant 
of the Michigan Malleable Iron Works. The 
officers of the Monarch Coupler Co. are: 
President, W. C. McMillan; vice president, T. 
H. Simpson; treasurer, George M. Black; 
manager, W. C. McMahon. 

The Falk Mfg. Co., of Milwaukee, Wis., are 
planning to spend $150,000 in erecting works 
upon the land recently acquired by them. The 
principal addition will be a large foundry. 


The Hunts ville Foundry & Machine Co., 
Huntsville, Ontario, recently incorporated, is 
unlike some enterprises which do a great deal 
of talking and obtain a charter before opera- 
tions are commenced. This company had its 
buildings erected and some casts run off in the 
foundry, and considerable machine work done, 
before the charter was granted. There are 
five members of the company, who provide the 
capital stock of $20,000. F. H. Tool, the gen- 
eral manager, has been connected with large 
firms in Ontario and Vancouver. A. C. Sut- 
taby is superintendent of machine shops and 
T. D. Moarse superintendent of the molding 
shops. The officers are: President, J. H. 
Johnson; manager, F. H. Tool; secretary- 
treasurer, D. M. Grant. Huntsville is a town 
0^ 3i5oo inhabitants, on the main branch line 
of the Grand Trunk Railroad, and has not 
heretofore had a foundry or machine shop. 
The company considers its prospects for suc- 
cess excellent. 

The C. F. Sutton Co., of Toledo, O., are to 
erect a plant for manufacturing steel castings 
by the Tropenas process. The plant is to have 
a capacity of 20 tons per day. 

The foundry formerly conducted by the G. 
M. Emeny Co., known as the Fulton Foundry 
& Machine Works, Fulton, N. Y., has discon- 
tinued business. The equipment on hand has 

been purchased by the Dilts Machine Works, 
of the same city. 

In the United States district court an order 
has been issued setting aside the order ad- 
judicating the Finlay-Otten Foundry Co., Buf- 
falo, an involuntary bankruptcy. All of the 
assets have been transferred to the company 
and settlement has been made with the cred- 
itors. The company will be at once reor- 

The receivers in charge of the affairs of the 
Newton Fire Brick Co., Albany, N. Y., have 
been discharged and the business has reverted 
to the company, which has been reorganized 
with the following officers : W. G. Rice, presi- 
dent; C. B. Flint, treasurer and general man- 
ager; F. W. Kelly, secretary, and C. H. Sabin, 
vice president. Extensive additions to the 
plant are being made. 

Bingham & Taylor, who operated a foundry 
at Buffalo for the past 20 years, have dissolved 
partnership. Mr. Taylor has retired and the 
business will be conducted under the man- 
agement of William P. Taylor. The foundry 
was established about 50 years ago and for 
a time was known as the Clinton Iron Works. 

The Niles-Bement-Pond Co. has leased an 
entire floor in the New Trinity Building at in 
Broadway, New York City, which will be oc- 
cupied by their executive offices after May ist 
This company employs about 5,000 workmen, 
has two factories in Philadelphia, one in Ham- 
ilton, O., and one in Plainfield, N. J., and also 
owns the Pratt & Whitney Co., at Hartford, 

It has been definitely decided that the Cast 
Thread Fitting & Foundry Co., of Seneca 
Falls, N. Y., will remain in their present loca- 
tion. There has been some talk of moving the 
works to some other city, but a committee of 
the citizens was appointed to hold a confer- 
ence with Mr. Cutter, president of the com- 
pany, and were able to offer inducements 
which made it an object for the company to 
remain. ; 

Henry Wray & Son., Inc., of Rochester, N. 
Y., is a firm lately incorporated with a capital 
of $24,000 to carry on a general foundry busi- 
ness. The directors are William H. Wray, 
Chas. F. Wray and Cornelia F. Wray. 

John Touhill, proprietor of the Riverside 
Foundry & Machine Co., Pittston, Pa., has 
purchased the property at South Scranton, Pa., 
formerly occupied by the Lackawanna Iron & 
Steel Co. The property includes six acres and 
several brick buildings. Mr. Touhill will take 
his seven sons into partnership, and a com- 

• Digitized by 




May, 1905 

pany will be incorporated to be known as the 
Touhill Iron Works. As soon as possible 
work will be started on getting the buildings 
in proper condition for operation as a foundry. 

Means, Fulton & Co., who recently pur- 
chased the plant of the Portsmouth Foundry 
& Machine Works, Portsmouth, O., will dis- 
mantle it and remove the machinery to Bir- 
mingham, Ala. 

The Piqua Mfg. & Foundry Co., of Piqua, 
O., has been organized to take over the old 
plant of Poorman Bros., which has been idle 
for some time. The new company plans to 
enlarge the plant and carry on a general foun- 
dry and machine business. 

Edwards Bros., of Leipsic, O., has decided 
to take up the stock of the American Foundry 
Co., thus gaining full control of it. This foun- 
dry is one of the principal industries of 

The Bessie Ferro^Silicon Co., Columbus, O.. 
ifi now repairing and remodeling the Bessie 
furnace at New Straitsville, O., and will put 
on the market in the near future its well 
known brand of Bessie silicon iron. The com- 
pany expects that the improvements now under 
way will, when completed, put it in a position 
to furnish a better quality of iron than has 
ever been produced at this furnace. The fer- 
ro-silicon will be from 10 to 14 percent silicon. 
The company expects to take orders within a 

The Alberger Condenser Co. announce that 
they have opened a branch office in Chicago, 
in Room 316 Home Insurance Building, 205 
La Salle St., which will be in charge of Mr. 
H. M. Montgomery. 

The Cleveland & Barr Foundry Co., of 
Chicago, III., has changed its name to the Barr 
& Cummings Foundry Co. 

Mr. P. C. Webb, of Hutchinson, Minn., has 
started his new foundry and reports that he 
has all the work that he can do. 

O. S. Cross and Dr. C. W. Young have 
leased the Allegan Foundry & Machine Co.'s 
plant at Allegan, Mich., and will continue the 
business under the same name. 

The pipe foundry of the United States Cast 
Iron Pipe & Foundry Co., at Superior, Wis., 
has been opened and has quite a large amount 
of work on its books. Mr. D. C. Dixon will be 
foreman at the plant and Mr. Frank Britts 
superintendent. It is hoped that the plant will 
have work enough to keep it busy at least un- 
til fall. 
The foundry of the American Brake Shoe & 

Foundry Co., Bloomfield, N. J., which was 
closed some time ago and the business trans- 
ferred to Mahwah, N. J., is to be reopened to 
make malleable iron castings for the com- 
pany's own use. 

The Perth Amboy Foundry & Machine Co., 
of Perth Amboy, N. J., recently incorporated 
with a capital of $100,000 to do a foundry and 
machine shop business, has secured a large 
tract of land and buildings, where it is instal- 
ling machinery and making preparations to be- 
gin work. 

The first steel was poured at the new plant 
of the Baldt Steel Co., New Castle, Del., 
April 10. It is expected that the entire plant 
well be in operation at an early day. 

The Thole-Phillips Mfg. Co. has been incor- 
porated with a capital of $50,000 at Florence, 
Ala. This company succeeds the Thole Stove 
Mfg. Co., whose plant was recently removed 
to East Florence and enlarged. The officers 
are Henry H. Thole, president; Thomas J. 
Phillips, secretary and treasurer. 

The Frictionless Metal Co., Richmond, Va., 
will remove from that city to Chattanooga, 
Tenn., as soon as a foundry building can be 
completed in the latter city. C. E. Buek, of 
Birmingham, is president of the company. The 
plant which will be erected will be 150 x 100 ft., 
two stories. 

The Jones-Terry Foundry & Machine Co., 
of Lynchburg, Va., has been incorporated with 
a capital of $25,000. The incorporators are: 
C. S. Adams, president; Chas. E. Jones, vice 
president and general manager; R. G. Terry, 
secretary and treasurer. 

The Daniel Bros. Machine Co., of Tusca- 
loosa, Ala., which has been incorporated with 
a capital of $5,000, will for the present do a 
machine repair and blacksmith shop business, 
but will later add a foundry to their business. 
Mr. L. C. Heminger, of Bowling Green, Ky., 
has sold his foundry and machine shop to 
Chas. Roemer. The trade does not go into 
effect until Jan. i, 1906. Mr. Roemer served 
his time in this establishment and understands 
the business in every detail. When he takes 
possession he will remodel the plant through- 
out and equip it with the latest and best ma- 
chinery and appliances. 

Warren Heaton, of Neosho, Mo., has pur- 
chased the foundry and machine works in that 
city owned by J. A. Rogers. The plant was 
established in 1879 by Van Riper & Rogers, 
and in 1896 Mr. Rogers purchased the interest 
of Mr. Van Riper. Mr. Rogers has moved to 

Digitized by 


May, 1905 



Joplin, Mo., where he will look after the busi- 
ness of the Rogers-Conklin Mfg. Co. 

The Freeman Foundry & Machine Co., Jop- 
lin, Mo., is extending its business into Mexico. 
Several car loads of machinery have recently 
been shipped to Torres, Sonora, Mex. A large 
number of these mine cars have been shipped 
to Kansas, Indian Territory and Arkansas. 
Some new equipment is being added by the 

The new plant of the Simmons Hardware 
Co., of St. Louis, Mo., is to be erected at Sioux 
City, la., and will cost at least $300,000. The 
contrnct for its erection has been awarded to 
Mr. Frank B. Gilbreth, of New York and Bos- 
ton. Messrs. Gordon, Tracy & Swartwout, of 
New York City, are the architects. 

Arnold & Jack, of Athena, Ore., have pur- 
chased an interest in the Zeigler & Mays' Ma- 
chine Shop, of Pendleton, Ore., and will re- 
arrange the shops at once. 

The Ben F. Slack Brass Mfg. Co., of Den- 
ver, Colo., has been incorporated with $20,000 
capital. The incorporators are Ben F. Slack, 
Frank J. Rees and W. H. Owen. 

R. M. Churchman will erect a foundry and 
machine shop at Felsenthal, Ark. 

The Walker Steel Range Co., Ltd., has re- 
moved from Windsor, Ont., to Grimsby, Ont. 
The company has been granted a loan of $15,- 
000 by the city of Grimsby for a term of years 
and has purchased a large foundry property 
there, and will increase facilities in every way 
so that it will be able to take care of the large 
business which it has booked. 

Smith & Wilby expect to start a foundry 
at Toronto, Canada, for the manufacture of 
steel castings. They will probably use the 
buildings at 340 East Front street. 

The Honolulu Iron Works, Hawaiian Is- 
lands, which competed with foundries in the 
United States for the installation of sugar 
plants in Mexico and other Central and South 
American countries, has secured the contract 
to erect a 12-roller mill for the Hawaiian Sugar 

The Hope Metal Co., composed of Mr. Frank 
J. McGrail and others, has just started a new 
brass foundry at Kingsley avenue and Eagle 
street. Providence, R. I. Mr. McGrail former- 
ly worked for the Gorham Mfg. Co. 

Thomas F. Fallon & Co., of Lawrence, Mass., 
have just started a brass foundry at the rear 
of 156 South Broadway. Mr. Fallon was until 
recently foreman at the Frederick Byrom brass 

The Innes-Demarcst Stove & Heater Co., 
Binghamton, N. Y., has been incorporated. 
Capital, $200,000. The incorporators are: J. 
K. Innes, John Damarest, John Hull Jr., all of 

Only the office and supply house of the 
Jackson Foundry & Machine Co., Paducah, 
Ky., were destroyed by the recent fire. The 
machine shop, foundry and pattern depart- 
ments, across the street from the office and 
supply house, were not damaged at all by the 
fire. The company is erecting a new building 
near the machine shop, and in this expects to 
have a supply house and office. 

The Niagara Foundry Co., Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., recently incorporated with a capital of 
$10,000 has taken over the plant formerly oc- 
cupied by P. H. Tuohey and others, known as 
the Niv^gara Falls Foundry. There are several 
directors of the new company, as follows : W. 
E. Burleson, D. E Nicklis, O. K Acker, D. F. 
Bentley, George M. Tuttle, Harris Lumberg 
and W. W. Denner. The officers are: Presi- 
dent, E. E. Nickles; vice president, W. E. 
Burleson ; secretary, W. W. Denner ; treasurer, 
D. F. Bentley. 

The Johnstown Foundry, Machine & Car 
Co., Johnstown, Pa., and the plant of F. W. 
Leitenberger, Johnstown, Pa., have been 
merged into one concern under the active man- 
agement of Mr. Leitenberger. The new con- 
cern will be the Johnstown Foundry Machine 
& Car Co., and the business of both plants 
will be continued as heretofore, although both 
plants will be overhauled and considerable new 
machinery will be installed. The Johnstown 
Foundry, Machine & Car Co. was organized 
some months ago to take over the plant of the 
Cambria Foundry & Machine Co., bankrupt. 
The company has made a specialty of mining 
cars and railroad equipment. The Leitenberger 
plant has done a general machinery and elec- 
trical business. 

The Niles-Bement-Pond Co. report that they 
have purchased the property at Nicetown, 
Phila., Pa., formerly owned by the Cresswell & 
Waters Co., and will operate it in connection 
with their Philadelphia plants. It will be used 
as a foundry for their works at Twenty-first 
and Callowhill streets, and also for the Niles 
Crane Works branch. 

Notice has been sent out of the dissolution 
of the partnership lately existing between 
Philip C. Smith, Harris Tabor and Howard C. 
Williams, doing business under the name of 
the Vulcan Facing Co., of Easton, Pa. The 
partnership was dissolved on April 10, 1905, 

Digitized by 




May, 1905 

by mutual consent. All debts owing to the 
partnership are to be received by Howard C. 
Williams, Easton, Pa., and all demands on the 
said partnership are to be paid by him. 

Mr. Philip C. Smith, formerly of the above 
company, announces that he will continue to 
carry on the facing business personally under 
the name of the Vulcan Facing Co., at Easton. 

The Sterling Steel Foundry Co., Pittsburg, 
Pa., was not seriously inconvenienced by the 
recent fire in its plant. A new roof has been 
put on the pattern storage house, and the plant 
is in operation as usual. 

Geo. S. Tillotson, manager of the Sterling 
Emery Wheel Mfg. Co., Tiffin, O., has started 
on a trip to Europe, and upon his return the 
company will erect a foundry building. 

The United Foundry Co., Cincinnati, O., has 
been incorporated with a capital of $25,000. 
Incorporators are: J. W. Malloy, H. W. 
Mueller, Frank Grieme, George Laible and 
Christian Hasecoster. This company will suc- 
ceed the Johannigraann Foundry Co. The 
business will be continued about as heretofore. 

The Dayton Pneumatic Tool Co. has been 
incorporated in Ohio with a capital of $50,000 
for the purpose of manufacturing pneumatic 
tools and all kinds of air appliances. It has 
taken over the business of the Chicago Tool & 
Supply Co.. and will manufacture the "Green" 
pneumatic hammers in its factory at Dayton, 
O., where its principal offices will be located. 

The Wauseon Foundry Co., of Wauseon, O., 
has its plant in operation. It will manufacture 
castings for the Red King wind mills, tank 
heaters and feed coolers. Later it expects to 
manufacture furnaces. 

Pickands, Brown & Co., and associates, will 
break ground for a new blast furnace in Chi- 
cago this spring which will be modern in every 
particular. The location has been decided up- 
on, but they are not prepared as yet to make 
it public. 

The Allis-Chalmers Co. is moving its of- 
fices from Chicago to Milwaukee. On and 
after May i, 1905, the general offices of the 
company will be located at the Reliance Works, 
Milwaukee, Wis. The vice president and gen- 
eral manager, the comptroller, assistant treas- 
urer, office counsel, accounting and credit de- 
partments, and also the managers of the power, 
pumping engine, mining and crushing machin- 
ery, flour mill and saw mill departments, will 
all be located in Milwaukee. 

The district offices of ihe company in Chi- 

cago, together with the electrical department 
(the Bullock Electric Mfg. Co.), will be re- 
moved from the New York Life building in 
Chicago, 111., to the First National Bank build- 
ing of that city. 

The Champion Brass Works, of Cold water, 
Mich., have secured the plant formerly occupied 
by the Knott-Van Arnum Co. The new com- 
pany will be conducted by J. L. Curtis, of 
Gloversville, N. Y., and Casper Schwertzer, of 
Chicago, 111. 

The Pilling Air Engine Co., with head- 
quarters at Detroit, Mich., has succeeded the 
Pilling Air Engine Works, formerly of Bucy- 
rus, O. 

The Platteville foundry, Plattcville, Wis., re- 
cently purchased by C. C. Mathey, of the 
Galena Iron Works, Galena, 111., was put in 
operation last week, with Edward Moore and 
Eugene Mathey as managers. A specialty will 
be made of mining machinery. 

The Enterprise Foundry Co., of Detroit, 
Mich., has elected the following officers for 
the ensuing year; President, Frank Smith; 
vice president, Emil Zanwanseele; secretary 
and manager, Charles W. Carolian; treasurer, 
George S. Cuddy. 

D. E. Youmans, of Midland, Mich., has pur- 
chased the business and leased the plant for- 
merly occupied by the Cass City Foundry Co., 
of Cass City, Mich., and will carry on the 
business in future. 

The Riverside Foundry, Newark, N. J., has 
been incorporated with a capital of $125,000. 
The incorporators are: Robert H. Ireland, 
Bellville, N. J. ; Thomas Malcolm, of Delawan- 
na, N. J..: J. Smylie Kinne, Jas. M. Smylie, 
Porter S. Kimm, Paterson, N. J. 

Mortimer Griffin has purchased the interest 
of the stockholders in the Georgia Foundry & 
Machine Works, Rome, Ga., excepting the in- 
terest of Reuben Towers. Mr. Towers and 
Mr. Griffin are now the sole owners of the 

The foundry of the Edgar Skinner Iron 
Works, of Sumter, S. C, has just started up. 
They will do a general jobbing business and 
later on will manufacture woodworking ma- 
chinery and engines. 

The Arizona & Sonora Mfg. Co., of Nogales, 
Ariz , is planning to spend $20,000 in increas- 
ing the capacity of its works. It will install 
suitable new machinery, both in the machine 
shop and foundry. IL reports that it has a 
large number of orders on hand and is very 

Digitized by 



Vol. 26, No, 4. 


Whole No, 154 

Foundry Department of the Imperial Works of the 
on Well Supply Company, Oil City, Pa. 

The development of the oil industry in this 
country has given rise to a number of different 
lines of manufacture which were formerly un- 
known. Some idea of the equipment neces- 
sary for this industry may be had when we 
consider that the Oil Well Supply Company 
has plants at Pittsburg, Oil City and Brad- 
Cord. Pa.; Oswego, New York; Parkersburg, 

as shown in the plan. Each building is also 
capable of enlargement by extending it at 
the end away from the river. The shipping 
department and gray iron foundry are placed 
between the general switch system and the 
railroad tracks along the river, as both of these 
buildings have to do with the work in many 
other departments. The central power station 


West Virginia; Van Wert, Ohio and Poplar 
Bluff, Missouri. The Imperial Works located 
at Oil City is one of the most complete plants 
of the kind in the country. No very heavy 
machine is built at this plant, but there is a 
large variety of light machine fittings, etc., 
including pumping rigs for oil wells, steam and 
oil engines, drilling rigs, and other oil well 
equipment. The works are located on the 
bank of the Alleghany river about one mile 
above Oil City. The general plan has been 
made to conform to the ground upon which 
the works are situated, and so the ends of the 
principal buildings which abut the river form a 
crescent. This arrangement allows a spur 
or switch from the railroad to enter each 
building without passing through any other, 


is located at the bank of the river where it 
can obtain abundant supply of water for boiler 
and condensing purposes. The main lines of 
the Pennsylvania, Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern and Erie roads run between the 
power plant and the other buildings, thus af- 
fording ample transportation facilities. The 
trackage system in and about the works, how- 
ever, is owned and operated by the company. 
For switching on the standard gauge system, 
they have a regular locomotive and for use on 
the industrial railway a gasoline motor truck. 
The portion of the plant in which we are 
especially interested in this article comprises 
the gray iron and malleable foundries. 
Gray Iron Foundry. 
The gray iron foundry is located in a build- 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 

ing 125 by 300 feet, with 
a foundry storage 50 by 150 
feet at the end. It consists 
of a central bay devoted to 
heavy work. This bay is 
spanned by a traveling crane 
running the entire length of 
the foundry and having a 
capacity sufficient to handle 
the largest work they make. 
The crane also runs over 
the cleaning department at 
one end, and in front of the 
core department at the 
other. The traveling crane 
has a 15-ton capacity with a 
5-ton auxiliary. Joining the 
heavy work floor there is a 
light work floor devoted to 
snap flask work, or light 
floor work. 

In addition to this there 
are a number of jib cranes 
equipped with air hoists. 
The core department is lo- 
cated at one end of the 
room and is equipped with a 
core machine for making 
stock cores, the necessary 
benches and boxes for spe- 
cial cores and both large 
and small core ovens. The 
core ovens are fired with 
natural gas. 

The cupolas are located 
about the middle of the 
length of the foundry and 
consist of two Whiting 
cupolas, one 75 inches, and 
the other 50 inches inside 
the lining. There is also a 
33-inch Collieu cupola. One 
of the cupolas is arranged 
to tap either into the main 
bay, or at right angles into 
a side room. 

The cleaning department 
is located at one end of the 
foundry and extends across 
the entire width of the 
building. Between the clean- 
ing department and the 
cupolas there is arranged a 
large lean-to building or 
bay, used entirely for ma- 
chine molding. There is one 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 




Berkshire automatic molding machine used for 
small work and a large number of small ma- 
chines of various types and makes for standard 
work. In this department there is one feature 
that is certainly novel. Some of the stripping 
plate machines are arranged upon long timber 
foundations at the sides of the building. Trol- 
ley tracks are run clear across the building 
from one machine to the other, and each track 
is equipped with a large and a small air hoist. 
One of these is of 800 pounds capacity and 
the other of 2,500 pounds capacity. The ma- 
chines on opposite sides are fitted up so that 
one will make the drags and the other the 
copes. The heavy hoist places the drags on 
the floor and the lighter hoist is used in plac- 
ing the copes. After all of the molds are 
closed, the large hoist on the next track is 
swung over, hitched to one of the molding 
machines and the machine lifted under the 
next line of trolley track. The hoist then 
passes to the opposite side of the room and 
shifts that machine. Both machines are im- 
mediately put in operation making copes and 
drags, and another line of molds across the 
room completed. The large hoists are also 

used for pouring, which is accomplished by 
bringing in a truck ladle on the industrial 
railway and then lifting it with the heavy 
hoist and carrying it along over a line of 
molds. Of course the pneumatic squeezer ma- 
chines cannot be shifted in this way, but with 
the stripping plate machines used for heavy 
work the method serves very well indeed. 

The entire foundry is well lighted by side 
lights, sky lights, and monitor roof. 
Storage Provisions. 

The pig iron, scrap, etc., together with the 
larger proportion of the iron flasks not in use 
are stored in the yard near the cupolas. 

One of the most interesting features of the 
entire plant is the storage building located at 
the end of the foundry. This is arranged 
with a standard gauge railway track through 
the center, a narrow gauge track on each side 
of it, and a traveling crane above. Suspended 
from the traveling crane there is a skip or 
box, and the material as it arrives is loaded 
into this, hoisted to the top of the bins, and 
dumped into a movable hopper which can be 
set opposite any one of the bins. In this 
way the bins on both sides can be filled with 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 


any material for which they are intended. The 
material can then be drawn out into cars on the 
industrial railway track in the center or into 
cars running along on the outside of the 
building. On the outside of the building there 
is an elevated track on one side from which 
material can be loaded directly into the bins. 
The bin capacity is sufficient to store an en- 
tire winter's supply of molding sand, sea coal, 
facing, coke, etc. 

Malleable Department, 
As this company requires a large amount of 
malleable fittings and other castings for use 
in connection with their business it was de- 
cided that it would pay to install a malleable 
iron foundry. This department occupies sev- 
eral buildings. The malleable foundry proper 
occupies a building 75 by 150 feet and is equip- 
ped with one 20-ton air furnace of the ordi- 
nary top charged type, such as is generally 
used in connection with malleable plants. The 
foreman's office is located in one corner and 
elevated at such a point that he can look over 
the entire floor. Under the office is located 
the metal pattern repair shop, fully equipped 
for replacing gates and doing any other work 
necessary for the repair of metal patterns. 
Adjacent to the metal pattern repair depart- 
ment there is the heating furnace for drying 
and warming hand ladles, which is certainly 
a well designed piece of equipment. The con- 

struction is plainly shown in one of the il- 
lustrations, in which it will be seen that the 
furnace is simply a rectangular brick structure 
with some angle irons running lengthwise and 
some spacing bolts arranged vertically so as to 
divide the furnace into small rectangular units. 
A series of plates may be laid in on the angles 
to form seats for the ladles. One of these 
plates is standing on top of the furnace and it 
will be noticed that four small semicircular 
openings are cut out about the sides to allow 
the hot gases to pass up about the ladle. The 
front of each compartment is closed by a cast- 
ing with a small cast latch which can be swung 
down over the ladle shank. The furnace can 
all be taken down and re-assembled in a very 
few minutes. In the case under consideration 
a natural gas fire is arranged along the bot- 
tom, but there is no reason why the same con- 
struction could not be used with a coke or hard 
coal fire with equally good results. Such a 
furnace as this would be found very handy in 
any foundry using a large number of hand 
ladles. Adjoining the malleable foundry is 
the hard cleaning room, which is equipped with 
a battery of exhaust tumbling mills. The cast- 
ings are then taken to the annealing depart- 
ment which is located in a building 50 by 150 
feet. There are five annealing furnaces, all 
fired with natural gas. The pickling tanks arc 
located in one end of the annealing depart- 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 




ment. Adjoining the annealing department is 
the soft cleaning room, which is equipped with 
tumbling barrels and other machinery neces- 
sary for cleaning soft castings. Such fittings 
as require galvanizing are taken to the gal- 
vanizing department, which is located near the 
malleable foundry and is equiped with pickling 
tubs, zinc pot and all the other apparatus nec- 

The cores for malleable fitting constitute a 
large proportion of the expense necessary for 
the production of this class of work. For 
making these cores a very carefully arranged 
core department has been fitted up in one of 
the brick buildings which was on the site at 
the time the present company purchased the 
old oil refinery property. On the first floor 
of the department there is located a sand mix- 
ing department in which all of the sand is pre- 
pared. Many of the heavier cores are also 
made on this floor. The core ovens are sec- 
tional ovens fired with natural gas and are 
arranged along one side of the building. All 

of the work on the first floor is done by men 
and boys. 

For making the cores for the smaller fittings 
girls are employed. They work on the second 
floor, the core sand being brought up by means 
of an elevator, and their racks of finished 
cores being placed on a special elevator which 
runs continuously. The cores are removed by 
men on the lower floor and placed in ovens. 
The plant is so arranged that the girls have a 
separate entrance to the grounds and no one 
but their foreman has any business on their 
floor except those who work there. The room 
is neat and light. 

The entire malleable department shows care- 
ful thought in planning and laying out the 
work so that it can be done to the greatest 

The Mesta Machine Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., 
has plans prepared for an addition to the big 
plant at West Homestead which will double 
its capacity. 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 


PART 11. 




When samples of grey cast iron, polished as 
described in the first installment of this article, 
are examined through the microscope, numer- 
ous, small, irregular cavities are revealed 
which mark the spaces once occupied by the 
small particles of graphitic carbon always 
present in this grade of iron. Most of these 
graphite particles are removed by the polishing 
operation but the small cavities which remain 
indicate accurately their former location and 
shape. Fig. i shows under a magnification of 
56 diameters, the appearance of a sample of 


grey cast iron after polishing. The irregular 
cavities just referred to, whether they still con- 
tain their graphite or not, appear as so many 
black areas. It will readily be inferred that the 
appearance of the magnified image of this pol- 
ished sample of grey iron should convey at 
least as much information concerning the phy- 
sical and chemical characteristics as the ex- 
amination of the fracture, or in other words 
that these properties must be closely related to 
the number of the graphite particles revealed 
by polishing, to their size and shape, their dis- 
tribution, etc. I shall have occasion to show 
that very valuable information may indeed be 
obtained from the microscopical examination 
of polished samples of cast iron without sub- 
jecting them to further treatment, but it will be 
noted that in these samples the structure of 
the metallic part is not revealed. The polish- 
ing operation has imparted the same appear- 
ance to the various constituents of which this 

metallic mass is composed: they have all as- 
sumed a mirror-like aspect, reflecting the light 
to the same extent, so that it is not possible 
to distinguish them from each other. In order 
to make these various constituents visible un- 
der the microscope it is necessary to impart to 
them unlike appearances througli the action of 
certain treatments affecting them differently. 
These treatments generally consist in subject- 
ing the polished samples to the action of acids 
or of some other reagents which attack cer- 
tain constituents to the exclusion of others or 
with varying degrees of intensity: they are 
generally known as "etching treatments." 

Polishing in Relief. — In the case of white 
cast iron two constituents are present (to be 
described later) which differ much in hardness 
and if the tripoli and rouge polishing be con- 


tinned for a sufficiently long time, and espe- 
cially if it be conducted on a soft, yielding back- 
ing, a pronounced relief effect is produced re- 
sulting from the greater wearing of the soft 
constituent. The difference in level of the two 
constituents, obtained in this way, differentiate 
them under the microscope without further 

Fig. 2 shows the microstructure magnified 
100 diameters, of a sample of white cast iron 
polished in relief. The presence of two constit- 
uents is clearly brought out. * The soft con- 
stituent appears dark because being somewhat 
depressed, each particle of it pertains, micro- 
scopically speaking, of the nature of a shallow 
cavity. The differentation is further assisted 
by the soft constituent assuming a marked ap- 
pearance, while the hard component retains its 
specular aspect. 

While such relief polishing makes it pos- 
sible in the case of white cast iron to observe 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



some features of the structure without further 
treatment and while it is occasionally valuable, 
it seldom reveals structural details which are 
not better brought out by an etching or some 
other developing treatment. 

Etching Methods. — Many reagents have been 
recommended for etching polished samples of 
iron and steel, but I shall only describe here 
those treatments which, so far as my experi- 
ence goes, yield the best results. 

The structure of cast iron may be made ap- 
parent by etching polished samples with one 
of the following solutions: (i) Nitric acid in 
absolute alcohol, (2) picric acid in absolute 
alcohol, (3) concentrated nitric acid and (4) 
tincture of iodine. I have named them in the 
order of my preference. 

Etching zvith a Solution of Nitric Acid in 
Alcohol. — A solution should be prepared con- 
taining 10 percent of concentrated nitric acid 
(1.42 sp. gr.) and 90 percent of absolute al- 
cohol. A small amount of this solution should 
be poured in a small beaker or dish and the 
polished sample immersed in it for a very 
short time (seldom exceeding 10 seconds). It 
is generally better not to leave the sample in 
the solution for more than five seconds and 
to repeat the treatment if it be found that 
the etching was too slight. When the sample 
is taken from the etching bath, it should be 
quickly washed in alcohol and carefully dried, 
preferably by means of an air blast followed 
by gentle wiping with a soft cloth ; or lacking 
a blast, altogether with a soft cloth. 

A piece of chamois leather may also be used 
to advantage for wiping the specimen, after 
drying it, immediately before examining it 
under the miscroscope. To that effect it is 
convenient to nail a small piece of the leather 
on a piece of wood and to rub the specimen 
over it once or twice. This block should 
be kept carefully covered to prevent any dust 
from settling upon it. 

The etched specimen is now ready for mi- 
croscopical examination. 

Etching zinth a Solution of Picric Acid in 
Alcohol. — A solution should be prepared con- 
taining 10 percent of picric acid and 90 percent 
of absolute alcohol and the etching conducted 
exactly as described for the treatment with 
nitric acid in alcohol. 

Etching zvith Concentrated Nitric Acid.— 
The polished samples should be dipped in con- 
centrated nitric acid (1.42 sp. gr.) and im- 
mediately held under an abundant stream of 
running water. When iron is immersed in con- 

centrated nitric acid it assumes what is known 
as the passive state, i. e., it is not affected by 
the acid. As soon as the layer of concentrated 
acid which covers the polished surface, how- 
ever, is diluted by the running water, it attacks 
the iron vigorously, but for such a short time 
(since the water soon removes all traces of 
acid) that there is very little danger of etch- 
ing too deeply. One such treatment is gener- 
ally sufficient to bring out the structure sharply 
and clearly, but if the sample be found in- 
sufficiently etched the etching should be re- 
peated in exactly the same manner. 

Etching zvith Tincture of Iodine. — Some 
tincture of iodine, such as may be obtained 
from pharmacists, should be diluted with the 
same amount of alcohol. A little of this solu- 
tion should be applied to the polished surface, 
conveniently by dipping a finger's end in the 
tincture and gently rubbing the specimen and 
repeating the treatment until the surface ap- 
pears dull or slightly tarnished. The sample 
should then be washed in alcohol and dried. 

Heat Tinting Method. — This method con- 
sists in heating the polished sample gently and 
gradually in contact with the atmosphere by 
holding it over a Bunsen flame for instance, or 
placing it on a hot plate or in some other suit- 
able manner. The different constituents as- 
sume, in rapid succession, but with varying 
velocities, different shades due to the forma- 
tion of light films of oxides, in such a way 
that at no instant of the heating are two com- 
ponents colored alike. This method has been 
applied extensively and with much success to 
cast iron by Mr. J. E. Stead and I shall have 
occasion to again refer to it. 



In analyzing production and in ascertaining 
the cost, the proposition "per se", is the same 
with all foundries ; but the method must differ 
with each individual foundry. This is caused 
by the difference in castings and the varied 
nature of each foundry's business. "One 
man's meat being another man's poison" often 
holds good. 

There are three divisions in foundry cost to 
be considered: 

I. The material, or metal, composing the 
cupola charge. 

♦Paper read by Ralph Bowman before meeting of 
Buffalo Foondrymen's Association, March 21, 1905. 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

2. The general expenses and supplies. 

3. The actual molding time of the molder. 
The fitst and third divisions, the material 

and molding labor, show in themselves what 
they are. The second division, consists of 
overhead charges, such as taxes and insurance, 
or rent, improvements and repairs; contingent 
or sinking funds to cover depreciation; losses 
through bad debts, etc., direct charges, such 
as foreman's wages, wages of cupola tenders, 
core makers, cleaners, general roustabouts, 
and the molders' time cutting sand and pour- 
ing metal ; and also the supplies, sand, facings, 
riddles, shovels crucibles, flasks, etc. 

These divisions having been made and the 
cost ascertained, the cost of castings may be 
found in the following manner: 

The three divisions are added together and 
from this sum is deducted the value of the 
scrap, etc., recovered in gates, spruces and pig- 
bed. Into this remainder is then divided the 
total number of pounds of good castings, and 
the result is the cost, per pound, of the 

On the other hand, the first two divisions, 
(that is, the cupola charge and the general 
expenses and supplies) may be added together 
and the value of the scrap recovered, deducted 
from their sum. This remainder may be di- 
vided by the number of pounds of good cast- 
ings, giving, thereby, the cost, per pound, of 
the metal in the castings. The cost of each 
individual casting is then found by multiplying 
its weight by the metal rate, per pound, and 
adding to the result the molding time of the 
molder spent on the casting. 

Small and light castings would quite likely 
take the first method, while large, ponderous 
and heavy castings would very likely take the 

Therefore, the rules for figuring foundry 
costs cannot be laid down in a hard and fast 
manner, a foundry's individuality and the in- 
formation it desires, necessarily qualifying the 
method and the form of analysis. 

And again, it is debatable to what exact 
account many items of foundry costs should 
be charged. General officers' salaries, for in- 
stance, may be considered a part of the selling 
expense. Plant depreciation may go into gen- 
eral expense; or, it may be deducted from 
net profit (the result being called actual 
profit). This scheme is frequently all right 
for a big manufacturing plant; but generally 
it proves quite wrong for a jobbing foundry. 
Depreciation may also be taken care of by a 
sinking fund. I might say here that deprecia- 

tion is an item which many times lacks con- 
sideration and that its disregard cannot be too 
strongly condemned. Depreciation should be 
taken care of at every closing of the books. 
Plants will deteriorate and machinery, kept 
even in the best order, will become obsolete 
sometimes, by reason of improvements. The 
owner, therefore, who does not take this item 
into account, gives his business at one time 
credit for more than it is actually doing and, 
at another time, is unjust to it, when the loss 
falls in one lump. While on the part of a 
corporation it is manifestly unfair to ask 
future stockholders to assume such burdens 
which a portion of the former dividends 
should have been retained to cover. 

Other overhead expenses, such as losses 
through bad debts, also deserve consideration 
and should be arranged for much in the same 
way as depreciation. 

Under direct charges, while new flasks are 
quite properly charged to Plant Improvements, 
repairs to flasks, or flask renewals, although 
taken care of to a certain extent, by deprecia- 
tion, ought to be charged to the metal. They 
are really supplies, for flasks are used up like 
files, some portion being taken by every cast- 
ing. Again, it may be correct to charge the 
flask directly to the job for which it is made. 

Another debatable item is core-making. As 
a rule, however, the cost of cores is put into 
general expense, for it takes a very expensive 
core indeed to make an appreciable showing. 

It is a matter of actual molding, theoreti- 
cally, the labor should be charged directly to 
the job, but this is frequently found imprac- 
tical where the castings are comparatively 
small and of great variety. Dividing the cast- 
ings into classes, such as light and heavy, or 
light, medium and heavy, and keeping track of 
the molding labor on each class frequently 
produces satisfactory results. The results 
from the latter scheme, though, should be 
checked from time to time by comparison with 
the cost of actual molding labor on individual 

This is the idea, in general, of figuring 
foundry costs; but, of course, any business 
analysis cannot end with costs. The question 
of profit and loss is to be considered. 

The cost of the product being known, the 
cost of the sales is therefore known. The cost 
of the sales being deducted from the sales, the 
gross profit appears, and by deducting the 
selling expense from the gross profit, the net 
profit is shown. 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



There is also much to be said of the value of 
foundr/s analysis outside of the bare knowl- 
edge of the cost of its product. The results 
of different formulas of cupola charges, for 
one thing, are read like a barometer. The 
labor must account for itself. The expenses 
tell their own tale. The coke shows how many 
pounds of metal each pound of it is melting. 
The leakages appear. Defective castings can- 
not be hidden. All kinds of molding compar- 
isons are made. Patterns come in for criti- 
cism and are sent to the pattern-shop for 
more draught, to have corners rounded, to be 
shaped differently and parted in another way 
so as to save cores, and for all kinds of re- 
pairs and improvements. (I know of one case 
where a pattern was remade and the parting 
of it differently saved the making of ten 

It is not speaking too strongly to say that a 
foundry manager can sit at his office desk and 
learn from analysis what is going on even 
better than if he stood out in the foundry. 

To sum it all up, where Foundry Costs are 
ascertained, "gesstimating" is changed into 


Seeing that you devote considerable space 
to cupola notes, I thought you would like to 
hear the way I keep my cupola in repair. The 
last time the cupola was lined, which was over 
a year ago, the mason tried to get the boss to 
line it with a double row of bricks and another 
row faced against the casing that would give 
it about an eleven inch lining and 60 inches 
inside. He thought that way it would make it 
easier for me to keep it in repair, so the 
boss asked my opinion of it, and I said it 
would be too weak a lining for in a short while 
the inside row would be all broken by the 
charging and it would not be safe. The way it 
is lined now there is a face brick against the 
casing and a wall of bull heads or key bricks 
put in end ways which gives a good solid lin- 
ing of 12 inches, but what the mason had said 
set me thinking, and as it began to burn at tht 
melting zone and below the tuyers, I began to 
chip away enough to allow me to set bricks in. 
1 call it facing the cupola and so I kept on 
doing as it got burned out higher up. My 
object was to see how far I could face it 
with safety and still give a good solid lining 
and a good clear drop and perfect satisfaction 
all through the heat. 

At the present I have it faced five feet above 

the tuyers or seven rows of bricks. The upper 
four rows last for six weeks running daily 
melting from 10 to 30 tons. The three rows 
just over the tuyers have to be replaced after 
running two weeks and the bricks below the 
tuyers will last for three months, or in other 
words I am running the cupola at a saving to 
the company of 1,000 bricks every three months 
over what were used in the meantime to keep 
it built up at the melting zone, but where the 
saving comes is when we reline it. We will 
start at the top of the facing or five feet above 
the tuyers. What is behind the facing is a 
good lining of 9 inches and is good for years. 
In this case it is .1 saving of 3,000 bricks or 
enough to keep it faced for nearly six months, 
and they used to reline it that far up every 
three months. 

I think this is what the foundrymen are 
looking for — something to lower the expense 
of the cupola and at the same time give perfect 
satisfaction right along. This one melts 10 
tons an hour and has kept up that rate right 
along since last lined over a year ago, that is, 
whenever the heat runs to 15 tons or over, and 
we have run as high as 50 tons and got it 
down in five hours from the time the wind 
went on. If you think this is of any interest 
and wish for further particulars, I would be 
pleased to give them. We also have a small 
cupola that was made especially for testing pig 
iron. It is only 12 inches inside lining and 
stands five feet over all from the floor. We 
ran 100 lb. of iron out in 20 minutes from the 
time the wind was put on, and we took four 
different tests out in succession by charging 
after each was run out. 

John Ricketts. 

The C. H. Wheeler Condenser & Pump Co., 
Philadelphia Pa., has succeeded the Barr 
Pump Co., of that city. Clifton H. Wheeler, 
the former president and general manager of 
the Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Co., of 
New York, is now identified solely with the 
C. H. Wheeler Condenser & Pump Co., of 

The name of the Diamond Drill & Machine 
Co., Birdsboro, Pa., has been changed to 
Birdsboro Steel Foundry & Machine Co. Since 
the erection of the company's steel casting plant 
it was decided to change the name. 

The Bloomsburg Car Mfg. Co., of Blooms- 
burg, Pa., has been absorbed by the American 
Car & Foundry Co., and will henceforth be 
known as the Bloomsburg department of that 

Digitized by 




June, 190S 

The Foundry 

PuBWSHED Monthly by 

The Penton Publishing Co. 


CHICAGO: 1164 Monadnock Blk. 

PITTSBURG: 429 Park Bldg. 

NEW YORK: 150 Nassau St. 

The subtcriptioD price of Thb Foundry is M-OO 
a year to points in the United States. Canada and 
Mexico. To Great Britain: Eight Shillings. Single 
copies 15 cents each. 

Change of advertising copy must reach this office on 
the 10th inst. preceding date of publication. 

Practical articles pertaining to the trade in all its 
branches are solicited and mill be paid for. 

When sending in articles be sure to place your name 
and address on the article and on the drawings. 

Entered as second-clots matter at the Post-Office at 
Cleveland^ Ohio, 


Foundry Department of the Imperial 

Works of the Oil Well Supply Co.... 151 
Metallography Applied to Foundry Work. 156 

Foundry Costs 157 

Lining a Cupola IS9 

Trade Outlook 160 

American Foundrymen's Association Con- 
vention in New York 161 

Skeleton Patterns 162 

Labor Saving in Stove Manufacture 166 

Make Your Plant a Success 169 

Producing Sound Castings 171 

Molding Machine Practice 172 

Shot Iron 177 

Carnegie Research Scholarship 177 

Cast Iron Notes 178 

Brass Foundry Notes 179 

Malleable Cast Iron Notes 179 

Associations and Societies 182 

Aluminum as a Pattern Metal 186 

Trouble With the Foundryman 191 

Trade Publications 191 

Personals 192 

Deaths 192 

Fires 192 

New Construction 192 

General Industrial Notes 194 


For a number of months there has been a 
race between the blast furnaces and the con- 
sumers in which the consumers have been 
ahead and stocks of pig iron have been con- 
stantly decreasing. The strenuous efforts on 
the part of the blast furnace operators, how- 
ever, have at last won out, and in the past 
month stocks have increased. This condition 
and the added fact that the foundry tonnage 
is not increasing rapidly have tended to reduce 
prices for raw materials, and No. 2 Southern 
foundry iron may now be had at $13 at the 
furnace, while the same grade of Northern 
iron is sold at $15.50 at the furnace. This is 
about 50 cents a ton less than was quoted a 
month ago. 

Few of tlie large melters have placed their 
orders for the second and third quarters yet, 
and all seem to feel sure that prices will not 
advance and may yet be lower. On the other 
hand, furnacemen do not look for any radical 
change. A number of furnaces have been 
blown out for relining, and this will have 
some effect on the amount of stock on hand 
at the end of the next month. Coke is now 
selling at $2.50 for foundry coke at the ovens 
in the Connellsville region. Some of the job- 
bing foundries thoughout the country report an 
increase of business, but the gray iron foun- 
dry business in general does not seem to have 
picked up much. The steel foundries for the 
most part are working at full capacity. The 
steel mills are all running full, but mostly on 
old orders. 

Ship building on the Great Lakes is going 
on at a rapid rate and at present the Ameri- 
can Ship Building Co. has eleven boats to 
build next year. This is a greater number 
than it has ever before had contracts for so far 
ahead. The railroads are continuing to place 
orders for new equipment and building is active 
throughout the country, calling for a large 
and increasing tonnage of structural steel. 
Prices of finished iron and steel are generally 
steady, but with some tendency to shade on the 
lighter finished forms. 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 




Judging from the large number of letters 
which we have received concerning the an- 
nual convention of the American Foundry- 
men's Association Convention to be held in 
New York, June 6, 7 and 8, we feel that 
there is some misunderstanding among 
foundrymen concerning those who are wel- 
come at this convention. 

The American Foundrymen's Association 
was organized for the betterment of of the 
foundry trade, and its object has always 
been educational. All who are interested 
in the foundry trade are welcome at the 
meetings, including owners, foremen, or any 
one connected with the trade in any way 
who desire to co-operate for its betterment. 
It now looks as though there would be a 
very good attendance, but there is one point 
which Dr. Moldenke has asked us to call 
to the minds of all who intend to come, 
and that is, to remember that the special re- 
duced rates are on the certificate plan and 
that when purchasing your ticket it will be 
necessary to secure a certificate from the 
ticket agent. When this certificate is coun- 
tersigned in New York, it will entitle the 
holder to the purchase of a return ticket 
for one-third fare, thus making the round 
trip for lyi fare. 

The Murray Hill Hotel, Forty-first street 
and Fourth avenue, is to be the headquar- 
ters during the meeting and everything 
looks favorable for an exceedingly pleasant 
meeting. The number of papers to be read 
contain some which are exceedingly inter- 
esting. The following are the titles of the 
papers now in the printers' hands and it is 
expected that a number of others will be 
ready before the time of the meeting. 

Dr. Moldenke wishes us to request all who 
are coming to come prepared to discuss 
any of the papers mentioned, or if they have 
any other points which they wish discussed, 
to send in the same or come prepared to 
bring them up. 

The session on Wednesday, at Columbia 
University, will be an especially interesting 
session and several of the papers will be il- 
lustrated by stereopticon views. The ex- 
cursion on Thursday to visit the foundry of 
the International Steam Pump Co. will also 
be full of interest, as this is one of the larg- 
est and best of the foundries which have been 
constructed recently. Every progressive 

foundryman in the country should be pres- 
ent, or at least be represented by his fore- 

One very interesting fact is that the pat- 
ternmakers are taking considerable interest 
in their section and that there will be several 
papers on patternmaking subjects. 

The following is a list of the papers now 
in the printers' hands in addition to which 
there are several others now in preparation. 

A Simple Method of Molding a Propeller 
Wheel, by A. M. Loudon, Elmira, N. Y. 

Notes on Some Retort Coke Melting 
Ratios, by C. M. Schwerin, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Blowers, Piping and Cupolas at the Plant 
of the Michigan Stove Co., by W. J. Keep, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Making a Molder, by H. M. Lane, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Care and Storage of Patterns, by H. M. 
Lane, Cleveland, O. 

Melting Steel with Cast Iron, by R. P. 
Cunningham, Holyoke, Mass. 

Things Needed in the Foundry, by David 
Spence, Chicago, 111. 

Needed in the Business, by Benj. J. Ful- 
ler, Allegheny, Pa. 

A Successful Foundry Combination, by 
Arch M. Loudon, Elmira, N. Y. 

Some Thoughts on Modern American 
Foundry Practice, by John C. Bums, Plain- 
field, N. J. 

Practical Brass Founding, by C. Vickers, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Accounting — An Influence towards Les- 
sened Costs and Increased Efficiency, by 
Kenneth Falconer, Montreal, P. Q. 

Cost Keeping for the Foundry, by R. W. 
McDowell, Uniontown, Pa. 

Notes on Pipe Foundries and Suggestions 
on Metal Mixers for Foundry Purposes, by 
J. B. Nau, New York, N. Y. 

The Effect of Manganese in Low Silicon 
Cast Iron, by H. C. Loudenbeck, Wilmerd- 
ing, Pa. 

A Modern Method of Venting Cores, by 
Jas. A. Murphy, Franklin, Pa. 

The Use of Plaster of Paris in the Foundry, 
by Edward B. Gilmour, Peoria, 111. 

The use of Thermit in a Railroad Shop, by 
Jas. F. Webb, Elkhart, Ind. 

Foundry and Pattern Shop Standards, by 
Wm. H. Parry, Brooklyn, N. Y 

Report of Committee on Standard Meth- 
ods of Determining the Constituents of 
Cast Iron, 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

The Prose and Poetry of Progress, by 
S. H. Stupakoff, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Better Conditions in the Pattern Shop — 
An Experiment that Succeeded, by J. L. 
Gard, Denver, Col. 



As the building of complete pattern for large 
irregular castings such as nozzles, saddles, etc., 
is not always practical, the form of pattern 
commonly known as skeleton or frame pattern 
is resorted to. This practically consists in the 

nozzle weighing about 19,000 pounds are shown 
in Fig. I, two of these castings being bolted 
together at A and subsequently riveted to the 
shell. While there may be several ways in 
which a skeleton pattern for a casting of this 
description may be constructed, the one under 
discussion has proved very satisfactory. 

The completed skeleton is shown in the re- 
verse position to that in which it is built and 
cast in Fig. 2. The contraction of steel cast- 
ings of this description and size being uncer- 
tain, and in most cases will not contract, the 
usual allowance of 3-16 per foot, an allowance 

construction of a skeleton or frame, the in- 
terior and exterior form and the thickness of 
which correspond to the required casting. 
The pattern work can be made more or less 
elaborate, according to the manner in which 
the molder desires to proceed in order to con- 
struct the mold, and upon the ability of this 
individual the evenness of the casting to a 
great extent depends, as the skeleton gives an 
outline only and a partial guide for the strikes. 
Three views of one section of a cast steel 

of % of an inch per foot, with an extra allow- 
ance for finish for exact dimensions will gen- 
erally be found suflScient. 


Following the general practice of laying out 
the required full size sections, the building of 
the concave flange B is the first part of the 
work to be undertaken. To facilitate this 
operation, a form can be lagged up as shown 
in Fig. 3, conforming to the concave surface of 
the flange and upon which the flange is laid 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



Fig. 2 

out and built J4 at a time. The segments for 
the flange are fitted, dressed to thickness sepa- 
rately and then tongued together as shown. 
A number of forms as shown in Fig. 4 are 
next gotten out and lined and leveled up on the 
floor, taking care to see that they are securely 
braced. The four quarters of the flange B are 
located and fitted together over these forms 
and secured to one another. 

To facilitate the handling and storing of the 
pattern, if desired a joint can be made on the 
lines C C, Fig. i, and the two halves screwed 

Fig. 3 

together. The ring D, Fig. 2, forming a part 
of the skeleton and to which the ribs are se- 
cured is built up of segments turned to size 

and then elevated and secured with suitable 
supports and braces in its proper relation to 
flange B. It is next necessary to space off 
and locate the ribs. To facilitate the cutting 
out of the ribs, material about % of an inch 
thick can be used, each piece being fitted in 
place and gotten out as a templet and later 
when the templets have been dressed to form 
they are reinforced on both sides for strength 
and replaced in position as ribs. This method 
results in a saving, both of material and time. 
As the only sections shown by the draftsman 
are those illustrated in Fig. i, it becomes nec- 
essary without developing the section at each 
rib, to work from one section to another. The 
templets for one-half of each end are gotten 

Fig. 4 

out with the outer edges, sawed roughly to 
form. They are then placed in position and 
temporarily secured, with the aid of a flexible 
strip and the eye. The outer edge of each 
templet is dressed to form, working from one 
section to the other. The templets for the 
opposite half of the end are now marked from 
those already made and tried in place. The 
templets are then reinforced for the proper 
thickness, after which the metal thickness or 
interior form of the skeleton is laid off on 
each rib and they are dressed to the proper 
thickness. They are then returned to place 
and secured in position. It will be observed 
that no provision is made on the skeleton for 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

FIG. 6. 

the flange E, Fig. i, this flange being made up 
during the molding operation by using seg- 


A hole is first dug in the floor to the re- 
quired depth and two of the forms shown in 
Fig. 4 which were used for supporting the 
skeleton while it was being built are used for 
striking up a bed upon which the skeleton may 
rest. The forms are then removed and the 
skeleton set in position upon the bed. The core 
is then rammed up. To facilitate this operation 
and to prevent the sand from ramming out 
through the openings, boards can be set up to 
the openings and braced from the walls of the 
pit. The gates are arranged as shown in Fig. 

6, and the runner prepared as the ramming 
progresses. After the core has been rammed up 
the boards surrounding it are removed and the 
core or body of sand dressed and slicked to the 
shape of the outside of the skeleton. The ex- 
act form and evenness of surface will depend 
to a large extent upon the mover's ability 
and judgment. The cope or cheek is then 
rammed up upon this outer surface. In order 
to do this, the parting is prepared, the flask 
placed in position and rammed up in the or- 
dinary manner. The depression forming the 
upper flange E being made with the aid of a 
segment representing a section of the flange 
and at the same time a seat for the covering 
cores is swept off on each side of the segment. 

Fig. 6 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 





Flo. 10 

The cope or cheek is now hfted off, blocked 
up and finished in the usual manner. 

The sand between the ribs of the skeleton 
which represents the metal thickness of the 
casting is now removed from the core and the 
skeleton lifted off. The accompanying half 
tone, Fig. 5, shows a view of the mold at this 
stage. The core is now dressed to form, after 
which it is drifd. The various parts of the 
mold are next assembled, the cope or cheek 
lowered into place, the covering cores to form 
the upper face of the flange E set, and risers 
prepared, and the space between the walls of 
the pit and the flask firmly rammed with sand. 
The mold is then weighted down ready for 
pouring. A cross section of the complete mold 
is shown in Fig. 6. 


Three views of a steel casting for a double 
nozzle are shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9. This 
differs considerably from the one already 
shown and brings out some different principles 
in molding A plan of the nozzle is shown in 
Fig. 7. A section on the line A-A, Fig. 7, is 
shown in Fig. 8, and a section on the line B-B 
in Figs. 7 and 8 in Fig. 9. The pattern is 
parted upon the line B-B. A view of the com- 
pleted pattern in the position in which it is 
built is shown in Fig. 10. 

In building the pattern the required sections 
are first laid out full size. The building of 
this skeleton is similar to the mold already 
described. The lower flange G is gotten out 

and built up over a form. The two upper 
flanges H-H are built up and turned with the 
lower half left loose, so that these two half 
flanges may be drawn separately. The rings 
I are secured by supports and braces in their 
proper relationship to the flange G, after which 
the ribbing of the skeleton is proceeded with. 
To assist in getting out the ribs forming the 
parting of the skeleton, a form may be lagged 
up corresponding to the parting, the outline 
of the rib laid out upon this convex surface 
and the rib built up in segments. After one 
rib has been built in this way, the one on the 
opposite side of the parting may be made to 


Fig. 8 

Fig. 9 

fit it. The location and building of the other 
ribs is similar to that already described. 


The molding of this skeleton differs from the 
one previously described in as much as it is 
cast upon its side, and with the aid of a core 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

Rq. 1 1 

bar the core or inside is lifted out. This neces- 
sitates the preparation of a seat for locating 
and supporting the core when it is returned 
to the mold. A hole is first dug to the re- 
quired depth and the drag half of the pattern 
is bedded in to the thickness of the ribs. The 
inside is then slicked and dressed to form and 
the seat for the core prepared as shown in 
the cross section of the mold, Fig. 11. The 
core bar is next placed in position and the 
drag half of the core rammed up. The part- 
ing outside of the skeleton is prepared and the 
cope half of the skeleton placed in position, 
after which the ramming of the interior is 
proceeded with. Owing to the angle on which 
the flanges are set, the faces of the flanges 
from the parting line down are formed by the 
core as shown in the cross section of the mold 
in Fig. II. In other words, as far as this 
portion of the flange is concerned, the core 
forms an intermediate part for the mold. When 
the core is left out, the lower portion of the 
flanges are exposed and left free to be drawn. 
When the ramming of the upper half of the 
core for the interior of the skeleton is com- 
pleted, this portion of the skeleton is lifted oflF 
and the core slicked and dressed and paper 
applied, after which the skeleton is returned 
and the openings between the skeleton filled 
with sand and slicked off so that it will form 
a body upon which the cope is rammed in the 
usual manner. When the cope is completed, 
it is lifted off, together with the cope half of 
the skeleton. The cope is then blocked up, 
the sand between the ribs removed and the half 
of the skeleton pattern drawn. With the aid 
of the core bar, the core is then lifted out, 
blocked out, and the sand between the ribs 
of the lower or drag half of the skeleton re- 
moved and the skeleton lifted out. The drag 

portion of the mold is then finished, the run- 
ner and risers are prepared during the ram- 
ming up of the mold. The mold and the core 
are then dried, assembled, and prepared for 
pouring in the usual manner. 



It is remarkable how few appliances the 
stove industry has that are primarily labor- 
saving and that are new enough to be of in- 
terest. A little thought naturally separates our 
subject into two divisions: (i) Labor-saving 
machinery and tools, and (2) Labor-saving 
shop methods. We are largely limited in the 
stove business by the fact that it is nearly im- 
possible to devise automatic machinery which 
will prove profitable, due to the fact that there 
are few articles of manufacture which require 
so many distinct and different operations as 
does the ordinary cooking range. The per- 
formance of any one operation averages a 
limited number of times in any one day; and 
no automatic machine can be made to pay un- 
less it can be kept reasonably busy, so that 
the interest, depreciation and other charges of 
the costly machinery will not eat up the profit. 
In some few cases it has been possible to 
construct machines that will perform several 
operations on one piece, or the same kind of 
operation on several pieces of varying char- 
acter, as in the automatic polishing machine. 
But such examples are rare and most of the 
profit-makers in the labor end of a stove fac- 
tory are trivial in themselves ; it is the total of 
many such that counts. 

Beginning at the foundation of all our profit 

•From a paper read before the National Associa- 
tion of Stove Manufacturers at Chicago, May 10, 1905. 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



and incidentally much of our trouble — the 
foundry — ^we find the molding machine gives 
greatest promise, although not in any way en- 
tirely satisfactory as yet. To get best results 
it should be installed with automatic sand 
tempering and riddling machinery, conveyors to 
deliver and remove the sand, and with methods 
of doing all lifting and handling by power. 
Each of these individual problems has been 
fully worked out for classes of work other 
than stove plate, but as yet unconsolidated 
into a complete system to produce high grade 
castings. Some genius also has a large field 
before him in the production of a machine 
which will print-back faced work and obtain 
as good results as by hand. 

From the molding machine we pass naturally 
to a consideration of the flask question, and 
it is astonishing how little thought this im- 
portant detail seems to have received. Iron 
flasks are decided labor savers and in many 
cases can be used with economy of handling 
far surpassing that of a wooden flask. The 
carpenter shop also will feel the pressure of 
repairing less. Snap flask work is hardly 
known in some shops, particularly in the East, 
and very few firms understand the labor that 
might be saved by their molders, as well as 
flask makers and yard men. In larger sizes, 
with detachable bars, which are either left be- 
hind when the flask is removed or withdrawn 
from the mold just before, labor-saving results 
may be obtained, particularly when used in 
connection with match plates of large size. 
Whether it be wood or iron flasks that are 
used, the yard men can gain time if every mold 
board is marked with the size of flask and 
clamps required, flasks and clamps themselves 
being marked to correspond. 

Every modern shop should have either a 
track or a trolley, and if possible should have 
both, the trolley being best for delivering 
melted iron to the floors if so desired and the 
track surpassing for other purposes. If a 
track is to be installed it should, of course, 
connect with both yard and charging plat- 

For handling material on and off the cars, 
as well as for use in other places, general favor 
now seems to be given to the pneumatic hoist 
of motor block type in connection with proper 
traveling cranes, although electric hoists may 
also be used. This class of equipment is well 
known to all and hardly requires mention, yet, 
many of those foundries which, in addition 
to their stove work, make furnace and boiler 

castings, are wofuUy out of date in economy 
of handling bulky and weighty material. A 
rubber pipe connected to the compressed air 
system is taking the place of the time-honored 
bellows and in some places a pneumatic vibra- 
tor attached to the molding benches will save 
rapping the patterns and consequently decrease 
the labor of repairing breaks in the iron 
pattern shop. Water pipes to the molders' 
floor is a labor-saving device that costs little 
for the return it gives. 

The core department of a stove foundry is 
generally of no great size, but is worthy of 
attention, as some of our factories afe now in- 
cluding boiler work as a side issue. An auto- 
matic mixing machine has been found to give 
uniform results in this department and for 
fitting cores cast iron files cut quicker as well 
as cost less than steel ones. The ovens them- 
selves are important. Design should be care- 
fully considered and oil used for heating on 
account of the slight attendance required, par- 
ticularly when thermostatic controlling is used. 

The mounting shop has little new to offer 
that is of particular note ; but there is a grow- 
ing tendency to install what little machinery 
there is that can be used to advantage, and 
it is common now to see some kind of a con- 
veying system for handling ranges from 
mounter to fitter and so on until finally landed 
in the storehouse. Work of this department 
is being facilitated by a profusion of emery 
wheels, drilling lathes, etc.; in fact, in some 
shops each man is given a complete equip- 
ment instead of using some machines in com- 
mon with his neighbors. 

Drilling being one of the larger mounting 
expenses, several plans have been tried to save 
labor in that direction, the use of tins to cast 
holes being well known. Some progressive 
firms are drilling with the aid of a complicated 
set of jigs and templates for which much is 

Water fronts are almost the only pieces of 
stove casting upon which automatic machine 
labor can be satisfactorily expended, and it is 
now possible to procure a multiple drill which 
will work on eight water fronts at one time. 

A few years ago the automatic polishing 
machine came into prominence and since then 
it has made considerable saving for those who 
use it, although producing work of doubtful 
quality, except in cases where the castings are 
especially designed to facilitate the operation. 
In this department polishing belts are super- 
seding the old type of wheel for certain work 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

and when wheels are used those composed of 
compressed cotton buffs cut rapidly and give 
wonderful results when used with some of the 
newer abrasives. On some classes of polished 
work hand labor on small castings has been 
almost entirely eliminated by the water polish- 
ing barrel. 

In the nickel room a saving of labor may 
be made by placing the work on wire trays or 
baskets to be washed or otherwise treated. 
The basket hangs by an air hoist from a 
trolley and is lowered into the successive 

In the cleaning room air hammers and pneu- 
matic drills fitted to operate emery wheels and 
cleaning brushes are used in removing fins, 
gates and burnt sand from furnace and other 
castings of large size, 

There is very little machinery of construction 
novel enough to warrant mention in our pat- 
tern shops, but a type of lathe with reversible 
head to admit the swinging of large work 
away from the lathe bed is of value; and the 
benches should be equipped with steam heated 
glue pot and with gas lamps for melting 
wax — trivial features and not new, yet gen- 
erally lacking. In the iron pattern shop a 
large blow torch driven by gas and compressed 
air is essential for straightening warped pat- 
terns, brazing, etc., and in this department 
one up-to-date concern has attached a file to 
the reciprocating part of a pneumatic hammer 
and is using it for filing. 

Our shipping department sees great possi- 
bilities in the automobile as a labor-saving 
device in the place of unsatisfactory horse 
equipment, as the work of handling goods on 
and off trucks can be done by the same force 
that moves the machine, but as yet the large 
first cost has deterred almost everyone from 
adopting it until well out of the experimental 

Taking the second division of our topic, we 
find the greatest field for saving of labor to 
be in our shop methods, and foremost in the 
field is the use of an office system by which all 
accounts can be handled by a card catalogue 
reaching every corner of the works for all 
possible desirable information. The time clock 
is important as the clock cards themselves 
can constitute the pay roll when properly 
filled out. A billing machine should be used 
to make out shipping orders and can be 
adapted to make as many copies, either wholly 
or in part, as may be required. If so desired 
it will also make charge slips, car labels, rail- 

road receipts, customer's bill, addressed en- 
velope and such records as may be required 
for the office books, with one operation. 

Our system must also contain provision for 
a record of every tool in the factory and in 
whose possession. This, in connection with 
suitable charges to workmen for tools lost, 
will soon save its cost in labor alone, as each 
man can be counted on to have his tools in 
their proper places where they can be found 
when wanted. Every pattern should also 
be catalogued, with size of flask, place that 
flask can be found and all other desirable in- 
formation. All raw material in the stock room 
should be followed up by means of cards con- 
taining full information in regard to each 
article carried, so that it can be instantly lo- 
cated, and no goods should leave the room 
without an order suitably signed by both work- 
man and his foreman. Much could be written 
in detail of the card system alone, as applied to 
a stove foundry, but only the salient points 
can be touched upon here on account of lack 
of time. 

Proper design of goods before leaving the 
drafting board will often save time for all of 
the direct manufacturing departments and al- 
though thought is spent on ornamental de- 
sign, etc., practicability of ^nanufacture is 
sometimes overlooked. The draftsman can 
economize for the pattern makers and prevent 
mistakes by making a working drawing of 
each piece separately, although this is not gen- 
erally done. Detachable nickel and similar de- 
vices, when properly designed on the drafting 
board, can save labor in the polishing, nickel- 
ing, mounting and packing departments. 

Racks for castings should be carefully con- 
sidered and should be placed in the center of 
the building, or where the light is poorest, 
instead of around the walls near the windows, 
and in similar places of value for the most 
economical application of labor. 

Light is essential if labor is to be applied to 
best advantage and may be secured by as 
many windows as possible, rising from floor 
to ceiling with upper sashes of prism glass 
which must be kept clean. Proper ventilation 
and heating should be thought of, as labor 
always works to poor advantage in a vitiated 
atmosphere or improper temperature. 

The location of all raw material should also 
be studied with a view to storing it near its 
place of use. 

Systematic inspection of the plant once each 
month will discover defects in the building, 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



machinery, etc., which can then be repaired 
with less labor than at a later date. In this 
connection it should be remembered that 
"stitch in time saves nine" and proper care of 
buildings at the proper time will sooa pay for 
the labor incident to the maintenance of a 
separate department of repairs. Certainly not 
the least important of shop methods is the 
necessity of co-operation among all heads of 
departments. As much waste of labor can be 
caused by two departments pulling in different 
directions, harmony should be secured at any 
cost. We all know, too, how important is the 
arrangement of departments with reference to 
one another for economy in handling goods, 
and how, in making changes, consisting of new 
buildings, etc., immediate wants are often 
short-sightedly consulted rather than the re- 
quirements of the future. 

Lastly it should always be borne in mind 
that in these days of sharp competition the 
greatest saver of all, in labor, as in all other 
details of trade, is system. 



But few managers of manufacturing plants 
seem to have the proper ideas or take the 
proper course in the management of such 
plants. They fail to realize that they have it 
fully in their power to elevate the moral stand- 
ard of their workmen, and by so doing com- 
pletely overcome many of the annoyances and 
losses they are continually subjected to. 

Such as men failing to report for work, 
drunkenness among their employes, poor me- 
chanics, strikes, etc., and by so doing assure 
the success of their plants. 

They do not take advantage of the resources 
at their command to overcome these objec- 
tionable features in manufacturing plants, but 
take things as they find them. Wage a con- 
tinual warfare for the existence of the plant, 
and after years of struggling find themselves 
but little better off than when they began, 
which is due in many cases to the drinking 
habit of their workmen, strikes, etc., and the 
continuous warfare waged between employer 
and employe, and the lack of interest in the 
success of the plant by the latter. 

This should not and would not be the case 
if the management of every manufacturing 
plp.nt made it their aim to improve the morals 
0^ their workmen, by giving employment 
only to sober, industrious workmen, whose 
^'^ it was to own their own homes and 

raise their families in a respectable manner. 

Such men have an interest in the success of 
the plant, for if it fails their employment is 
gone and the value of their property is depre- 
ciated by the loss of its business to the town, 
and they would do everything in their power to 
prevent strikes and losses to the plant. 

A few such men among a shop full of men 
who have no interest in the success of the 
plant or town and are ready at any moment 
to pack their trunk or move their families, are 
helpless to effect these results, but let the shop 
be filled with them and the success of the 
plant is assured, so far as the workmen are 

It should be the aim of every manufacturing 
plant to elevate the mordl standard of their 
workmen, be they mechanics or laborers. This 
may be done by paying fair wages for amount 
of work done, and treating all workmen fairly. 
By doing so the plant is given a good name 
among workmen. Desirable workmen are at- 
tracted to it when seeking employment, and a 
better class of workmen may be obtained. 

Men who frequent saloons after working 
hours, or drink to excess after pay day, should 
be quietly called into the private office and in- 
formed that if they do not stop this their ser- 
vices will be no longer required. If this does 
not reform them discharge them at once. If 
they stop these habits for a short time and 
then fall back into them again give them an- 
other talking to and another chance. If this 
does not prove effective discharge them at once, 
and let it be understood that when you talk to 
a man in this way, you mean what you say. 
But do not make the mistake of trying to re- 
form him and others at the same time, by giv- 
ing him a temperance lecture before his fel- 
low workmen, for this humiliates him, rouses 
the .spirit of get-even, and only makes him and 
others worse. Do not try to enforce prohibi- 
tion, for the workman who only takes an occa- 
sional drink, is not objectionable. It is the 
man who frequents saloons, and induces others 
to drink, that demoralizes the working force of 
plants, by creating or spreading the drinking 
habit among them. Such men should be fer- 
reted out and promptly reformed or discharged, 
for such men may in a short time induce the 
greater part of his fellow workmen to fre- 
quent saloons during or after working hours. 

Do not have rules in reference to the drink- 
ing habit printed and hung up in or about the 
shop, for such habits should not be permitted 
among workmen of a shop and require no 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

Men who are constantly talking to other 
workmen and finding fault with working hours, 
tools, wages, foreman, management of the 
shop, etc., are mischief makers among work- 
men, and should be promptly discharged and 
quietly informed what they were discharged 
for. If this is done they will not be discharged 
from many plants before they learn to mind 
their own business and may become desirable 

The selection of apprentice boys is the most 
important point of all to be looked after, for 
from the apprentice boys come the mechanics 
of the future. If the apprentice boy belongs 
to a drinking family in which the filling of the 
beer kettle during the day or after working 
hours is considered one of the necessities of 
life, he, of course, contracts the drinking habit 
from his infancy, and cannot be made to see 
any harm in it, and when he becomes a me- 
chanic with money of his own frequents sa- 
loons and induces other young 'men of the shop 
to do the same, and when he marries, brings 
up the family in the same way. His sons may 
learn the father's trade with the same habits 
and in this way the drinking habit is perpet- 
uated among mechanics. 

If the boy is one of the bad boys or toughs 
of the town he may settle down during his 
apprenticeship and reform, but the chances are 
that he will find kindred spirits among the 
men of the shop for the management that 
would accept such a boy as an apprentice must 
have a poor opinion of the mechanics in the 
trade he is to learn, and may have a shop full 
of such men, and the chances are that he will 
retain his boyhood characteristics until late 
in life or even through life. In which case he 
is neither a desirable apprentice or mechanic, 
for he is sure to impart these characteristics to 
other workmen and make trouble for both em- 
ployer and workmen. 

Besides these objections the employment of 
such boys as apprentices has a demoralizing ef- 
fect upon the boys of the town, who are led to 
believe that no matter how bad or tough they 
are, when they get old enough they can become 
an apprentice at the manufacturing plant, learn 
a trade and earn good wages when men. And 
in some cases the inducement to become an 
apprentice is a desire of a boy to join the gang 
of toughs that are employed at the manufactur- 
ing plant. 

When a boy applies for an apprenticeship 
his family and history as a boy should be look- 
ed up. He should be required to belong to a 

good family, the father of which is a temperate, 
industrious man, and a good citizen. The boy 
should be required to be a graduate of a high 
school and to be known in the town as a good 
boy. If*these requisites are found to be satis- 
factory he should be put to work for a few 
weeks or months doing general work about 
the shop and if found satisfactory at this work 
made an apprentice. 

The managers of many manufacturing plants 
will no doubt say that these rules are all right, 
but that they cannot be carried out in their 
town for the good boys and the graduates of 
high schools are all brought up to be clerks, 
bookkeepers, etc., and to think it a disgrace 
to be a mechanic and only the rougher element 
of boys apply for the apprenticeship, or want 
to be mechanics. 

There is no doubt some truth in this asser- 
tion, but whose fault is it that they have been 
brought up in this way? No one's but the man- 
agement of these plants, for by employing 
workmen that frequent saloons every night and 
after every pay day are seen drunk and bois- 
terous on the streets, perhaps for days, have 
permitted the impression to be made on every 
sober and industrious father and mother in the 
town that to make their son an apprentice at 
the manufacturing plant was to consign him to 
a drunkard's grave. How different this would 
be if only sober, industrious men were em- 
ployed in manufacturing plants, whose aim 
it was to work steady, own their own homes 
and place themselves and families among the 
leading families of the town. The sons of the 
workmen would then, not only be desirable 
apprentices, which in many cases they are not 
at the present time, but the sons of the best 
families of the town would be taught that it 
is more profitable to become a mechanic than 
a clerk or bookkeeper, and the management 
of the manufacturing plant would have at their 
command the pick of the boys of the town for 
their apprentices, and could select only the 
brighter and more likely boys to become expert 
mechanics. Let these rules be adopted by 
every manufacturing plant in the country and 
the drinking mechanics will rapidly disappear, 
and in 20 years from now, when the appren- 
tices taken under this rule have become the 
mechanics, there will not be a drinking one 
among them. 

This system of managing working men and 
apprentices is no idle theory, for it has been 
tried in numerous plants and found to work 
well, for some 10 years ago when visiting some 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



foundry plants, foundrymen frequently com- 
plained to me that they could not get sober, 
industrious molders, ,and seldom run a full heat 
owing to their molders having been drinking 
at night and unfit for work the next day, and 
after pay day they were generally compelled to 
close down for one or two days. I outlined 
the foregoing system to them and it was at 
once adopted by a number of them. I had oc- 
casion to visit one of these foundries a few 
weeks ago in which were collected at that time 
as drunken a lot of molders as were prob- 
ably ever collected in a foundry. The major- 
ity of them only worked when out of money 
and credit to get drink. The foundry was 
idle about half the time, a full heat was seldom 
run, the firm was on the verge of bankruptcy 
and ready to try anything that promised an 
improvement to their condition and at once 
adopted this system. They first discharged 
every molder and closed up the foundry. They 
then advertised at distant points for molders, 
when a sufficient number was secured, the 
foundry was put in operation with an entire 
new force of molders. Each one of which 
was quietly given to understand that the fre- 
quenting of saloons and drinking habit would 
not be tolerated. 

The old molders who had families and re- 
mained in the town after being discharged 
were taken back after they had been idle a 
sufficient length of time to see the folly of 
what they had been doing. From that time on 
the foundry was a success and today is the 
leading industry of the town. The manager 
informed me that they had not had a strike 
or any trouble with their men since the system 
was adopted, although they had a union and 
the shop was run under strictly union rules, 
which he had not found to be objectionable, 
and, in fact, preferred to settle any dispute 
that arose with the shop committee to settling 
it with individual vsorkmen. 

They did not have a drinking molder in 
the foundry, many of whom were the leading 
men of the town and not only owned their 
own homes but other property besides. 

Now, if this system was a success in that 
plant, as it certainly proved to be, it can be 
made a success in any plant; for ten years 
ago they certainly had the worst lot of mold- 
ers I ever saw in a fr)undry. To make this 
system a success a limited amount of detective 
work should be done outside the plant and this 
should always be done by a man not employed 
in or about the plant, and only when a man 

fails to report for work or is found incompe- 
tent to do his work, from drinking, or is sure- 
ly known to be leading others in the shop to 
drink and injuring the reputation of the plant, 
by frequenting saloons, should he be talked to 
or discharged for the drinking habit. 


Under the above heading, I have read the 
very interesting article in the March issue of 
The Foundry, and consider what is said about 
the careful selection of the molding sands and 
the manner in which different molds should be 
dried, good practice, but in the third paragraph 
the writer states as follows: "Pouring the 
castings with dull iron is apt to give sounder 
castings than with very hot metal, as the latter 
keeps in disengaged gases which may be held 
under the skin." 

My experience teaches me that to produce a 
sound casting it must be poured hot, and the 
hotter the better. I hardly see any benefit in 
holding the gases spoken of under the skin of 
the casting, unless one was making brakeshoes 
or .sash weights, as in producing machinery 
castings the gas bubble, as I suppose we may 
term it, if there is such a thing in good iron, 
would be very likely brought to light, and the 
only way to satisfy consumers of castings is to 
strive to eliminate these defects instead of 
covering them up. 

Dull iron will produce a dirty casting in a 
clean mold, while hot iron will always make a 
clean casting in a clean mold. 

With reference to the fourth paragraph of 
this article, where the writer states, pouring 
from the bottom with whirl gates gives cleaner 
iron than top pouring, a fact readily seen in roll 
making. For the benefit of those not familiar 
with foundry practice, I wish to state that 
pouring from the bottom is not always pro- 
ductive of good results, while in the case of a 
roll it is undoubtedly the best method; but let 
us consider the questions of the cylinder bush- 
ings, laundry rolls and other cylindrical cast- 

It has been proven that the best results have 
been obtained by gating these molds on the top 
in preference to the bottom. With reference 
to the cutting action of the stream being severe 
when pouring from the bottom, will say that 
the wear on the mold is greater when gated 
at the bottom than when gated at the top. 

The fifth paragraph informs us that when we 
must have at least 2 percent of silicon and as 
little manganese as possible in our metal. I 

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June, 1905 

will r.gree to the 2 percent silicon but see no 
objection to the manganese, in fact, to produce 
iron with good wearing qualities I would pre- 
fer a pig iron ranging i to 2 percent manganese 
in a mixture with at least 60 percent machinery 
scrap regardless of silicon. While this mix- 
ture would not produce the softest castings, it 
would produce castings that could be machined 
easily and would wear well. In using a high 
manganese iron it is possible to carry more 
steel in the mixture without being troubled 
with shrinkage cracks. 

The writers object in criticising this article is 
simply to create more discussion on the sub- 
ject which may be instructive to other readers 
as well as himself. 

The gist of the article in question is con- 
trary to facts that have been demonstrated in 
my daily experience in the -foundry and if I am 
on the wrong track I want to know it. 

P. R. Ramp. 



This month I will show a machine casting 
mounted on two different types of molding 
machines, viz., a hand draft split pattern ma- 
chine and a drop pattern machine. The cast- 
ing under consideration is not a difficult piece 
to make or to fit up for one skilled in the art, 
but there are a number of points on it which to 
many will probably be rather puzzling. It will 
be noticed that the parting line drops and rises 


- — 


1 '.1 

1 i ' 

below or above the general parting line of the 
pattern in places, and this of course adds com- 
plications to fitting up the machine. 

When a machinist undertakes to mount a 
pattern he sees at once how to do the machin- 
ing of the stools, strippers, etc., but the making 
of a perfect match between the cope and drag 
in the case of an irregular parting will re- 
quire some special work. On the other hand, 
a molder would find less difficulty in this point, 
but would be lost when he came to do the 
necessary machine work, hence some knowl- 
edge of both arts is necessary in fitting up a 
molding machine. Of course there are other 
methods by which this pattern could be 
mounted and give good results, but the two 
methods shown serve to illustrate the fitting up 
of each class of machine. Frequently, after a 
skilled man has fitted up the job he will see 
some better method by which it might have 
been done, and it is only by practice in this 
line that the greatest amount of skill can be 

The mere drawing of a pattern through 
the stripper out of the sand does not always 
signify that the mold is all right, for you may 
find it impossible to remove the sand from the 
machine, especially when there is a large green 
sand core formed in the interior of the pattern. 
The weight of this core will sometimes be so 
great that the sand will stay on the strippers 
when the flask is lifted off. In such cases as 
this it becomes necessary to use nails or a 
crab for supporting the green sand core and 
binding it to the other parts so that it will 
lift properly. 

In the ordinary method of molding such a 
piece on the floor without a machine the large 
green sand core will be placed in the drag, 
where it would remain all right, but in all 
classes of molding machines except the roll 
over type, it is necessary to cope off both 
pieces, and one of them is then turned over 
for the drag. 

In mounting this casting upon a split pattern 
machine, it would of course first be necessary 
to determine the parting line and then split the 
pattern on that line. 

The pattern shown in Fig. i may be mounted 
on a machine, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The 
drag portion of the mold is shown in Fig. 2, 
the section being taken through the pattern. 

It will be noticed that about the center of 
the pattern there is a projection which ex- 
tends below the general parting line as shown 
at A-i and also at the point T, there is a place 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 





where the parting line rises above the general 
surface of the plate Q. 

A forming block must be made of the same 
size and shape as the cavity at A-i, which 
corresponds to the projection at C, Fig. 3. A 
stripper must also be made of the form shown 
at D, Fig. 3. This stripper fits up against the 
face of the pattern at C so as to bring the 
parting line to the proper point above the 
pattern plate L. The location of pattern D, 
Fig. 3, should be determined by laying out 
the center lines upon the plate L, placing the 
. pattern in its proper relationship to these, and 
securing it to the plate by means of screws, the 
pattern being made of iron. The outline of 
the pattern V should be scribed on the plate 
L, the pattern removed and the strippers about 
the portion B carefully laid out, one of these 
being shown at K. The general outline of the 
strippers K and D are shown by dotted lines 
about the pattern in Fig. i. The place for the 
strippers in the plate L must be cut down to a 
depth of J'4 inch. This can be done very ad- 
vantageously upon a vertical milling machine. 
The stripper K is made out of sheet brass 
shaped to fit the cavity which it is to fill. On 
the upper surface of the stripper K the piece 
D is secured. First, however, it will be nec- 
essary to secure the stool S-8 in place. It will 
be noticed that the strippers are carried upon 
the stools S-8, S-9, S-io and S-ii. These 
stools are made from pieces of i-inch cold 
rolled shafting turned down so that the bodies 
^re y^ inch in diameter. They should all be 

of the same length. The deep pocket C, Fig. 
3, can be cast in the plate, as can also the 
pocket A- 1, Fig. 2. After the plate L is fin- 
ished all over, the pattern A, Fig. 2, can be 
carefully located in the center of its plate. 
As this pattern extends a long way into the 
drag, it would be well to arrange stripping 
plates along all of the straight surfaces, as 
shown at Q. 

The inside of the large end would also be 
provided with a stripper which would follow 
from the inside around both ends until it runs 
into the pocket A-i. Stripper D, Fig. 3 is the 
most difficult one to form, as its upper surface 
must also act as part of the pattern. This 
stripper is made about % of an inch wide, % 
of an inch thick, and the end that comes in 
contact with the edge of the pattern must con- 
form to the exact outline of the pattern. After 
the stripper D is in place the recess A-L in 
Fig. 2 is cut about J4 "ich deeper than the 
form D, Fig. 3, would require. The recess 
for the stripper Q is also cut by the milling 
machine. In fact, stools must be provided for 
these strippers to hold them rigidly when the 
work is resting upon them. The part P, Fig. 
2, must also be built up and secured to the 
stripper plates, as shown in Fig., 2, The pat- 
terns are then removed from the plates and a 
hole at least J4 inch in diameter drilled 
through the plate L-i opposite the bottom of 
the hole A-i. Several small holes must also 
be drilled in the bottom of the hole A-i and 
nails driven into them so that their heads 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

project a little less than %• of an inch. Care 
must be taken to see that when the two plates 
are placed together none of the nails touch the 
blocks C and D on the plate L, Fig. 3. The 
two plates are then placed together face to 
face, clamped in position and some Babbitt 
metal run in through a J4 inch hole opposite 
A- 1, in plate L-i in Fig. 3. When cold, the 
plates arc separated, when it will be found 
that the Babbitt forms a perfect match from 
the projections C and D in Fig. 3. In like 
manner the opening at G, Fig. 3, is babbitted 
to fit the projection P, Fig. 2. 

Now, as both the cope and the drag patterns 
have been completed, it is necessary to make 
the gate and the sprue as shown in Fig. 3, 
which completes the mounting of the piece 
upon a split pattern machine. 

To mount this piece upon a drop pattern 
machine, the drag section of the pattern must 
be .split on the same parting line decided upon 
for the previous method. The general ar- 
rangement of mounting for this style of ma- 
chine is shown in Fig. 4. The pattern is to 
drop down through the plate M-S. For this 
reason it is necessary to add extra material on 
the lower face of the pattern to build up the 
space between the plate L-2 and the upper 
surface of the plate M-5. For a short dis- 
tance, usually about }i inch below the surface 
of the plate M-S, the pattern is made full size, 
but below this point it is reduced or cut back 

% of an inch all around, so as to reduce the 
amount of surface to be removed by filing. 
When the wood patternmaker is fitting up the 
drag pattern A-3, Fig. 4, he should cut the 
groove A- 1 in the pattern for the stool strip- 
per*;, provided it is decided to use these. 

Thc-e strippers are used when it is desired 
to make absolutely certain of the strippings of 
this portion of the pattern. In many cases, 
however, these portions of the pattern are 
simply given ample draft and the sand lifted 
without the aid of strippers. 

The patternmaker should also cut the pocket 
A-2 for babbitting purposes. The plate M-5 
is made rather heavy with the rim 1% inches 
thick about the outside and beveled as shown. 
The center of the plate is ^ inch thick and at 
the stripping edge it is cut back J4 of an inch 
to within J/} of an inch of the upper surface. 
The poitits corresponding to A-2 and P-i in 
the plates for this method are babbitted as in 
the case already described. 

It will also be necessary to make the plate 
L-2 for supporting the pattern A-3. This is 
called the pattern plate and is about one inch 
thick upon the outside edge and J^ inch thick 
in the center. Directly beneath the surface of 
the pattern a pad ^ of an inch high is cast for 
supporting the pattern. Of course, the neces- 
sary' finish must be allowed on the wooden pat- 
terns to provide for finishing all surfaces, 
which require machining. If stools are to be 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



used for the part O-i, Fig. 4, it will be neces- 
sary to make a pattern and from it a casting 
for the required stool plate. 

After the castings are received from the 
foundry, they are machined to the proper 
thickness and then center lines laid out on the 
plate M-5. From these lines the pattern A-3 
is located. The flask pins and bushings are 
also located as shown in Fig. 4. It is also nec- 
essary to drill the screw holes for clamping the 
plate M-5 to the drop of the molding machine. 
The pattern A-3 is secured to the plate M-5, 
and after the base of the pattern A-3 has been 
machined to shape it is laid on the plate M-5 
true with the center lines and its outline 
scribed.- The edges of the opening in M-5 are 
then filed or milled to the proper form. 

If stools are to be used for stooling at the 
portion A-i, they are made as described in 
connection with the other style of machine. 
The babbitting for points A-2 and P-i is also 
done in the manner already described. The 
plate M-5 is secured to the machine and the 
plate L-2 secured in position and located by 
dowel pins. The pattern is slipped through the 
plate M-5 on to the plate L-2, its location 
marked out and it is then secured to the plate 
L-2 by screws, three being usually sufficient. 
Care should also be taken to see that the flask 
pin holes are in line with the holes in the lugs 
on the movable yoke of the machine. The 

pins and bushings P-2 and Z-i, Fig. 4, are 
fitted into place as shown in Fig. 3. The 
short pin D-3 is placed on one side as shown 
in Fig. 3. This method of placing flask pins 
allows them to be stripped as the pattern is. 
The advantage of this will readily be appre- 
ciated by any one who has had experience in 
molding machine operations. The cope plate 
and pattern are equipped in a manner similar 
to the drag pattern. 

The flask for this job can be made either of 
wood or iron, and the same flask will work on 
either type of machine. The flask pin fittings 
arc special fittings made for the molding ma- 
chine, the general style being shown in the 
sectional views, Figs. 2 and 4. The projection 
R-r serves as a lifting handle for the flask. 

The difference between the split pattern and 
the drop pattern machines is that in the split 
pattern machines three special plates L-i, X 
and Y, Fig. 2, and four posts N for connect- 
ing the stool plate with the plate X are re- 
quired. When using the split pattern machine 
it is lowered four inches or more according to 
the draft of the machine. When stripping the 
pattern from the sand, the crank at the side 
of the machine is pulled over toward the 
front, causing the stool plate to rise, carrying 
the plate X with it, which strips the pins and 
leaves the flask as shown in Fig. 5. The stools 
I, 2, 3 and 5 rise up through the pattern A. 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

which sets down on the pattern plate. The 
cavity in the mold is indicated by the dotted 

To make a mold on these two styles of ma- 
chines, the followinp^ procedure is necessary. 
First, on the split pattern machine, the drag, 
Fig. 2, is lowered, bringing the plate X to its 
proper position by means of the operating 
handle. The plates should all rest as shown 
in Fig. 2, especial care being taken to see that 
the flask is down on the top of the plate X. 
The flask is filled with sand, rammed and 
struck off in the usual manner. With the lever 
at the side of the machine the plate X is lifted 
up, as shown in Fig. 5. The drag is then lifted 
off and set on the floor. The cope is treated 
in the same manner, the sprue being formed 
either by cutting it with a tubular .sprue cutter 
or by means of a regular sprue pattern, as 
shown in T'ig. 3. In the case of the second 
type of machine shown in Fig. 4, the molding 
machine handle is thrown so as to bring the 
yoke into its highest position. The flask is 
then filled with sand, rammed, struck off, and 
the pattern A-3 drawn from the sand by 
stripping it down over the plate M-5 by means 
of the handle at the side of the molding ma- 
chine. The stop nut on the machine is so ad- 
justed that when the top of the pattern A-3 is 
flush with the part M-5, the parts will be 

brought to rest. After the drag has been 
formed it is lifted off and set on the floor, and 
the cope formed in the same manner. 

It is evident that to mount this piece as 
shown in Fig. 4 requires a new plate M-5 for 
every job, while the machine shown in Fig. 2 
requires a new pattern plate L-i. The form 
shown in Fig. 4 also requires a new pattern 
plate L-2 for every job, while the stool plate 
shown in Fig. 2 will generally fit several dif- 
ferent jobs on the split pattern machine shown 
in Figs. 2 and 3. It is not necessary to drill 
the flask pin holes in all the plates for the 
machine, which reduces the work consider- 
ably. The mounting of the patterns in 
plates like those shown at L-i, with 
the use of small strippers on the ends 
of stools is usually cheaper than the ex- 
pensive strippers M-5 required in connection 
with the form shown in Fig. 4. When a ver- 
tical milling machine is at hand, the cost of 
equipping the split pattern machines can be 
brought down to a very reasonable figure. It 
is true that not all patterns can be mounted 
to advantage on a split pattern machine and 
that the first cost of installation of a split pat- 
tern machine is very much greater than the 
other, but as a rule this will soon be made up 
by the saving in pattern expense so that in the 
long run the split pattern type will be found 

Digitized by 


June, igo5 



cheaper for general work. The split pattern 
type of machine can also bg used in connec- 
tion with an air ramming device, which will 
greatly increase the output. The piece shown 
in Fig. I, mounted with a 12 by 18 flask on a 
Paxson-Hall machine could be molded by an 
average man at the rate of from 20D to 250 
molds in eisrht hours. 


Inquiry. — In the April number of The Foun- 
dry, on page 65, I read with great interest Mr. 
Wooden's remarks on "Shot Iron." 

This innocent and apparently "Not-worth- 
while-to-bothcr-with" subject is of very substan- 
tial importance, and the vast sums that have 
been lost by neglecting it during past years is 

Mr. Wooden does not state what his use and 
treatment of the drop from the cupola wai 
before the insertion of the Sly mill. It will 
be of great interest to me to know this, and I 
believe many other readers of The Foundry 
will also be interested. Please ask Mr. Wood- 
en to advise us whether he **handpicked" any 
pieces of iron from the drop before it was 
thrown on the dump, and if so, about how 
much iron was recovered daily by such hand- 
picking. In other words, we would like to 
know the amount of the net gain by use of the 
Sly mill. It is fair to say to all concerned 
that the writer is a great believer in the Sly 
mill, and has secured from friends some sur- 
prisingly good results by the use of these 
mills. The more data that can be brought to 
light on this subject the better for all con- 
cerned, and especially for the people who are 
responsible for foundry results. 

W. S. Morehouse. 

In the April issue of The Foundry, I per- 
haps did not make myself as plain as I 
should have done. In our old foundry, some 
two or three years ago, we used to rattle 
our cupola drop in one of our common stave 
casting mills getting some 600 to 800 lb.; 
heats about 20 tons per day. When we moved 
into our new place we were short on casting 
mills to clean our castings, so it was thouglit 
best (?) and cheapest to "hand pick" the 
drop; so it was hauled to the dump and one 
man put in about }i of a day picking it over 
and rolling it over the bank, this after it had 
been somewhat picked over at the cupola. 

My heart sank within me as I walked about 
the dump occasionally "hand picking" it my- 

self. This hand picking at the dump bringing 
in about 300 to 500 lb. per day — heats about 
30 tons. Then came the installation of the 
Sly mill. The first six days of running the 
mill show the following weights of good clean 
shot iron: ist day, 1,570 lb.; 2nd, 2,197; 3rd, 
1,825; 4th, 1,638; 5th, 1.677; 6th, Saturday, 
(eight hours) 1,-140. This shows about 1,000 
to 1. 203 net gain for the cinder mill at a cost 
of about $1.25 per day for operating the mill. 

Am now picking nothing from the dump at 
the cupola but pigs and large clean scrap, 
hurrying the drop to the mill and getting 
clean shot iron about one ton per day. Heats 
are now running about 26 to 27 tons per day. 

Would be glad to answer any question that 
I can or help any one in the advancement of 
the foundry business. 

P. M. Wooden. 


At the annual meeting of the Iron and Steel 
Institute held in London, May il, 1905, a 
Carnegie Research Scholarship of $500 was 
awarded to Henry Cook Boynton, instructor 
in Metallurgy and Metallography in Harvard 
University. Mr. Boynton is the third Amer- 
ican to be successful in obtaining this highly 
prized scholarship, two Columbia University 
men having received it in the past. Mr. 
Boynton was born in Plymouth 30 years ago 
and was educated in the schools of that city. 
In i8g6 he entered Harvard University and 
received his A. B. degree in 1900, his S. M. 
degree in 1901 and his S. D. degree in 1904- 
His thesis for the doctor's degree dealt with 
the "Relation between the Treatment, Struc- 
ture and Properties of Steel." Mr. Boynton 
has devoted considerable time to research 
work, mainly in the metallography of iron and 
steel, and has written several papers on the 
subject. The present scholarship will make it 
possible for him to carry on these investiga- 
tions in the metallurgical laboratory of Har- 
vard University. 

The R. Watt Machine Works, Ridgetown, 
Canada, have been incorporated with a capital 
of $50,000. The company will conduct a foun- 
dry and machine, boiler and agricultural im- 
plement shop. 

The Smith Stacker & Feeder Co., Hamilton, 
Ontario, has been incorporated with a capital 
of $40,000. The company will manufacture 
agricultural implements and carry on a gen- 
eral foundry business. 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 


Devoted to inquiries from Practiad Poundryraen or. 
subjects relatinir to the Melting and Using of Cost Iron. 
Steel, Brass and Bronze. 

Tlie following experts answer questions in thli 
department : 

W. J. Keep. Cast Iron. 

J. B. Nau, Metallurgy of Steel and Steel Castings. 

Dr. Richard Moldenke, Malleable Castings. 

C. Vickers, Brass Castings. 

We have also nude arrangements with several others 
to act as special contributors upon Brass, Bronze and 
other subjects. All inquiries should be addressed to 
the Editor of THE FOUNDRY, and they wiU then be 
forwarded to those in charge of the different subjects. 



Strength of a l>inch Test Bar. 

We have in our establishment one of our 
testing machines for breaking J'2 in. square by 
12 in. cast iron bars. 

In one of our heats this week the average 
shrinkage was .154 in. per foot and the break- 
ing strength equaled 485 lbs. 

Am I right in assuming that a testbar from 
the same iron i in. square and 12 in. long is 
equal to 1,940 lbs. 

Ans^ver. — If a y^ in. square bar was rela- 
tively no stronger than i in. square bar you 
would have 480 X 8 = 3,883 lbs. but the slower 
cooling weakens the one inch bar and for this 
reason you cannot use any formula. If you 
will look at Vol. XXV p. 899 of Transactions 
of the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers you will find my charts for making this 
computation. By chart Fig. 450 you will find 
that a shrinkage of .154 in. of a J/2 in. test bar 
indicates 2.20 percent of silicon. Now turn to 
page 901 and table i gives a divisor for a J^ 
in. square bar with 22% silicon of .1683 as 
2.20% is yi less than the diflFerence between 
2.00 and 2.25% and .1683 — 1648 = 35. Ys of 
35 --- 7, .T683 — 7 = 1676. 

485 -^ .1676 r= 2894 the strength of a bar one 
inch square from the same iron as the 14 in. 
square bar 480 is a very high strength. 

To Increase Capacity of Cupola. 
Our cupola has a round shell 40 in. outside 
and lined to 34 inches diameter. There are 
eight tuyeres 2 inch high and eight inches wide. 
The distance from the top of the sand bed to 
the bottom of the tuyeres is 7 inches. We 
blow with a No. 8 Sturtcvant blower having a 
12 in. outlet reduced to a 10 in. pipe which is 
85 feet long with three rather short bends. 

This lo-in. pipe then branches into two 6-in, 
pipes with quite short curves which enter the 
wind belt of the cupola. There are two 4-in. 
pipes leading from the 6-in. pipes entering the 
cupola 12 inches above the tuyeres. We weigh 
all charges. The bed consists of 400 lbs. Le- 
high broken coal and 400 lbs. of Connellsville 
72-hour coke = 800 lbs. We then charge 2,500 
lbs of iron and then three charges consisting 
of 100 lbs. of coal and 100 lbs of coke and 
2.500 lbs. of iron. This makes 1,400 lbs. of fuel 
and 10,000 lbs. of iron a melting ratio of a little 
better than 7 to i. We melt from 2^ tons to 
2}i tons per hour. 

W^c cannot give the blast pressure but the 
fan is too large for the cupola and we run it 
at a high speed. 

We wish to increase the size of our melt in 
the same time that we now use and we also 
wish to be able to make heavier castings. We 
propose to increase the distance from the top 
of the sand bed to the bottom of the tuyeres by 
adding to the lower end of the cupola. We 
would like to know if this is the right thing to 
do and whether you would suggest other 

Ansivcr. — As it takes 30,000 cu. ft. of air to 
melt a ton of iron your No. 8 fan can supply 
air enough to melt over 12 tons per hour if you 
had a cupola lined to 60 inches. For your cu- 
pola the TO-in. pipe is plenty large enough even 
with short bends. Your tuyeres are large 
enough but I would change the shape at the 
inside end to 3 in. x 8 in. and at the end 
against the shell 2^2 in. x 7^ in. and keep the 
upper surface level. If the openings in the 
shell are 2 in. x 8 in. plenty of air will be ad- 
mitted. Eight tuyere openings 2 in. x 7^ in. 
would give 120 sq. in. area. The lo-in. blast 
pipe has only 78 sq. in. area. 

Your two six inch pipes have only 58 sq. 
inch area and on account of curves — valves 
and contracted entrances into the wind belt it 
is not enough. While you are about it I would 
use 8-inch pipes from the lo-inch pipe to the 
cupola and if it is necessary to flatten the pipes 
when they enter the wind belt increase the size 
at that point so as to get a total inlet area of 
103 sq. inches. 

You can add as much as you think best to 
the bottom of your cupola, making the dis- 
tance from the bottom of rhe tuyeres to the 
sand bottom 18 in. or 24 in. or even more. 

The deeper you make it the more melted 
iron it will hold but the larger will be your 
fuel bed and the less your melting ratio. 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



You should at once purchase a pressure 
gauge that will register 18 ounces and change 
the speed of your fan so that your highest 
pressure during a heat shall be 14 oz. or 16 oz. 
I would give up the use of coal as soon as 
you have made the change, also stop up the 
upper 4-in. tuyeres. 

Take a ^^-in. bar of iron and bend two 
feet at one end at a right angle then lower it 
down through the charging door until the 
horizontal part is toward the center and 18 
inches above the top of the tuyeres, mark the 
point when the rod touches the bottom of the 
charging door and bend the upper part out so 
that the rod will hang in the door and the 
lower end project towards the center of the 
cupola. Start your fire two hours before you 
want the iron done and put on say 500 lbs. of 
coke. When the coke begins to be quite red 
on top and you are sure that the wood is all 
burned out charge on enough coke so that the 
lower end of the bent rod will lie on it when 
the upper end rests on the door sill. Weigh 
the coke that is left of the 1,200 lbs. and you 
have the weight of your regular coke charge. 
The first day I would throw on about 4 in. 
more coke. Now charge 2,500 lbs. of iron 
placing the pig iron uniformly over the coke 
and breaking the scrap so that no piece will be 
larger than a pig and that no spaces shall be 

The first day I would make the regular 
charges 200 lbs. of coke and 2,000 lbs. of iron 
and about 25 lbs. of oyster shells. Next day 
if 3'our iron was hot at the start you can use 
the regular bed charge and afterwards per- 
haps you can decrease it. You can also de- 
crease the regular coke charge. 

The more coke you take off the faster you 
will melt, but don't take off more than 10 or 
20 lbs. of coke at a time. 

When you get the coke charges as small as 
you can without dull iron, you might increase 
your blast a little and you will have reached 
the limit of your cupola. 

In charging your cupola you had better place 
a slag hole in the rear about four inches be- 
low the bottom of the tuyeres and increase 
the oyster shells if needed to make the slag 
fluid. If you keep the slag below the tuyeres 
you can run the cupola a much longer time 
without the slag becoming chilled. 

Your next change would be a cupola 72-in. 
shell and lined to 54 inches. The third change 
would be a 6o-in. lining and a change to a 12 
in. or i6-in. pipe with long bends. 




Inquiry: — "We are experiencing a good 
deal of trouble with the cores we use in our 
brass foundry, which in some places are 
%-\n, thick and others i^-in. thick, on ac- 
count of blow holes. The cores are all 
shaped and made in halves and then pasted 
together before they are dry. The paste wc 
use is a mixture of boiled water and rye 

Answer: — Do you vent these cores? 
What mixture of sand do you use? "Flour 
sand" is very apt to blow when used on 
small cores for brass castings. If you have 
been using it, change, and try linseed oil or 
a core compound. If the cores are too 
small to vent as in the case of the J^-in. 
core, use glue for a binder in your sand, 
and mix only a little at a time. The trouble 
with the lyi-in, cores is probably caused by 
using too much paste and allowing it to 
close up the vent. If you have your vents 
clean and do not allow the metal to enter 
them i54-in. cores ought never to blow. 




M. E. writes us again on the above subject. 
In making up his estimated costs, he bases 
them on the established cost of the Tropenas 
Process, which is 1.50c, adds a molding cost 
of ic a lb. Then estimates the other foundry 
and general expenses to be from three-quar- 
ters to one cent a lb. more. Thus his cost 
price conies out to be three and one quarter to 
three and one-half cents a lb. Naturally M. 
E.'s selling price would have to be higher. 

In reply we would say that the Tropenas 
Process is a very good but expensive steel 
process, and not used for malleable castings, 
except in an experimental way, in Europe, as 
we have heard. The cost of metal in the ladle 
for malleable castings should not be over ic a 
lb. with present pig iron prices. Molding cost 
will vary from one-half to three-quarters of a 
cent per lb. and the other foundry expenses 
depend on many things. It is these things 
which enable a firm to produce either at 2c a 
lb. or far above it. 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

The figures above should not be taken to 
mean that foundrymen should ask for low 
prices — far from it — but that the costs should 
be closely watched, and if much above what I 
have given as the selling prices in the May 
issue of the Foundry, the proper inquiries in- 
stituted and corrections applied. 

M. E. further gives some interesting figures 
on tests with malleable cast iron. The tension 
tests will be understood by every one. The 
torsional test is a rare one for malleable cast- 
ings. No test on malleable, however, gives 
more striking results when made in the shop. 
For instance, every display of twisted and bent 
malleable castings contains a large wrench 
with several turns made in the body. This 
looks beautiful, but does not mean much, as 
the actual bend per inch of length is really 
very small. In the test given below, it is in- 
teresting to note the number of pounds it took 
to twist the specimen through the given angle 
in the given length. 


specimen approximately sound as cast, 
not machined: Mean diameter of speci- 
men, I in.; ultimate strength, 36,600 lbs. 
per sq. in.; coefficient of elasticity, 27,800,- 
000 per sq. in.; elongation in length of 8 ins., 


Mean diameter of specimen, .72 in.; tor- 
sional strength, 2,550 in. lbs.; amount of 
twist in II ins., 252°. 


Distance to center of bearings, 13 in.; 
depth of section, 4.01 in.; thickness of web, 
.32 in.; equal flanges, each 1.96 in. wide x 
.253 in. thick; moment of inertia of section, 
4.4691; between central loads of 8,500 lbs. 
and 18,500 lbs. the increment of deflection 
was found to be .002 in. per increment of 
1,000 lb. of load; between these limits co- 
efficient of rigidity, 5,121,000 lb. ; skin stress 
point of rupture, 48,000 lb. 


Under a load of 150,000 lb. increase in area 
more than 25%. 

It is difficult to comment on these figures ex- 
cept for the tensile test, as the transverse test 
has been made on a .specimen unusual in shape 
for testing purposes. I would consider the 
tensile strength somewhat low. For the speci- 
men in question, it .should run about 40,000 lbs. 
upward, with an elongation equally as good as 
the one given. 

If M. E. would use the test bars current in 

America for malleable castings purposes, we 
could give him a better opinion on the matter. 
Our method, as standardized by the American 
Society for Testing Materials, is to use a one- 
inch square test bar, the tensile strength of 
which shall exceed 40,000 lbs. per square inch, 
with an elongation of not less than 2j/^ percent, 
measured in 2 in. The transverse test of the 
same sized bar (this being broken on supports 
12 in. apart), shall show a strength of not less 
than 3,000 lbs. with a deflection of at least Yt 
in. before yielding. 

I will add that these standards are those cur- 
rent for the ordinary grade of good malleable 
castings. Specially good iron runs much bet- 
ter. For instance, I have made thousands of 
tons of malleable castings, the tensile strength 
of which never ran below 50,000 lbs. per 
square inch, and the transverse strength at the 
same time running nearer 4,000 lbs. with a de- 
flection of over one inch, in fact sometimes 
nearer 2^ inches. This metal, however, re- 
quires the closest of attention, and a capacity 
for enormous production with high class fur- 
naces and materials. 


G. A. B. writes calling attention to the 
fact that published analyses give silicon 
ranging as high as 1.33% in good malleable 
castings, while this department has quoted 
0.45 as the best composition. The answer 
is that the best quality of malleable cast- 
ings depends upon the state of the carbon 
in the metal before it goes into the anneal- 
ing oven. Now the state of the carbon is 
a function of not only the silicon content, 
the temperature of the pour, but also of the 
thickness of the casting. The physical 
structure of a piece of "malleable" just as 
it is taken from the sand should be such that 
on breaking, the fracture is crystalline 
white, with a few spots of mottling notice- 
able on close observation. Where much 
steel is added to the mixture, even these 
spots should not be there, but on the other 
hand not the slightest signs of gas holes in 
the rim of the casting should appear either. 
Now to get this structure in the iron as it 
comes from the sand, the composition of 
the bath, so far as silicon is concerned, must 
be regulated carefully in connection with 
the thickness of the castings to be made. 
Thus, take the heavy malleable casting, re- 
quiring at the same time the very best quai- 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



ity of metal, sach as was formerly used for 
the malleable **car coupler." Here 0.45 sili- 
con gave just the desired structure for the 
metal which ran up to 15^ in. in thickness 
in some places. All lighter castings made 
with the same metal were also good, though 
for very light work, requiring much time to 
pour, metal with so low a silicon content 
will give trouble. For lighter work, it is 
found that the silicon can be increased con- 
siderably, and yet hold the carbon, which 
means the fracture of the white iron just 
as wanted. Hence for the general run of 
railroad work, where the metal is no thicker 
than five-eighths of an inch, the silicon con- 
tent should be 0.65. Were this iron with 
0.65 silicon cast into work of i^ in. the re- 
sulting fracture of the broken iron would 
approach grayness, with resulting ruin of 
the metal in annealing it. Carrying out the 
argument further, for very thin castings, the 
silicon can be run up to i.oo and even 
higher and yet leave the metal, as it comes 
from the sand, white and of good structure 
for perfect anneal. But if this metal were 
cast into thicker pieces, they would come 
out rotten from the annealing oven. 

Where, therefore, an analysis shows 1.33 
silicon, it refers either to very light castings, 
or else the metal was not of good quality. 
G. A. B. states that a well-known concern 
near Detroit makes castings with 0.80 sili- 
con. This is all right, as that well-known 
concern makes castings of which several 
hundred often go to the pound. It is the 
section of the casting which requires the 
proper silicon, and this once correct for the 
heaviest thickness, is all right for anything 
lighter that can be run with the same metal. 

G. A. B. further gives an analysis of 
"malleable" before and after annealing, ask- 
ing if it is good. Here it is: 

Silicon in the hard 0.80, annealed 0.80 

Sulphur in the hard 0.09, '* 0.09 

Phosphorus in the hard. . .0.16, " 0.16 

Manganese in the hard 0.30 " 0.30 

Comb. Carbon in the hard. 2.40 

Graphite " 2.25 

The carbons of the above do not count for 
anything, as only the total carbon of the 
hard casting is reliable, the combined car- 
bon and the graphite of the hard as well as 
annealed casting varying so much from skin 
to interior, that an analysis is correct only 
for the particular spot the sample is taken 
from, and not for the rest of the metal. In 

the above the sulphur will be noted at once 
as entirely too high. Good malleable should 
not run over 0.05. However, for very or- 
dinary castings it will pass, but too much 
must not be expected from them. The man- 
ganese is also a little high for the casting. 
I would rather have it below 0.20 in the 

G. A. B. asks for information concerning 
the change in composition due to annealing. 

The melting loss is about 0.35 for silicon, 
the sulphur gains o.oi, and with bad coal 
may increase as much as and over that 
even, for the air furnace. With the open 
hearth, and with the best coal in the air 
furnace, the increase of sulphur and phos- 
phorus should be only that of concentra- 
tion, the bath shrinking in weight some 8 
to 14 percent during melting. The total 
carbon drops, of course, but were better 
lowered by adding steel scrap than by re- 
fining out the carbon as in the steel process 
of the open hearth. Metal below 2.75 in 
total carbon gives trouble in the anneal. 

G. A. B. finally asks if an iron made in 
Sweden with the following composition can 
be used for malleable castings: Silicon, 
2.33; sulphur, 0.017; phosphorus, 0.043; 
manganese, 0.97. Not alone, but with other 
irons low in silicon and manganese, this 
iron should give excellent results. Irons 
which will give a mixture as follows with the 
above iron should do very well. Silicon 
from 0.95 to 1.30, depending upon the class 
of work; sulphur not over 0.04; phosphorus 
not over 0.175, and manganese not over 

Mr. W. G. Austin, of St. Joseph, Mo., has 
arranged to sell his foundry to B. W. Kyle, 
of the same city, and Mr. Kyle is planning to 
manufacture his washing machine on a large 
scale, running the foundry to its full capacity. 

The Tallerday Steel Pipe & Tank Co., of 
Waterloo and Lemars, la., the Tallerday Mfg. 
Co., of Dolgeville, Cal, and the Kelly Foundry 
& Machine Co., of Goshen, Ind., have effected 
a consolidation by which the Kelly firm be- 
comes financially interested in the Tallerday 
plants and by which shipments to fill orders 
will be made from whichever plant can handle 
the work to the greatest advantage. 

Emilo Gutierrez expects to establish a foun- 
dry in the city of Guadalajara, Mexico, which 
will cost about $70,000. 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 


Philadelphia Foundrymen's Association. 

Howard Evans, Secretary, care J. W. Paxson CJo. 

The 147th meeting of the Philadelphia Foun- 
drymen's Assopiation was held at the Manu- 
facturers' Club, 1409 Walnut street, Philadel- 
phia, on Wednesday evening. May 3, President 
Thomas Devlin occupying the chair. The sec- 
retary reported a balance in the treasury on 
April 5 of $2,190.12, and on May 3, $2,081.87, 
all bills being paid. 

A letter was read from the American Foun- 
drymen*s Association in reference to the con- 
vention to be held in New York City on June 
6, 7 and 8, inviting the Philadelphia Associa- 
tion to be present and to bring foundry friends 
to the meeting. 

A communication from the chief of the Bu- 
reau of Manufactures, Washington, asking for 
general trade information, was referred to the 
executive committee. 

Secretary Evans stated that at the June 
meeting the members would have the pleasure 
of hearing an address by a lady representative 
of the National Civic Federation. 

The address of the evening was made by 
J. S. Robeson, of Philadelphia, who discussed 
"Some Core Binder Troubles." He referred 
to the various kinds of sands used in making 
cores, but particularly dwelt upon the binder 
and the characteristics it should have to pro- 
duce the best results. The effect upon the 
efficiency of the binder produced by a change 
in sand was referred to and the speaker con- 
sidered that many binders had been unjustly 
condemned because of variable results that had 
accompanied changes in sand. The paper in 
many of its features covered the same ground 
as the one which Mr. Robeson presented be- 
fore the Pittsburg Foundrymen's Association 
at its February meeting. The speaker exhib- 
ited various samples of sand in use in foun- 
dries in Canada and the districts east of Pitts- 
burg. The lantern slides were presented show- 
ing three cores: one made with rosin as a 
binder, another with a liquid binder, and a 
third with a dry binder. The paper was dis- 
cussed at considerable length, particularly by 
foundry foremen present. 

New England Foundrymen's Association. 

Fred F. Stockwell, Secretary, care of the Barljour- 
Stockwell Co., Oambridgeport, Mass. 

The regular monthly meeting of the New 

England Foundrymen's Association was held 

at the Exchange Club, Boston, on Wednesday. 

May 10, at 5 p. m,, Vice President W. B. Snow 
in the chair. The routine business was dis- 
posed of in the usual manner and applications 
for membership were received from the United 
States Graphite Co., Saginaw, Mich., and Jo- 
seph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, N. J. 
They were unanimously elected. 

The chair appointed Messrs. Miller and 
Stockwell as a committee to look up the mat- 
ter of transportation to the annual convention 
of the American Foundrymen's Association to 
be held in New York City on June 6, 7 and 8. 

The quiz topics arranged for discussion were 
then taken up. Below are given some of the 
questions and answers: 

Ques. What is the best and cheapest method 
for melting brass and bronze castings? 

Ans. We use a Schwartz furnace and melt 
a ton of clean castings for less than a ton of 
coal. We do not have any trouble and our 
crucibles are good. We do not have trouble 
with blow holes any more than anybody else, 
and our percentage is not so great. We use a 
very light gate. We pour our machine work 
just the same as iron. 

Ques. Do you use an oil furnace? 

Ans. We do not think we could use an oil 
furnace and get out the work we do. 

Ans. For our work we think the old cruci- 
ble furnaces are better. We use a gas furnace 
for white metal and aluminum. With our gas 
furnace we melt aluminum alloy with 90 per- 
cent aluminum. We carry 15 molders all on 
piece work. The gas furnace we find is very 
easy to handle and it is very clean. 

Ques. What is the best method for molding 
brass and bronze castings? 

Ans. We are making considerable work on 
the molding machine. We get quite a good 
size gate of small work in a flask 10 x 18 for 
2J/2C per mold. On core work in the same size 
flask wc pay 3^c per mold, and for a flask 
that has 50 cores, 5c per mold. Our loose work 
is very difficult. That is, the general run of 
electrical work is crooked and we pay 9^c. 
Our work is all piece work, and it must be 
perfect, first-class work. 

Ans. We run machines on our valves and 
pay 3c per mold. Of course, the bigger the 
pieces are the more we have to pay. We melt 
in a Rockwell furnace. If there are no cores 
in the molds we turn out about 90 molds per 
day, sometimes 100. If we have cores "we get 
60 or 70, sometimes 75. 

Ques. Have you any special method for 
drying ladles? 

Digitized by 


June, 190S 



Ans. We use the old method of drying our 
ladles. That is, we bum wood fires in them. 
We have plenty of old wood in the yard that 
would otherwise be going to waste. 

Ans. We have a large room behind the cu- 
polas with a tramway between the cupolas, and 
the ladles are run in on this tramway. There 
is a special arrangement of a frame with an 
iron hood over each ladle which covers the 
same, leaving room, of course, for a draft for 
the fire, and this hood is connected to a smoke 
pipe that carries away the smoke, etc. We 
burn wood fires to dry the ladles and find they 
do it very quickly and satisfactorily. 

After a short intermission the meeting ad- 
journed to dinner, after which the chairman 
introduced as the speaker of the evening Mr. 
M. McNaughton, of the Joseph Dixon Crucible 
Co., who addressed those present on the sub- 
ject: "Graphite and Facings." At the con- 
clusion of his remarks a unanimous vote of 
thanks was extended to Mr. McNaughton. 

Announcement was made that the June 
meeting would be an outing and that full par- 
ticulars would be mailed to the members later. 

PltUburg Pottodrymen's Association. 

F. H. Zimmers, Secretary, care Union Foundry and 
Machine Co. 

The annual smoker of the Pittsburg Foun- 
drymen's Association was held at the rooms 
of the Engineers* Society of Western Penn- 
sylvania, Pittsburg, on Monday evening. May 
I. The aflFair was well attended, urgent invi- 
tations having been sent to the foundry fore- 
men and superintendents and pattern shop 
foremen to be present. Efforts are being made 
to organize a local association of the foremen 
and superintendents and the Manufacturers' 
Association of Pittsburg has given them the 
privilege of its rooms for meetings. The 
smoker was arranged by F. H. Zimmers, sec- 
retary, and the entertainment and repast were 
up to the high standard he has maintained in 
affairs of this kind. The following program 
of toasts had been prepared under the title 
"Confessions," and the responses proved the 
foundryman's capacity for unbending when 
other than severely technical matters are un- 
der discussion. 

"Inside History of the Roll Industry," J. S. 
Seaman; "How to Manufacture Charcoal Iron 
Car Wheels without Charcoal Iron," A. W. 
Slocum; "How to Operate a Foundry in a 
Hay Loft," B. D. Fuller ; "How to Finance a 
Program Committee," F. H. Zimmers; "In- 
side Reasons Why I Favor the Blower," Wil- 

liam Yagle ; "Guiding the Water Wagon," W. 
H. McFadden; "A Continuous Performance 
Foundry," S. D. Sleeth; "Philanthropy— Or 
Why I Give My Profits to the Foundrymen," 
J. S. McCormick; "The Molecular Antithesis 
as Affected by the Atomic Theory and its Ap- 
plication to the 'Molders' Delight'," H. E. 
Field ; "Pyrometric Determinations of a Mold- 
er's Cranium *the day after*," S. H. Stupakoff ; 
"How I Developed the Southern Foundry Iron 
Industry," E. A. Kebler; "Picking Strawber- 
ries by the Wayside and My Trip to the 
Moon," D. J. Thomas. 

Cleveland Foundry Foremen. 

W. H. Nicholls, eOR Gordon Avenue. District Vice- 

The first annual banquet of the Cleveland 
Club of Associated Foundry Foremen was 
held at the Hotel Euclid, Cleveland, Saturday 
evening. May 6, and was attended by nearly a 
hundred members of the club and their friendS; 
including foundry owners, patternmakers, sup- 
ply men and pig iron salesmen. The club has 
been in existence only a year, but has already 
accomplished much to advance the interests of 
the members and their employers. After cigars 
had been lighted at the completion of the menu, 
the president of the club, A. L. Hott, of the 
Interstate Foundry Co., called the meeting to 
order and after a few words of greeting, in- 
troduced Secretary W. H. Nicholls, who read 
an invitation to all connected with the foundry 
business in Cleveland to attend the annual con- 
vention of the American Foundrymen*s Asso- 
ciation, to be held in New York, June 6, 7 
and 8. President Hott presented Mr. H. J. 
Boggis, of the Taylor & Boggis Co., Cleveland, 
as the toastmaster of the evening. Mr. Boggis 
introduced the speakers with a few well-chosen 

Dr. Richard Moldenke responded to the 
toast "The A. F. A. and Its Work." He ex- 
tended hearty congratulations to the foundry 
foremen of Cleveland on the successful inau- 
guration of their club. He said that back of 
all such efforts in organization lies a dominant 
idea: the desire for more knowledge. "Let 
this be in lines social, technical, or financial; 
we simply must know all we can get hold of 
in our business; of each other's personality 
and character, and finally of those great move- 
ments of the day, all intimately tied up with 
finance." He declared that owners should 
welcome every movement on the part of all 
of their employes based upon the honest desire 
to acquire knowledge, for the owners are the 

Digitized by 


1 84 


June, 1905 

chief gainers. The foreman who has arrived 
at the time when ambition no longer impels 
him to climb to the next step, the management, 
and then the acquisition of an interest, will 
soon be ready for permanent retirement, and 
• in an up-to-date foundry concern quickly lands 
there. "Long before you expect to enter into 
ownership, it would pay you to watch the iron 
and coke markets," said Dr. Moldenke, "and 
to compare the contracts your firm has with 
those of others. Much is to be learned of the 
movement of these fundamental materials of 
the industry by keeping track of things, espe- 
cially from the pages of a first-class trade 
journal. The temptation is always a strong 
one to charge the highest price to the man who 
is not posted. Not only should you watch pig 
iron, scrap and coke, but also the supplies, 
such as structural steel, sand, cement, etc., for 
on going into business it is best to do so just 
before a rise is due. You thus get the lowest 
figures to buy, and when the plant is up, you 
can take work at the highest figures of the 
time, instead of vice versa when you build at 
the top notch. I advise you to get hold of 
specialties, to keep the shop a-going, whether 
times are brisk or dull. There is much com- 
fort in knowing that even if the income is no 
more than the pay roll, a steadily increasing 
pile of stock stands ready for the first resump- 
tion of good times. Our industry has a won- 
derful fascination and few that have made 
castings themselves take to other lines entirely 
out of the industry. I believe our good friend 
Sercomb, of Milwaukee, who at last accounts 
is making soap, still regrets the change, though 
doubtless he makes more money cleaning hu- 
manity. When you take it all into your reflec- 
tions over a tired year's work, you will agree 
with me in feeling that our effort is one of 
constant progress. Next week we expect to 
know more than we do today, or at any rate 
should do so. It is this feeling that has led to 
the formation of foundrymen's associations. It 
has led to the formation of your own society. 
It will lead to the formation of others. For 
the sake of our nation's progress, we wish them 
all Godspeed, and we try to help them along 
with good hard work and investigation. Had 
it not been for the concerted work of our met- 
allurgists in the American Association, we 
would not be buying nearly all our pig iron 
under chemical specifications, nor would our 
better posted foundry foremen write out mix- 
tures at their desk without worrying how they 
will turn out. 

"I am repeatedly called in on expert work 
in foundries, and have always found the fore- 
men most anxious to learn the simple little 
trick of arithmetic by which a mixture can be 
figured out from the stock piles, the analyses 
of which are known. The effect that such 
calculations have on the buying of the iron is 
seldom realized by the owner. As just an 
instance of this, I will quote from my own 
experience. Where formerly the works in 
question had all the way from 10,000 up to 
17,000 tons of pig iron in stock, as many varie- 
ties had to be carried to mix from. After I 
had mastered the principles involved in the 
work, that stock was cut down to less than 
3,000 tons, and oftentimes I had to worry 
about the iron due for a week to follow, when 
delays by rail will occur. Just think of the 
interest on the former investment saved. How 
much more could be said on the subject of the 
foundry and our particular hobbies in it We 
get together and think we have threshed it out 
so dry that nothing worth talking about is left, 
and behold, when we come together once more, 
it is— Have you seen this or that shop, and 
the way they turn out those propeller cast- 
ings? Or a new instance of how the pattern 
shop did the foundry that time, or vice versa. 
If there were not so much new constantly 
turning up, how could we have such bright 
trade journals as the Foundry and the Pattern- 
maker? Our conventions seem to teem with 
interesting matter, and I take this occasion to 
extend to each and all of you, as well as all 
foundry Cleveland, a hearty invitation to join 
with us in New York City next month, when 
we hope to have a most interesting gathering 
of foundrymen from all over the country. May 
the good work go on here. May you become 
thoroughly acquainted with each other; learn 
to value and respect the earnest efforts and 
good citizenship which will be found in our 
industry. I greet you again as fellow-foundry- 
men, on the right road to progress, success, 
and that prosperity which we all strive for 
with American pluck, American ability, the 
American perseverance." 

John A. Penton, of the Penton Publishing 
Co., spoke on "Early Reminiscences of the A. 
F. A." He told of the first meeting in Phila- 
delphia of a few men interested in the foundry 
business to organize a local association of 
foundrymen, and how from that small begin- 
ning the national organization grew. Mr. Pen- 
ton made a strong plea for the organization of 
foundrymen, saying that it is based on the de- 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



sire of men in the same business to be asso- 
ciated with their fellow men and is absolutely 
necessary for the highest success in the busi- 
ness world. He said that if a man were not 
entirely in harmony with the plans and meth- 
ods of an organization, that was no reason for 
his refraining from becoming a member. He 
ought to go into the organization and exert his 
influence to have it changed to conform to his 

N. S. Calhoun, of the Johnson & Jennings 
Co., responded to the toast, "Cleveland as a 
Foundry Center," making a speech abounding 
in himior and giving the guests a few solid 
facts on which to reflect. Other speakers were : 
"Cleveland Club of Associated Patternmaker 
Foremen, Its Object and Work," J. Nail, of 
the Ajax Mfg. Co.; "Proper Relationship be- 
tween the Pattern Shop and the Foundry," 
Alfred Hibbs, of the U. S. Cast Iron Pipe & 
Foundry Co., and "Making a Molder," H. M. 
Lane, editor of the Foundry. Mr. Lane spoke 
of the tendency towards specialization in the 
foundry which prevents a boy from obtaining 
a thorough knowledge of the whole foundry 
business He urged the importance of an ap- 
prentice knowing something about the machine 
shop and pattemmaking as well as about mold- 
ing, and outlined a plan for the establishment 
of a shop school, which he believed would re- 
sult in turning out a much higher grade of 
molders than can now be found. He said that 
the product would be a well-developed me- 
chanic instead of a man trained in some spe- 
cial feature of the foundry trade. 

Buffalo Foundrymen's Association. 

The regular monthly meeting of the Buf- 
falo Foundrymen's Association was held in 
its headquarters, 23 Builders' Exchange, on 
Tuesday, May 16. President Hubbell, 28 
members and several visitors attended. 
After the regular order of business was dis- 
posed of the chair introduced Mr. Daniel 
Upton, Supervisor of Manual Training, Buf- 
falo Public Schools, who, in a very interest- 
ing talk, explained the advantages of manual 
training offered at the Mechanic Arts High 
School to the young men of this city. This 
school has an excellently equipped pattern 
shop, 18 wood-turning lathes, a cabinet shop 
with 24 work benches, a shop equipped with 
20 forges, and several draughting rooms. 
One of the basement rooms has been fitted 
out as a molding room where the boys take 
lessons in molding before they enter the 

pattern-making classes. The machinery is 
driven by electric motors. The branches of 
industrial training are as follows: First 
year, cabinet work and wood turning; sec- 
ond year, molding and pattern making; third 
year, iron forging, brazing, tempering, etc.; 
fourth year, machine shop practice. In 
each year the draughting conforms to the 
other work, the course as laid out consist- 
ing of free hand and mechanical branches; 
the latter takes in machine and allied sub- 
jects in the last two years. The aim is not 
to produce specialists in any line, but to 
develop the whole man by educating the 
hand and mind to work together. The boy 
is, therefore, better fitted to enter a larger 
field of usefulness. At present about 150 
boys are taking the technical course though 
it has been established only about two years. 
It was the unanimous sentiment of those 
present that if our boys are educated in 
this school our manufacturers will in a few 
years have a better grade of mechanics. 

The Associated Foundry Foremen. 

Frank C. Everett, Secretary. 2113 Third Ave , New 
York. N. Y., cara the J. L. Mott Iron Works. 

Milwaukee Foundry Foremen. 

Thomas aiassoock, Dist. Vicse Pres., care Pawling & 
Hamischfeger Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Erie Foundry Foremen. 

W. p. Omnaa, Dist. Vice Pres., care ErielCity Iron 

W. P. Cunningham, Secretary, Pencoyd, Pa. 



8. M. Williams, Dist. Vice Pres., 221 Third Street, 

Elizabeth. N. J. 

David Spence, Dist. Vice Pres., 142 Bunker St. 


W. H. Holmes, Dist. Vice Pres., care American 

Foundry Co. 



A. Chase, care Sawyer & Massey Co , Secretary and 


A. E. Stevens, Sioux City, la., is organiz- 
ing a company to engage in the manufacture of 
cast iron and brass products. The concern 
will be known as the Western Brass & Iron 

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June, 1905 


Dr. Richard Moldenke delivered an address 
upon "The Object of the American Society for 
Testing Materials" before the Civil Engineers' 
Club of Cleveland, on Friday, May 5. The 
speaker first reviewed the organization of the 
societies for testing materials in Europe, which 
resulted in the formation of the International 
Society for Testing Materials with divisions 
in each country. He noted the fact that the 
object of the societies in this country and Eu- 
rope is radically different. In this country 
the prime object of testing and of the Society 
for Testing Materials, is to arrive at standard 
specifications for material used for manufac- 
turing purposes, while in Europe the prime 
object of testing materials is for scientific re- 
search, and the making of specifications is a 
secondary matter. In many cases the European 
members of the society are government offi-. 
cials and they would have no authority to 
adopt standard specifications without special 
legislation on the part of their government. 
The engineering departments of each of the 
European governments have their own speci- 
fications and it would be very difficult for them 
to unite on any universal plan. In this country 
however, engineers feel the need of universal 
standards and specifications, and hence the 
American Society for Testing Materials, which 
is the branch of the International Society, was 
formed. This society has taken over most of 
the testing work previously done by various 
engineering societies, or it has worked in har- 
mony with other engineering bodies, and from 
its work has resulted the adoption of standard 
specifications for many lines. There are now 
a number of committees working upon the 

Dr. Moldenke told of his visit to the Inter- 
national Congress held at Buda Pesth several 
years ago. There were only four American 
members present, and in the committee work 
he acted as interpreter between the various 
divisions. The proceedings of the Interna- 
tional Congress for Testing Materials are con- 
ducted in three languages, French, German 
and English, there being two translators al- 
ways on the platform, and just as soon as the 
speaker makes a few statements, each trans- 
lates it into his own language for the benefit 
of his fellow-countrymen present. 

After pointing out the importance of the 
work already done by the American Society, 
Dr. Moldenke made a plea for all engineers to 

support the work of the society by becoming 
members, taking part in the discussions and 
assisting the work in any way that they could. 


The annual meeting of the Iron and Steel 
Institute opened at London, May 11, with An- 
drew Carnegie presiding. In his farewell 
speech, and before introducing his successor, 
R. A. Hadfield, who was vice president of the 
Institute, Mr. Carnegie said he appreciated 
the honor of being the first American presi- 
dent of the Institute. Later he subscribed 
$25,000 to the research fund as a parting gift 
to the Institute, One of the features of the 
meeting was the reading of a paper by James 
Gayley, of New York, on "The Application 
of the Dry Air Blast to the Manufacture of 
Iron." R. A. Hadfield, the new president of 
the Institute, was formerly master of Sheffield, 
is director of the Sheffield Gas Co., the Shef- 
field District Railroad, and several other com- 
panies. He is the inventor of manganese steel, 
a member of many scientific and industrial or- 
ganizations, including the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, and among the prizes he 
has received is the John Scott medal, a pre- 
mium of the Franklin Institute of Philadel- 



There has been so much said against alum- 
inum for metal patterns, that those who have 
never used the metal for that purpose would 
be naturally inclined not to give it a trial; 
whereas, if one has thoroughly investigated 
the matter, he finds merits in it, which make it 
the metal "par excellence" for many classes of 
metal patterns. 

In the first place, its extreme lightness is a 
very valuable feature. The specific gravity of 
aluminum is 2.56, while that of brass is about 
8.32, and zinc and tin alloy or antimony and 
tin about 7.25. From this will be seen that 
with a given size gate, aluminum patterns of 
three times the volume of brass or soft alloy 
patterns may be carded with only the same 
liability of breaking the soldered joint So, 
in considering patterns of the same size, carded 
with gates of the same size, the danger of 
breaking the joints of the aluminum card 
would be very much less than that of the other. 

Molders like aluminum patterns on ac- 

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June, 1905 



count of its being so much easier to draw a 
light pattern than a heavy one. 

The cost of the metal is less than that of 
almost any other pattern metal. Aluminum 
costs about thirty cents per pound, and as its 
volume is three times greater than brass or 
other pattern alloys, its comparative cost is 
reduced to ten cents per pound. 

It is sometimes said that the sand sticks 
to aluminum patterns 'more than to other kinds, 
but after examining about three hundred cards 
of various metals, to observe the amount of 
dirt remaining on the patterns after they were 
• brushed off, and after talking with several of 
the molders who have used these patterns, it 
was found that it was not true, in this shop at 
least; there being no appreciable difference in 
this respect. 

Aluminum finishes with the file, sand paper, 
scraper, etc., much easier than brass or the 
hard pattern metals, and casts smoother than 
the soft alloys. It is very stiff and will not 
easily spring out of shape nor be easily bent, 
making it better for light, flimsy patterns than 
the soft alloys; while, on the other hand, it is 
somewhat soft, so that it will not peen out of 
true from rapping, asflat, thin iron patterns do. 
Still, if an aluminum pattern be sprung slightly 
in casting, or in any way, it may be trued up 
by bending, though it will not bend so much 
as brass. 

Of course, it is not claimed that aluminum 
is better for all classes of metal patterns, but 
for ordinary carded work for castings not re- 
quiring extreme accuracy or fine surface, such 
as agricultural and light machine work in gen- 
eral, and for single patterns too large to card, 
as gears, hand wheels, etc., it makes durable, 
cheap, and easily finished patterns. 
Solderinif Aluminum, 

The objection most often heard to aluminum 
as a pattern metal is that "it can't be soldered," 
or that "it is extremely difficult to solder," or 
that "a good joint can't be soldered." Now it 
is proverbially hard to prove a negative, and 
it is especially true in this case. The chief dif- 
ficulty in soldering aluminum lies in not know- 
ing how. It is not generally known that a 
fair job of soldering can be done upon alum- 
inum with common half and half solder, but 
such is the case. Wc have patterns which 
have been in use a long time upon which arc 
shrinkage holes soldered with the common 
solder. It is only necessary to follow the 
directions given below for using aluminum 
solder, using no flux. Also, aluminum with 

10 percent tin added will solder better with 
common solder. However, a special aluminum 
solder is much better, making a stronger job, 
and being easier to use. We have been ex- 
perimenting and testing aluminum solders for 
several years, and have found the one below 
to be the best, considered from all points, for 
metal pattern work. It is slightly different in 
color from aluminum, which makes it useless 
for ornamental work, but it is cheap, easy to 
use, and very strong and durable. We have 
made test joints with it which have stood more 
strain than the aluminum itself, the casting 
breaking at one side of the joint, though, of 
course, this is not usually the case. The re- 
ceipt for this solder is as follows, all parts to 
be measured by weight: 

Aluminum i part 

Phosphor-tin i part 

Zinc II parts 

Tin 29 parts 

In making this solder, melt the aluminum 
first. Then add the zinc in small pieces, so as 
not to solidify the already melted aluminum 
Then add the tin, taking the same precaution 
not to solidify the metal, and lastly, drop in 
the phosphor-tin, stir well with a brass rod, 
and quickly pour into molds, which may be 
easily made in the open sand. Use a crucible 
in making this solder. 

The reason for observing the above order 
of melting is that if the metal with the lower 
fusion point were melted first, and then 
brought up to the temperature necessary to 
melt the aluminum, the lower metal would be 
over-heated and partially vaporized, thus de- 
stroying the proper proportion. 

In regard to using the solder, it is well to 
understand a few points about aluminum oxide. 
This oxide is a thin film or skin which forms 
upon the surface of aluminum immediately up- 
on its coming in contact with the air. This 
oxide forms practically instantaneously, so that 
if a scraper or other instrument be pushed 
across the surface of the metal, the oxide 
forms before the bare metal comes in sight. 
It also forms upon the molten metal, and it 
sometimes happens in pouring, that the work- 
man finds he is pouring his metal through a 
tube of oxide. It also sometimes happens 
that when he over fills his flask, and the metal 
runs over the side, in the case of heavy cast- 
ing, a film will form around the overflow, and 
syphon quite an amount of metal from his 
sprue, unless he prevents it by breaking the 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

The oxide is very durable and impervious, so 
that it prevents the air from reaching the 
inner metal, and thus further oxidization is 
very slow. In the case of iron, the oxide is, 
we might say, very porous, so that the first 
thin layer of oxide has little effect in reduc- 
ing further oxidization. 

It is the presence of small scales of oxide 
through the body of the casting, which renders 
the metal porous, and unfits it for pump work, 
upon castings which are subjected to hydraulic 

Now solder will not adhere to any metal 
covered with oxide. In the case of brass, the 
oxide is removed by the flux, but there has 
been no flux discovered which will remove 
or dissolve aluminum oxide. However, the 
difficulty is overcome in a very simple way. 
The soldering copper, which should be a 
rather heavy one, and untinned, is heated to 
a dull redness, and then rubbed back and forth 
upon the surface to be soldered, melting the 
solder upon the hot copper at the same time. 
The surface becomes covered with the melted 
solder, which excludes the air and prevents 
further oxidization, while the point of the 
copper scratches off the oxide already there. 
Under these conditions the solder readily ad- 
heres to the aluminum, and the surface be- 
comes "tinned." For filling shrinkage holes, 
or building up additions upon patterns, all that 
is necessary now, is to melt in the required 
amount of solder. 

In case it is desired to solder two pieces of 
aluminum together, both surfaces should be 
"tinned," the pieces brought into position and 
the joint heated with a copper or blow-torch 
until the solder is liquid, then pressed into 
place and allowed to cool. Brass must be 
heated to 460° before solder will adhere to it, 
while aluminum must be heated about 200** 
higher, so it will necessarily be a little harder 
to solder aluminum than brass. 

There is a certain stage during the cooling, 
just before solidification, when the solder may 
be worked into any shape, at will, like snow, 
when it is right for packing, or like the 
amalgam used by dentists. Of course this tem- 
perature is hard to maintain, but the tempera- 
ture at which aluminum "tins" nicely, is nearly 
at the "wiping" temperature, as a plumber 
would say, and on this account there is time 
enough to "strike off" surplus solder, in sim- 
ple cases. 

As an example, suppose it is desired to 
"build up" a certain surface of a pattern, one- 

half inch. First "tin" the surface to be "built 
up." Then place a wooden frame around that 
part of the pattern, so that its upper edge is 
in line with the desired finished surface. Then 
melt in with the copper, enough aluminum 
solder to fill the frame "heaping full." After 
rubbing the copper over the bottom and around 
the corners, to be certain that the solder is 
melted into the "tinned" surface below, when 
the solder cools to just the right temperature, 
"strike off" by "patting" with a block of woo^, 
using the top of the wooden frame as a guide. 
Sometimes* the "striking off" can be better done * 
with a piece of smooth steel, like a scraper. 

Fillets may be "wiped" in corners with a 
common waxing iron with nearly as much case 
as wax fillets. The corner, after being "tin- 
ned," has a little solder run in, and imme- 
diately followed by the waxing iron, which if 
done at the proper moment, presses the solder 
into shape, leaving it as smooth as glass, and 
requiring no further finishing. 

These are merely simple examples of what 
may be done in the line of "striking" solder. 
In case of any large or complicated jobs, it is 
better to rig up some kind of heating table, so 
that the temperature of the casting may be 

Sometimes additions may be more easily cast 
on than soldered and swept off. In this case 
the addition may be put upon the pattern in 
wood, wax, or in any convenient way and the 
pattern rammed up. After the pattern is drawn 
and the addition removed, the proper surface 
is tinned and the pattern replaced in the mold. 
After the mold is closed, the addition is cast 
on by pouring in melted aluminum solder at 
a high temperature. Gates which have been 
broken off are sometimes replaced in this way. 


Another objection to aluminum often heard 
is, that "it is hard to cast." However, it is 
only necessary to observe a few conditions to 
make the casting of aluminum as certain as 
that of any other metal. It should be borne 
in mind that aluminum melts at a higher tem- 
perature than soft alloys (about 1200°), is 
much lighter than any other pattern metal, and 
has the property of absorbing gases when 
over-heated, or when kept in a molten state 
for any length of time. On account of these 
properties, aluminum should be handled some- 
what differently than the other metals. 

The most important thing to remember is to 
use a large sprue and a large gate, so that as 
the casting chills, it may "draw" from the 

Digitized by 


June, 190S 



metal in the sprue, and thus not leave shrink 
holes in the casting itself. For this reason the 
gate and sprue must be of such size that they 
will remain in a liquid state, longer than any 
part of the casting proper. After a little prac- 
tice, the workman will be able to judge how 
small a gate it will be safe to make for any 
given casting. However, it is better at first 
to be on the safe side with the larger gate, as 
it is cheaper to saw off a little more metal than 
to solder a shrinkage hole. 

As a general rule, it is better to gate into 
the heaviest part of the casting, as this is the 
part which cools last. If it is difficult to do 
this, or if there be more than one heavy or 
enlarged part to the pattern, "risers'* may be 
put on to feed in the shrinkage. It is abso- 
lutely necessary to put a riser on any heavier 
part of the casting, which is separated from the 
gate by a thinner section, to prevent a shrink- 

On account of its lightness, an extra "head" 
is not of so much advantage as in other metals. 
From the same characteristic, top gating may 
be more often employed, as its lightness very 
greatly reduces the probability of "washing." 

Pulley patterns, sprockets, small gears, etc., 
may be best cast by setting the sprue upon the 
cope print, or on the hub. 

The form of sprue to be recommended for 
top pouring is shown in Fig. i. This form 
gives a larger body of metal for the same size 
gate, than the ordinary shape. If, after the 
cope is lifted off, the sand is pressed or cut 
back as shown at C, the sprue may be broken 
off at the line A and B, without the use of a 

The sand should be tempered as dry as can 
be conveniently worked, as the metal is so 
light that it cannot overcome the steam pres- 
sure as well as a heavier metal, and blows are 
more apt to be caused from wet sand than in 
any other way. This is especially true in case 
of "pockets" of sand in the drag, surrounded 
by metal. This makes it sometimes necessary to 
vent down to the bottom board, to prevent a 
"blow." Another essential point is to pour the 
metal at the proper temperature. The rule 
is, "to pour at the lowest temperature that 
will fill the mold," which in most cases is 
but little above the melting point. The most 
convenient way for testing the temperature, is 
to place the end of a pig of aluminum about 
three-quarters of an inch into the molten metal, 
and allow it to remain there a short time. 
If the metal is "hot," its degree may be de- 

termined by the rate at which it melts the pig. 
If the metal is near its melting point, a little 
cup of the congealed metal will be formed 
around the end of the pig. After the pig is 
withdrawn, the time it takes for this "cup" to 
become remelted, wnll give a very accurate idea 
of its temperature. After losing a few castings 
by pouring too cold, the proper heat may be 
easily judged. 

As the metal is poured at such a low tem- 
perature, it is always well to ram the sand 
as lightly as the mold will stand, to allow the 
easy escape of the air and gases, but should 
it be necessary to ram the mold hard, it should 
be thoroughly vented. Another reason for 
ramming lightly, is that the property called* 
"hot-shortness" is very much in evidence in the 
case of aluminum. That is, the metal is very 
weak, just after solidification, so that in cer- 
tain shapes, such as an open ring, if the sand 
is rammed very hard, there will not be suffi- 
cient strength to the casting upon shrinking, 
to crush in the sand ; the result being a broken 
casting. The remedy lies in proper ramming. 

For this same reason, it will be found safer 
in casting around cores of more than three or 
four inches in diameter, to use a soft baked 
core made of molasses water and molding 
sand. This crushes as readily as green sand. 
Also the castings should not be shaken out too 
quickly after pouring. 

Since aluminum has the property previously 
mentioned, of absorbing gases when in a mol- 
ten state, it should be poured soon after melt- 
ing. It should not be allowed to remain in 
the fire and "soak," as the gases absorbed 
tend to produce blow holes. 

The metal should be poured very rapidly, 
literally "dumped" into the mold. This will 
help fill the mold, when otherwise the metal 
might be too cold to run up into the cope 

For melting the metal, a gas furnace is the 
most convenient outfit. Catalogues describing 
these may be obtained at any gas company's 

Coke makes a very good fuel, especially if 
there be much casting to be done at one time. 
Charcoal is inconvenient on account of its 
burning out so rapidly, though it is a very 
clean fire. 

Soft coal is not to be recommended, as it 
is dirty and gaseous, but for a quick short job, 
it is very good. When it is used, care should 
be taken not to get any particles of the fresh 
coal into the melted metal just previous to 

Digitized by 




June, 190S 

pouring, as these make small blow holes, 
slightly below the cope surface. Though these 
generally remain below the depth of a file 
cut, they will show if the casting be finished 
in the lathe. 

An iron ladle, or black lead crucible may be 
used, an iron ladle being rather more con- 
venient, but burning out in the course of a few 
months* usage. In either case it is more con- 
venient to use a ladle or crucible large enough 
to hold all the metal a man can handle. Also 
there should be a long sand-bin with a goodly 
quantity of sand, so that the patternmaker can 
ram up several molds, and pour all at once, 
immediately upon the metal in the large pot 
becoming melted. Of course this last applies 
merely to small shops. 

Fig. 2 

Fig. 3 

Snap molds need not be jacketed in case of 
light castings, and seldom need weighting or 
clamping to hold down the cope. 

If the castings be shaken out soon after they 
are poured, and a shrinkage hole should be 
found, which will be rare if the above rules 
are followed, it may be easily filled by rubbing 
a stick of aluminum solder upon the proper 
surface, while the casting is still hot enough 
to melt the solder. Yet the casting should not 
be too hot, as the solder will merely run into 
the casting itself. 

A 3-16" shrinkage rule is the proper rule to 
use, though the shrinkage will vary from this 
slightly under different conditions. 

The gates for aluminum patterns should or- 
dinarily be made of rolled sheet brass, cast in 
as in soft alloy patterns. An anchor hole 
should be drilled in the end of the brass, as the 
aluminum will not weld to the brass. It is 
well to use brass about one-eighth of an inch 
thick for gates when possible. When very 
heavy patterns are gated, the aluminum some- 
times melts the end of the brass gates, causing 
blows in the casting, and loosening the gate. 
This trouble may be overcome by using sheet 
phosphor-bronze in place of brass. 


One of the greatest advantages of aluminum 
for patterns, is that it finishes so easily. A 
few points will be touched upon here. For 
sawing off sprues, which cannot be safely 
broken off, a common hack saw is generally 
used, but a fine tooth panel saw, about fourteen 
inches long, sharpened hack saw style, or like 
a wood rip saw, is much better, as it saws 
faster and more accurately. An old fine tooth 
circular saw is sometimes used where there is 
much sawing to be done. Regular metal cut- 
ting circular saws and metal cutting band saws 
may be bought which do very rapid work. 

Aluminum files nicely, the scale not being 
appreciably harder than the inner metal. It 
has a slight tendency to "pin up" on the file, 
and scratch, this tendency varying much with 
the individual file, and with different castings, 
some files not "pinning" with any casting, 
and some castings not "pinning" with any 
file. This tendency may be overcome almost 
entirely by dipping the file occasionally in 
water. Some workmen say that this makes the 
file cut much faster, also. 

There is a file made with a very oblique cut, 
which will not fill up with even the softest 
metals. This is a bastard cut file, the main 
cut being made on an angle of only 40** with 
the side. The second cut is made very light. 
This file works very nicely upon aluminum, 
and is generally used by the writer. 

Much of the finishing may be done upon the 
disc grinder. Should there be none in the 
shop, a fairly good one may be made by cov- 
ering a large wooden face plate with garnet 
paper, running at quite a high speed in the 
turning lathe. 

For finishing inside cylindrical surfaces, such 
as journal bearings, sand-paper rolls may be 
made and used in the lathe. It is well to have 
several of these rolls of various sizes on 

By using the finest grade of Albany sand 
(Windsor Locks sand is often used) and tak- 
ing care in the molding, very smooth castings 
may be produced, which may be very quickly 
finished well enough for common work upon 
the rotary wire scratch brush. This may be 
purchased for about ten dollars, and put upon 
an emery wheel arbor, and run at a high speed. 

When using hand scrapers, or floats, and 
when drilling, tapping or turning, kerosene 
may be used as a lubricant. Of course water 
or benzine would be as good, but water rusts 
the machines, and benzine or naphtha evaporate 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



rapidly and are unpleasant upon the hands. 

The proper speed for turning is about the 
same, or a little less, than that for brass, while 
the tools should be ground with considerable 
rake and clearance, about the proper amount 
being shown in Fig. 2. 

The top view of a very nice working lathe 
tool is shown in Fig. 3, in which the feed 
is in the direction of the arrow. The round 
comer A makes the roughing cut while the 
fiat edge B, the finishing cut, both at one 
operation. By grinding tools this shape, 1-32 
of an inch is about all the stock that is neces- 
sary to allow for turning. Turning tools 
should be placed at or slightly below the cen- 
ter of the work. 


1 noticed recently a piece with the above 
title by C. E. W. I see no reason why his 
piece could not be made in the three-part 
flask. In the case of a large piece I think 
it would be perfectly safe to ram up the 
cheek and drag, remove the drag, take out 
his loose pieces, return the drag, roll over 
and finish the same without any fear of bad 
results from ramming his cope with the 
loose piece out. If there was any fear from 
this cause, however, he could roll back and 
take them out after the cope is rammed up. 
As he has no finish marks on it, it may be 
that it would be more simple to leave his 
other strips loose and then to ram level with 
them, take out the strips and lay on a flat 
core, thus making it a two-part flask. We 
have a similar piece, which is a heavier cast- 
ing but has a smaller core, which we have 
made twelve or fifteen times. 



The Corrugated Grinding Wheel Co., of 
Philadelphia, Pa., has gotten out a circular 
illustrating its corrugated wheels and setting 
forth the advantages to be derived from their 
use. The catalogue shows a half tone from a 
photograph taken of a piece of cast iron ^ in. 
thick, with a groove cut in each end of it. 
A groove was cut in one end by a wheel when 
not corrugated, and a grove was cut in the 
other end by a corrugated wheel, a specially 
designed testing rig being used to force the 
work against the wheel. The corrugated wheel 
did 140 percent more work than the other. 

The A. A. Griflftn Iron Works, of Newark, 
N. J., have gotten out a very neat little trade 
publication in regard to the Bundy traps, which 
is entitled "About Myself" and is supposed 
to be an autobiography of the trap. It starts 
out with a picture of the author and then de- 
scribes its various uses. It is 35^ by 6 inches, 
and well illustrated. 

Clum & Atkinson, of Rochester, N. Y., have 
gotten out a very neat publication, describing 
and illustrating the work of their brass, bronze 
and aluminum foundry. It is a pamphlet 
6 by 4J^ inches and contains a considerable 
amount of very interesting matter. 

The Yale & Towne Mfg. Co., Stamford, 
Conn., has just issued two very neat little 
catalogues, 6x5 in. The first deals with the 
Yale & Towne blocks and electric hoists, show- 
ing the different types of hoists and the appli- 
cations for which they are intended. In the 
back of the catalogue there is a map of New 
York City. The other catalogue deals with 
locks and hardware intended for railroad use. 
These two catalogues were gotten up for dis- 
tribution at the International Railway Con- 
vention, which has recently been held in 
Washington, D. C. 

The Bristol Co., of Waterbury, Conn., has 
issued another catalogue of its recording ther- 
mometers. The catalogue is gotten up in an 
exceedingly neat style, including illustrations 
of each class of thermometer with a descrip- 
tion of the special service for which each is 
fitted. It also contains considerable matter of 
interest to all users of recording thermometers 
and to all who have work to do along this 

One of the best gotten up trade publications 
that has come under our notice lately is that 
entitled "Cranes," which is sent out by Pawl- 
ing & Harnischfeger, Milwaukee, Wis. It is 
the seventh edition of their catalogue. The 
book is 12x9 in. and contains 40 pages illus- 
trating practically every form of hoist rigging 
used in modern manufacturing plants. These 
include traveling cranes of all types and for 
all classes of service, yard cranes, traveling 
jib cranes, standard and special jib cranes, 
extension cranes which are sometimes called 
rubber necked cranes, and power and other 
trolley cranes for all classes of work both in- 
doors and outdoors. Any one interested in 
crane problems should have a copy of this 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 


Mr. J. A. Babcock, who has been foreman of 
the Lakeside Foundry in Muskegon, Mich., has 
gone to Lansing, Mich., where he will be em- 
ployed as foreman at the Lansing foundry. 

Mr. F. C. Myers, late manager of the 
Indiana Foundry & Machine Co., South Bend, 
Ind., has accepted the position of superin- 
tendent of the Illinois Foundry & Engineering 
Co., Granite City, 111. The latter company has 
recently increased the capacity of its plant. 

Mr. John McGregor has resigned his posi- 
tion as foreman with the Doherty Mfg. Co., of 
Sarnia, Ont, and has accepted a similar posi- 
tion with Bowes, Jamieson & Co., of Hamil- 
ton, Ont. 

W. B. Chapman, formerly general superin- 
tendent of the Mashek Chemical & Iron Co., 
Escanaba, Mich., who left Escanaba two 
months ago, is now engaged as assistant mana- 
ger of the New York office of the Morgan Con- 
struction Co., composed of engineers, foun- 
ders and machinists, with headquarters at 
Worcester, Mass. 

ing concerns. He leaves two sons, David and 
Fred. David Tod is general manager of the 
cement department of the Struthers Furnace 


Mr. Henry W. Miller, president of the Utica 
Pipe Foundry Co., of Utica, N. Y., died of 
heart failure in Chicago on May 10. Mr. Mil- 
ler was 58 years old and has been prominent in 
the manufacturing interests of Utica for a long 
time. He was in Chicago receiving treatment 
for heart trouble. 

Wm. Tod died at his home in Youngstown, 
O., April 2y. He had been suffering from 
organic heart trouble for two years, and his 
death was not unexpected. Mr. Tod was a 
son of David Tod, one of Ohio's war gov- 
ernors, and was born at Warren, O., July 30, 
1843. He received a common school educa- 
tion and in 1868 became connected with Homer 
Hamilton in the foundry business, later manu- 
facturing the Porter-Hamilton engine for gen- 
eral power service and especially for the iron 
and steel trades. Mr. Tod became an im- 
portant factor in this business. Associated 
with John Stambaugh Sr., Paul Jones and 
Homer Hamilton, the plant was built up and 
in time and the firm became known as Wm. 
Tod & Co. At a later date the business was 
incorporated as the Wm. Tod Co. Mr. Tod 
was elected president and the company be- 
came one of the most important engine build- 
ers in the country. Mr. Tod was also inter- 
ested in the Brier Hill Iron & Coal Co., the 
Youngstown Steel Co., and other manufactur- 


Fire broke out in the plant of the Stockton 
Iron Works, Stockton, Cal., April 19. The 
largest building of the company, valued at 
$8,000, was completely gutted, and a number 
of valuable patterns, the accumulation of 40 
years, worth $50,000, were entirely destroyed. 
A small insurance was carried on the build- 
ings. The company will rebuild as soon as 

Fire visited the plant of the Fagan Iron 
Works, Jersey City, N. J., last week, destroy- 
ing the foundry, a two-story engine and boiler 
room and a four-story pattern shop. The older 
portion of the plant was saved, but a large 
number of valuable patterns and considerable 
machinery were destroyed. The estimated loss 
is $10,000. 

The foundry building of Thos. Taylor, of 
Falls City, Neb., was destroyed by fire on 
April 20. The loss is between $3,000 and 
$4,000, with no insurance. 

Fire in the warehouse and salesroom of the 
Illinois Malleable Iron Co., Chicago, May 3, 
caused a loss of $10,000. 

The foundry and machine shop of Ritten- 
house Bros., at Norristown, Pa., was damaged 
by fire to the extent of $35,cxx) on April 25. 
The fire started in the pattern room on the 
second floor. 

The Plainfield Foundry Co.'s plant, of Plain- 
field, Conn., was destroyed by fire on May 3. 

Fire destroyed the foundry and the entire 
works of the Desjardins shops at St. Andre, 
Kamouraska, Quebec, on April 26. The loss 
is estimated at $150,000, upon which there is 
some insurance. 

The Gurney foundry at Toronto, Ont., was 
slightly damaged by fire on May 4, 

The Chicago Foundry, of Spokane, Wash., 
was damaged by fire to the extent of $1,000 
on April 12. 

The Summit Stove Foundry, of Geneva, N. 
Y., was damaged by fire to the extent of $3,- 
000 on May 4. 


The Waterbury Farrel Foundry & Machine 
Co., of Waterbury, Conn., has let contracts for 
two additions to its plant which will require an 
expenditure of about $35,000. 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



A building permit has been issued to the 
Pittsburg, Ft. Wayne & Chicago Railroad to 
buifd a brass foundry to cost $20,000, in Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

The Reading Iron Co., of Reading, Pa., has 
let a contract for a new foundry building 180 
by 230 ft. 

The buildings being constructed by the 
American Steel Foundries at Chester, Pa., are 
rapidly approaching completion. 

The addition to the foundry of the Macungie 
Brass & Mfg. Co., of Macungie, Pa., is nearly 

The Ajax Metal Co. will construct a new 
fire proof pattern loft at 52 Richmond street, 
Philadelphia, Pa. The loft is to be built of 
steel and the contract for it has been let to 
Mitchell Bros., of Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Vulcan Foundry Co., Hamilton, O., has 
purchased land for the erection of a new 
foundry, and expects to be under roof by No- 

The Ohio Pattern Works, of Cincinnati, O., 
is having plans made for a large pattern plant 
to be erected on Spring Grove avenue, in Cin- 
cinnati, O., the building to cost about $10,000. 
The plans are being prepared by Architect 
Martin Fisher. 

The Southern Indiana railway shops, at 
Bedford, Ind., will be extensively improved, 
and plans call for the construction of a large 
foundry and improved machinery iacilities. 

A contract has been closed for the cement 
and some of the materials for the $400,000 
plant of the Twin City Rapid Transit Co., of 
Minneapolis, Minn. Among the other large 
buildings there will be a foundry 60 by 200 ft. 

The Olds Motor & Gasoline Engine Works, 
of Lansing, Mich., will erect a foundry 240 by 
160 ft. 

The Fagan Iron Works, Hoboken, N. J., 
are rebuilding their foundry which is 200 by 
100 ft. and putting on an iron roof. 

The Gray & Dudley Hardware Co. has com- 
pleted arrangements to start a large foundry 
and hardware manufacturing plant at Nash- 
ville, Tcnn., and has purchased a location of 
about II acres for this purpose. The com- 
pany will manufacture a varied line of hard- 
ware and cast iron goods, and will employ 
about 150 hands. 

Arrangements are being made for a number 
of improvements and additions to the Central 
Foundry Co.'s plant at Bessemer, Ala. 

The Davenport Foundry & M)achine Co., of 
Davenport, la., has had plans prepared for a 

new foundry 88 by 100 ft., by Architects Claus- 
sen & Clauasen. It also intends to enlarge 
the main building of its plant, which is 42 by 
125 ft. This building is at present only one 
story in height. The roof will be raised and 
another story added, which will be used as a 
pattern shop. 

The Hawthorne Foundry & Machine Co. 
will move its plant to Des Moines, la., from 
Grinnell, providing a suitable location can be 
found. The railroad facilities at Grinnell were 

John T. Carmody, of Cedar Rapids, la., is 
improving his new foundry plant by adding a 
new office building, constructing some cement 
flooring and making other improvements that 
will facilitate the work. 

Emrick Bros., of Hastings, Neb., have re- 
paired the damage which was done by fire re- 
cently and are once more ready for business. 

The United States Radiator Co., Dunkirk, 
N. Y., has just completed an addition to its 
foundry which will give an increase of about 
one-third of the former capacity. 

The United States Cast Iron Pipe & Foun- 
dry Co. is increasing the capacity of its plant 
at Buffalo. 

The Gleason Co., of Rochester, N. Y., is 
constructing several new buildings, including 
a foundry 308 by no ft. 

Wesley Patschke, of Lebanon, Pa., has com- 
menced the erection of a new foundry. Mr. 
Patschke is a well known molder and has 
several others associated with him in the busi- 

The Dent Hardware Co., of Fullerton, Pa., 
has been making additions to its plant which 
will greatly increase its output. The com- 
pany expects soon to enlarge its foundry 

The Conway Steel Range Co., Toledo, O., 
recently incorporated with a capital of $100.- 
000, will erect a building 30 x 120 ft. A 
finishing shop will be erected, and also a 
foundry, the dimensions of which will be 70 
X 200 ft. The company's present structure in 
Auburndale, where ranges have been manu- 
factured for the past year, will be enlarged 80 
ft. so that the building will be 40 x 140 ft. 
Work on the improvements will be begun in 
a few days. 

F. E. Myers & Bro., of Ashland, O., are pre- 
paring to build another foundry as an addi- 
tion to their plant, which will greatly increase 
its capacity. 

Leo Schwab, president of the Toledo Safe 
& Lock Co., of Toledo, O., is preparing plans 

Digitized by 




June, 1905 

for a foundry addition to his plant at Glass- 
bopo, O. 

The American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., 
of Chicago Heights, III., has awarded the con- 
tract for a 2-story office building and for an 
extension to its steel foundry plant. 

The Canedy-Otto Mfg. Co., of Chicago 
Heights, 111., is making extensive additions and 
improvements to its plant, including a foundry 
building 60 x 80 ft. 

The John C. Born & Bros. Machine Co., 
Belleville, III., which operates a machine shop, 
has purchased a plot of ground and will erect 
a plant of larger capacity. A foundry will be 
added to the plant. 

The Detroit Steel Casting Co., of Detroit, 
Mich., has purchased additional land adjoining 
its present plant and is planning to erect a 
modern steel casting plant, the building being 
165 by 400 ft. It is planned to install both 
open hearth furnaces and converters so that 
both processes of making steel can be followed. 
The improvements will double the capacity of 
the plant. 

The Clayton & Lambert Mfg. Co., Detroit, 
Mich., will erect an addition to its foundry, 
34 X 50 ft., and a 2-story boiler house, 34 x 
60 ft. 

The Beloit Machine Co., Bejoit, Wis., has let 
the contract for the construction of a new 
pattern shop, which will cost about $25,000. 

The building belonging to the Public Service 
Corporation, at Elizabeth, N. J., is being dis- 
mantled and the material will be used in the 
construction of a foundry which the company 
is building at Passaic, N. J. 

The new plant of the Tennessee Stove 
Works, Chattanooga, Tenn., has been completed, 
and the first stoves were made this week. 
The new plant consists of three substantial 
brick buildings, electric power plant, stock and 
finishing, and foundry departments. The elec- 
tric power plant will have a capacity of 80 
h. p., and an engine made by the Harrisburg 
Foundry & Machine Works, Harrisburg, Pa., 
has been installed. The foundry building is 
165 X 125 ft. 

The Anniston Foundry & Machine Co., of 
Anniston, Ala., is to erect an addition 85 x 
1,000 ft. for the manufacture of gas service 
boxes, soil pipe and fittings. 

J. J. McDougal, of Mitchell, S. D., has pur- 
chased a site and will begin the erection of a 
machine shop and foundry building 50 x 80 ft. 

The Iowa Malleable Iron Co., of Fairfield, 
la., expects to build an addition to its foundry 

and annealing room during the coming sum- 

The Fremont Foundry, of Fremont, Neb., is 
being enlarged by an addition 20 x 40 ft. 

H. E. Olbrich, of Cedar Falls, la., has his 
new foundry nearly completed. 

G. W. Schmidt & Son, of Iowa City, la., arc 
building an addition to their foundry and iron 

The Pease Furnace Co., of Toronto, Canada, 
have taken out a building permit for a new 
foundry building to cost $25,000. 


A company has been formed in Worcester, 
Mass., for the purpose of leasing the Arnold & 
Pierce foundry plant for a term of years, and 
operating it as a general foundry. The mem- 
bers of the company are : Alexander Hall and 
Alexander Rankin, who have been connected 
with the Holyoke Machine Co. Plans for 
opening the plant have been under way for 
about two weeks. 

The Waterbury Farrel Foundry & Machine 
Co., of Waterbury, Conn., has acquired a con- 
trolling interest in the Waterbury Machine 
Co., of the same city. 

Thomas A. Edison is sending out some 
very interesting matter concerning the cement 
made at his new cement plant at New Village, 
N. J. (Postoffice address, Stewartsville, N. J.) 
When Mr. Edison commenced the experimental 
work preparatory to the erection of his plant, 
he decided to try and make the best possible 
cement that had ever been produced. He 
claims that at least 85 percent of his cement 
will pass through a 200-mesh screen, as com- 
pared with about 75 percent of other brands. 
This means that a barrel of his cement con- 
tains 10 percent more of available active ma- 
terial than would be found in a barrel of ordi- 
nary cement. Accompanying the matter sent 
out by Mr. Edison there is a chart showing 
the curves obtained from actual tests of various 
classes of cement. The curve for the Edison 
cement was from nearly 1,200 tests during 1904. 
The results of the other tests are taken from 
the work of the Philadelphia Department of 
Public Works and include a large number of 
tests. In the chart referred to the curve for 
the Edison cement was well above all of the 

The Kings County Iron Foundry, of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., has been incorporated with a capital 
of $75,000. The directors are Edward A. 
Calahan, Henry H. Schmittmann, Theodore L. 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 



Herrmann and Margaret A. Loughran, of 
Brooklyn. N. Y. 

The Crist Valve Mfg. Co., New York, is 
looking for a site with adequate shipping fa- 
cilities and other inducements for the manu- 
facture of a full line of brass gates and other 
valves for steam, water and gas. The ma- 
chinery and tools have already been selected. 

The Josiah Ross Mfg. Co., of Buffalo, N. Y., 
has been incorporated with a capital of $50,- 
000, to carry on a general foundry and manu- 
facturing business. The incorporators are 
Josiah Ross, Flora B. Ross, John Ryckman and 
John C. Kingston, of Buffalo. 

The McKinney foundry, at Oberlin, N. Y., 
is again taking on a full force of men, and will 
operate its plant to its full capacity. 

The Forest City Brass Mfg. Co., of Cleve- 
land, O., has been incorporated with a capital 
of $7S,ocx). The incorporators are John V. 
Kennedy, H. B. Sawyer, Geo. W. Shaw, Joseph 
E. Jackering and August G. Ilg. 

The Norwalk Mfg. Co., of Norwalk, O., 
which two years ago succeeded the Norwalk 
Foundry & Machine Co., has in turn disposed 
of its foundry department to John Brooks. 
Aaron Townhill and Andrew Hamilton, of 
Cleveland, O. 

The district offices of the American Steel 
Foundries, with plants at Pittsburg, Franklin, 
Sharon, Pa., and Alliance, O., will be moved 
from Alliance, O., to Sharon, Pa., on July i. 

The Columbus Machine & Foundry Co., of 
Columbus, O., at a meeting held May 10 elected 
the following officers and directors: W. C. 
Richards, president; E. T. Moore, vice presi- 
dent; A. Frederick, superintendent, and E. 
Hight, secretary. W. C. Richards, E. T. 
Moore, Joseph Donoghue, Walter Weaver and 
A. Frederick were elected directors. 

Philip Metzger, who was foreman of the 
American Foundry Co., at Industrial Heights, 
Toledo, O., has purchased the interests of the 
various stockholders and will operate the 

The Dayton Pneumatic Tool Co., which re- 
cently took over the business of the Chicago 
Tool & Supply Co., is now located in its new 
plant at Dayton, O. Its present capacity is 
from 100 to 150 hammers per month though 
it expects to increase this in order to keep up 
with the demand. 

The Champion Brass Works, of Coldwater, 
Mich., have commenced operations in a small 
way and expect to extend their business as 
fast as conditions warrant. They are fitted up 
to make brass, aluminum, copper and bronze 

castings, making a specialty of automobile 
work and plumbers* goods. 

The Allyne Brass Foundry Co., manufac- 
turer of goods for automobiles, has its new 
plant in Detroit, Mich., running full force. 

The South Baltimore Steel Car & Foundry 
Co., of Baltimore, Md., which now has an 
authorized capital stock of $1,000,000, is plan- 
ning to increase the capital stock in order to 
take care of its rapidly growing business. 

Arrangements have been made for the con- 
solidation of the Rock Hill Foundry & Ma- 
chine Works with the Syleecau Mfg. Co., both 
of Rock Hill, S. C. The business will be car- 
ried on under the name of the latter company. 
Mr. G. A. Jones is the proprietor of the Rock 
Hill Foundry & Machine Works, and Messrs. 
W. S. Lee, Jr., J. B. Sykes and J. C. Cauthen 
are interested in the Syleecau Mfg. Co. 

The Weatherford Machinery & Foundry Co., 
of Weatherford, Texas, has filed an amend- 
ment to its charter, by which it has increased 
its capital stock from $10,000 to $20,000. 

The Gunther Foundry, Machine & Supply 
Co., of San Antonio, Texas, has filed an 
amendment to its charter changing its name 
to the Collins-Gunther Co. 

The fire at the plant of the Stockton Iron 
Works, Stockton, Cal., April 19, was con- 
fined within the walls of the three-story brick 
pattern storage building, and did much dam- 
age to patterns. The remainder of the plant 
was not affected, and work in all other depart- 
ments was resumed the following morning. 
The work of replacing the lost patterns will 
be pushed as rapidly as possible. 

The J. W. Paxson Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 
manufacturer of foundry facings, supplies and 
equipment, celebrated recently its fiftieth anni- 
versary. In 1855 the firm of J. W. Paxson & 
Co. was formed, and the business was success- 
fully conducted under that name until 1897, 
when the J. W. Paxson Co. was incorporated 
under the Pennsylvania laws. At the present 
time the company manufactures almost all its 
foundry supplies and equipment, operates ex- 
tensive molding sand banks and maintains a 
fleet of ocean barges for coastwise delivery. 
The officers are J. K. Bougher, president and 
general manager; Howard Evans,, vice presi- 
dent; H. M. Bougher, secretary and treas- 
urer; U. S. Hibbs, assistant general manager, 
and S. C. Bougher, purchasing agent. 

Harry Haner, of Owego, N. Y., has in- 
stalled a brass furnace in his iron foundry and 
is prepared to furnish brass castings as well 

Digitized by 




June, igos 

The Eaton, Cole & Bumham Co., of Bridge- 
port, Conn., maker of gas fittings, has been 
absorbed by the Crane Bros. Co., of Chicago, 
111. The plant will be enlarged and the work- 
ing force increased. 

The American Locomotive Co. announces 
that its general offices will be located in the 
Trinity building, iii Broadway, New York. 

Fuhrman Hardware & Plumbing Co., El- 
mira, N. Y., has been incorporated to manu- 
facture hardware and hardware supplies. The 
capital stock is $25,000. The incorporators are : 
Harry K. Fuhrman, Burton Martin, W. W. 
Hervey, John C. Dyatt and Chas. S. Gary, all 
of Elmira. 

The Benjamin S. Alder Co., New York City, 
has been incorporated to manufacture hard- 
ware, cutlery, etc. Capital stock, $20,000. The 
incorporators are: Benjamin S. Alder, 1162 
Pacific street, Brooklyn, N. Y.; William W. 
Crowell, James Tongue, 37 Warren street. 
New York. 

The Crest Valve Mfg. Co., New York City, 
has been incorporated to manufacture metals, 
valves, etc.; capital, $50,000. The incorpora- 
tors are: William G. Green, William H. 
Bond, Brooklyn ; Forbes J. Holland, New York 

The Geo. A. Hogg Iron & Steel Foundry 
Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., has purchased several 
acres of land at Fourteenth street and the Belt 
Line R. R., Economy, Pa., and it is announced 
that the Vulcan Machine & Foundry Co. and 
the company above mentioned will unite and 
erect a new plant at Economy to cost in the 
neighborhood of $200,000. The merging of 
the two corporations has been completed and 
they will be among the first to locate at what 
has been planned as an industrial center. 

Notice has been published that application 
will be made for a charter of an incorporation 
to be called the Urick Foundry Co., Erie, Pa., 
for the manufacture and sale of castings from 
iron or steel. The following persons are in- 
terested: Chas. H. Urick Sr., F. H. Dixon, 
Wm. J. Urick, Chas. H. Urick Jr. and Earle 
A. Urick. 

The National Foundry Mfg. & Supply Co., of 
Williamsport, Pa., is moving into its new 
quarters, which were formerly used by the 
Larzalere Machine Co. The plant has been 
entirely remodeled and the size of the foundry 
■ increased by a large brick addition. 

The W. W. Sly Mfg. Co., of Cleveland, O., 
are building a new shop on Train street near 
the Big Four tracks, which they expect to have 

ready July ist. They report that they have 
booked as much work in the first four months 
of this year as they did in the entire previous 
year. Some idea of the work which they are 
doing may be had from the fact that they are 
now making tumbling barrels capable of clean- 
ing castings weighing two tons each. 

The Conway Steel Range Co., of Toledo, 0., 
has been incorporated with a capital of $100,- 
000, the incorporators being John Conway, 
John H. Fitzpatrick, Adam J. Ulrich, Grant 
L. Ulrich and Frank K Ulrich. This company 
has been in business for some time and the 
incorporation is merely a change from a part- 
nership to a stock company. 

The Canton Stove Mfg. Co., Canton, O., re- 
cently incorporated, does not expect to begin 
active operations until early fall. The present 
expectations are that the company will adapt 
existing buildings to its purposes. The com- 
pany has not yet made a complete schedule of 
* its equipment, which will be similar to that of 
other modern plants for the manufacture of 
stoves. The company will manufacture a few 
special styles of stoves, which will be sold di- 
rect to the user. Earl V. Coulston, who will 
manage the business, has been for the past four 
years sales manager of the A. J. Lindemann & 
Hoverson Co., of Milwaukee, and previous to 
that was an assistant in the same line for the 
Cribben & Sexton Co., Chicago. His expe- 
rience in the stove business began about 16 
years ago at Royersford, Pa., where he served 
both the Buckwalter Co. and Floyd, Wells & 

Mr. A. P. Head, the London representative 
of the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., of Cleve- 
land, O., has just completed a tour round the 
world and has established the following sub- 
agencies for the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Melbourne, The Australian Metal Co., as Aus- 
tralasian agents, with the following branches; 
New .Zealand, The Gilbert Machinery Co., 
Wellington ; Queensland, James Stothert, Bris- 
bane; N. Queensland, James Croker, Mackay; 
New So. Wales, W. R. Laidley, Sydney; So. 
Australia, James S. Eraser, Adelaide ; W. Aus- 
tralia, A. E. Thomas, Koolgardie; Tasmania, 
Lindsey Tullock, Launceton, 

In India the following agents representing 
the presidencies of Bombay, Bengal and 
Madras, have been appointed : J. Harper, Cal- 
cutta; Frank Harrison, Bombay; W. H. 
Oakes, Madras. 

The National Furnace Appliance Co., Co- 
lumbus, O., has been incorporated by M. S. 

Digitized by 


June, 1905 


196— A 

Seibert, E. S. Baldwin, G. F. Tinkman, L. T. 
Zimmerman and H. A. Clark. The capital is 

The Buckeye Foundry Co., of Cincinnati, O., 
is to be dissolved as a corporation and formed 
into a partnership by Wm, Gilbert and Chas. 
Lang, these two being the only remaining 
stockholders. The business will be conducted 
in future under the name of Buckeye Foun- 

The Mason Heater Co., of Bellaire, O., 
which has been in the hands of a receiver for 
some time, has its affairs straightened out and 
is to be reorganized with a capital of $25,000 
imder the name of the Mason Heater & Foun- 
dry Co. 

The Electric Adding Machine Co., Cleveland, 
has been incorporated. The incorporators are : 
W. S. Rogers, M. R. Cox, C. W. Pattison, C. 
C. Wise and A. W. Mayers. Capital stock, 

The Loveland Foundry, Loveland, O., began 
operations recently with a force of fifteen men 
and expects to increase its capacity as the de- 
mand increases. 

The Evansville Foundry Association, of 
Evansville, Ind., has been incorporated with a 
capital of $100,000. The incorporators are: 
Fred Eggert, Adam Jutzi and Chas. F. Diek- 

The F. M. Hicks Locomotive & Car Co., 
Chicago, with plant at Chicago Heights, has 
purchased the plant of the Aermotor Co., of 
Chicago Heights, with the 20 acres of ground 
originally belonging to the plant and an addi- 
tional 20 acres, giving ample room upon which' 
to develop large car works. It is the purpose 
of the company to build and repair coaches and 
cars in the new plant, and enter more largely 
into the building and repairing of locomotives. 

The Twin City Malleable Iron Range Co., of 
Urbana, 111., is securing equipment for a foun- 
dry, so that it will be able to make all of its 
caistings in Urbana. 

The Commercial Club, of Menominee, Mich., 
is promoting a plan to sell $100,000 first mort- 
gage bonds for the purpose of adding a steel 
casting plant to the works of the Prescott Co. 
in that city. There seems to be a good pros- 
pect that the bond issue will be subscribed by 
the people of Menominee. 

The Capital Castings Co., Lansing, Mich., 
has been incorporated for the purpose of man- 
ufacturing castings ^nd doing a general foun- 
dry business. The authorized capital stock of 
the company is $15,000, of which $8,350 has 
been subscribed. 

The Lusk Foundry Co., Ltd., Grand Rapids, 
Mich., has been incorporated for the purpose 
of carrying on a general foundry and machine 
shop business. The company has an author- 
ized capital stock of $10,000, of which $5450 
has been subscribed and $4,700 paid in in cash 
and $750 in property. 

The Penn Foundry at Duluth, Minn., which 
has been idle for some time, is once more in 
operation casting pipe. 

A. M. Sanders & Sons, of Reedsburg, Wis., 
have their foundry in good working order and 
are prepared to supply castings for local re- 

At the annual meeting of the stockholders 
of the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co., Jersey City, 
N. J., the old board of directors was unan- 
imously re-elected. The board of directors re- 
elected the following officers: Edw. F. C. 
Young president; John A. Walker, vice presi- 
dent and treasurer; George E. Long, secre- 

The South Pittsburg Foundry Co., South 
Pittsburg, Tenn., maker of stoves, commenced 
operations on April 28. The officers of the 
company are : T. G. Garrett, president ; A. A. 
Cook, vice president; and J. J. Bowers, secre- 

The Sheffield Cast Iron Pipe & Foundry Co., 
of Sheffield, Ala., has been organized witli a 
capital of $500,000, $350,000 of which has been 
already paid in. The officers are: J. W. 
Worthington, president; W. U. Parsons, 
treasurer; J. G. Aderton, auditor; and J. W. 
Worthington, S. B. McTyler, and S. Mc- 
Gaughy, directors. 

The foundry of the Hardie-Tynes Mfg. Co., 
of Birmingham, Ala., which was destroyed by 
fire March 12, has been rebuilt, with an in- 
creased capacitj', and was placed in operation 
on May i. 

The New Bern Iron Works, of New Bern, 
N. C, has been incorporated with a capital of 
$20,000, by W. A. Mcintosh, E. Williams and 
W. T. Brinson. The company intends to 
carry on a general iron foundry and machinery 

The Johnson City Foundry & Machine 
Works, of Johnson City, Tenn., has been in- 
corporated recently, with the following offi- 
cers: G. W. Sitton, president; C. V. Cross, 
secretary and treasurer; and F. W. Baum, 

Ed. Hay, of Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, 
has sold his foundry to F. W. Clayton, and the 
latter has taken over the management of the 

Digitized by 



Alphabetical Index to ottdvertisers. 

June, igos 

Adams Co 10, 75 

Addy , Matthew, 8s Co 98 

AJazMetalOo 84 

American Air Compressor Works. 97 

American Blower Co 23 

ArcadeMfg.Co 18 

Atlas Car* Mfg. Co 83 

Balkwlll Pattern Works 90 

Barbonr-Stockwell Co 82 

Barnard & Leas Mf gr. Co 88 

Bamett. Oscar, Foundry Co 22 

Bartlett.N. 8.,&Co 98 

Battle Creek Interior Finish Co 81 

Berkshire Mfg. Co 15 

Blackwell, Geo. O., Sons & Co 90 

Blake, Geo. F. , Mfg. Co Inside back cover 

Brasi Fonnders* Sapply Co 92 

Bristol Co 97 

Brown Specialty Machinery Co 17 

Bryan Tacuum Molding Machine Co 92 

Bnckeye Milling Co 34 

Buffalo Foundry Supply Co 6 

Burdick&Son 94 

♦Byram &Co — 

Canton Fillet & Mfg. Co 89 

Carborundum Co 87 

CaseMfg.Co 91 

Channon, H., Co 96 

Cherry Valley Iron Co 31 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co 89 

Church, S.B 97 

Clark Cast Steel Cement Co 21 

CUrk.D. N 19 

Clayton Air Compressor Works Inside back coyer 

Coburn Trolley Track Mfg. Co 35 

Columbus Iron & Steel Co 98 

Connersville Blower Co Outside back cover 

Comell,J. B. &J.M.,Co 96 

Curtis & Co. Mfg. Co 26 

Dalton, Nash & Co 98 

Dayton Pneumatic Tool Co 89 

DeCamp Bros. & Yule Iron, Coal & Coke Co 98 

Dempwolf , E. A., & Sons 96 

Diamond Clamp Sd Flask Co 97 

Dimmick, J. E., & Co 98 

Dings Electro Magnetic Separator Co 79 

Dixon, Joseph, Crucible Co 40 

Dobson, WUllam.. 96 

Dumhoff & Joyce Co 98 

Elm City Engineering Co 91 

Etting, Edward J 92 

Falls Rivet & Machine Co 18 

Fanner Mfg. Co 87 

Field, Bobt , Sales Agency 99 

Gautier,J.H., & Co 42, 97 

Genesee Metal Works 96 

Gilmour, J 83 

Gobeille Pattern Co 90 

Goldschmidt Thermit Co 94 

Goodrich, F. A., A Co 98 

Gould Sd Eberhardt 98 

Hanna Engineering Works 27 

Hawley Down Draft Furnace Co 82 

Herman, Chas., & Son 16 

Hill & Griffith Co 4 

HiUman, J. H, & Son 98 

Hunt,C.W.,Co 96 

IngersoU-Sergeant Drill Co 80 

Jones & Attwood 93 

Keep, W.J 85 

Kendall^ Flick 96 

♦Kent Mfg. Co - 

Kilbourne & Jacobs Mfg. Co 93 

Lindsay, W. W., & Co 43 

Manning, Maxwell & Moore 76 

Maris Bros 77 

Maurer, Henry & Son 96 

McCormick. J. S., Co 7 

McCullough-Dalzell Crucible Co 41 

McKeefrey&Co 96 

McRath, T. S., & Co 99 

Metallurgical Laboratory 97 

Middleditch, Benjamin 81 

Midvale Mining & Mfg. Co 97 

Millett Core Oven Co 29 

Mills, C. E., Oil Co SO 

Mohr.J. J 98 

Monarch Engineering & Mfg. Co S7 

National Jeloluse Co 92 

New Era Mfg. Co... 94 

Niles-Bement-Pond Co 76 

Northern Engineering Works 77, 85, 91 

Obermayer, S., Co Inside front cover and page 1 

Oregon Foundry & Machine Co 14 

Osbom Mfg. Co P4 

OtisSteel Co 95 

Partamol Co 32 

Pawling & Hamischfeger 78 

PaxBon, J. W . Co 2. 3 

Pedrick & Ayer 78 

♦Pettinos Bros 98 

Phosphor Bronze Smelting Go 95 

Pickands, Brown & Co . 99 

Pickands, Mather and Co 99 

Piling Sd Crane 99 

PiquaFlourCo .... 86 

PridiDore, Henry E 8, 9 

RandDrillCo 24 

Republic Iron & Steel Co 30 

Bicketts & Banks 97 

Ridgway. Craig. & Son Co. . 28 

Robeson Process Co 33 

Rockwell Engrineering Co 36 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co 90 

Rogers, Brown & Oo 99, 100 

Roots, P. H. & F. M., Co Inset 

Sellers, Wm.. & Co 3H 

Shepard, Chas. G 99 

Shuster, F. B., Co 84 

Smith, J. D.. Foundry Supply Co 5 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co 20 

Standard Sand & Machine Co 86 

SterlingOil Co 97 

Stevens, F.B 73, 99 

Stow Mfg. Co 93 

Sturtevant, B. F., Co 25 

Superior Charcoal Iron Co 99 

Sutch& Potter 88 

Tabor Mfg. Co 11 

Taylor, Robert J., Inc 39 

Taylor, Wilson & Co 12 

Thomas Furnace Co 99 

Tilghman-Brooksbank Sand Blast Co 91 

Walter-WaUingford & Co 99 

Walter, Wm. B., & Co 96 

Whiting Foundry Equipment Co 44 

WilcoxMfg.Co 79 

Yale & Towne Mf g. Co 88 

Digitized by 



Vol. 26, No. 5. 


Whole No. i$5 

Meeting of the American Foundrymen's Association 
in New Yoric, June 6, 7 and 8. 

The American Foundrymen's Association, 
with its affiliated branches, held its annual 
meeting in New York, June 6, 7 and 8, with 
headquarters at the Murray Hill Hotel. Most 
of the sessions were held in the Grand Central 
Palace, Lexington avenue and 43d street, 
though the morning and afternoon sessions on 
Thurscjay were held at Columbia University. 

Business Meeting of the Associated 
Foundry Foremen. 

The Associated Foundry Foremen as usual 
held their business meeting on the evening 
previous to the convention in 
the Grand Central Palace. 
This meeting was called to or- 
der by President Chas. H. 
Thomas, Secretary F. C. Ever- 
itt being in his place. There 
was an unusually good attend- 
ance and the business, includ- 
ing the adoption of the new 
constitution, kept the members 
busy until nearly midnight. 


The third annual meeting was called to or- 
der 8:4s p. m. June 5th, at the Grand Central 
Palace, President Chas. H. Thomas presiding. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read 
and approved. 

The president then appointed the following 
to act as a committee on nominations of officers 
for the following year : A. T. Williams, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., chairman; W. S. McQuillans, 
So. Norwalk, Conn. ; Geo. Martin, Ossining, 
N. Y. ; E. B. Gilmour, Peoria, 111. ; S. M. Wil- 
liams, Elizabeth, N. J. 

The secretary's report was read and ap- 
proved, after which, Henry M. Lane, editor 
of The Foundry, being perfectly familiar with 
the progress of the Foremen Patternmakers' 
Association, gave a very interesting report on 

the work of the Association during the last 
year, and stated that the prospects for a suc- 
cessful future were very encouraging. 

The president then called for the reports of 
the local associations. Owing to the absence 
of five of the representatives only three re- 
ports were given, namely: New York, by S. 
M. Williams; Cleveland, by W. H. Nicholls, 
absent H. M. Lane, reported; Philadelphia, by 
W. O. Steele, all of whom reported excellent 
progress on the work of their associations. 

The report on constitution was then given 
by the secretary in the absence of Mt. David 
Reid, chairman of the committee. A lengthy, 
but valuable discussion resulted in the adop- 
tion, with a few necessary changes, of the' con- 
stitution as a whole, the construction of which 
was made to harmonize more with the object 
and transactions of the association. The re- 
port was then accepted and the committee dis- 
charged with thanks. 

The report of the committee on charters was 
then read. Mr. Williams moved, and Mr. Gil- 
mour seconded that the report be accepted and 
the committee discharged with thanks. 

The report of committee on the "Henry 
Hansen Memorial" followed. Mr. Stickles 
moved and Mr. McPhee seconded that the re- 
port be accepted and the committee discharged 
with thanks. 

Mr. McPhee moved and Mr. A. T. Williams 
seconded that the past presidents be elected to 
honorary membership. Motion carried. Mr. 
Arch. M. Louden, and Mr. C. H. Thomas being 

The report of the committee on nominations 
was then received and following officers nomi- 
nated: President, Mr. David Reid, Canadian 
Westinghouse Co., Hamilton, Can. ; first vice 
president, W. H. Nicholls, Hill Clutch Co., 
Cleveland, O. ; second vice president, Hugh 
McPhee, Eaton, Cold & Burnham, Bridgeport, 

Vice presidents for Erie Assn., W. F. Gru- 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 


nan, Erie City Iron Works, Erie, Pa. ; Milwau- 
kee Assn., name to be furnished later; Chica- 
go Assn., Mr. Thomson, Link Belt Co., Chi- 
cago, 111.; Indianapolis Assn., W. S. Keller, 
Hetherington & Berner Co. ; New York Assn., 
C. H. Thomas, New York City; Cleveland 
Assn., A. L. Hott, Interstate Foundry Co., 
Cleveland, O. ; Philadelphia Assn., A. T. Wil- 
liams, Enterprise Mfg.- Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Hamilton, Can., Assn., Frank Reid, D. Moore 
& Co., Hamilton, Can.; secretary-treasurer, F. 
C.v Everett, The J. L. Mott Iron Works, N. Y. 

Upon motion of the Association the secretary 
then cast the ballot and the above officers were 

On motion, the meeting adjourned 11:30. 
Respectfully submitted, 

T. C. EvERiTT, Secretary. 

New Constitution of A. F. F. 

The Constitution and By-Laws as amended 
and revised by the committee appointed by the 
Indianapolis convention, June, 1904, and 
adopted at the New York convention, June 5, 




Section i. The name of this association shall 
be the "Associated Foundry Foremen." 

Sec. 2. The object of this association shall 
be solely educational. The same to be accom- 
plished by collecting such information as will 
be of benefit to its members and to general 
foundry practice, the presentation of papers on 
appropriate subjects for discussion and the pub- 
lication of such literature as may be deemed 

Sec. 3. The Society shall neither endorse 
nor recommend any product consumed in foun- 
dries. This does not interfere with the mem- 
bers expressing their opinion on such subjects 
as aflfcc.t the trade in general. 

Sec. 4. This Society will work with and aid 
the American Foundrymen's Association, in es- 
tablishing uniform methods and actions among 
foundrymen, as far as possible. 



Section i. The membership in this society 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 



shall consist of the two classes — Active and 

Sec 2. Any person who is, engaged as man- 
ager, superintendent, foreman or assistant fore- 
man of a foundry, foreman coremaker or fore- 
man patternmaker may become an active mem- 
ber. Any honorary member may become an 
active member on recommendation of the 

Sec. 3. Any person who has held any of the 
above positions, or whose knowledge or service 
may be of value to this society may become an 
honorary member. 

Section i. The officers of this association 
shall consist of a president, two (2) vice presi- 
dents at large, together with a vice president 
from- each local association, and a secretary- 
treasurer who shall jointly form the executive 
board of the association. The office of secre- 
tary shall be considered the headquarters of 
this association. 

Sec. 2. The two vice presidents at large 
shall be elective officers and the presidents of 
the local associations shall be the remaining 
vice presidents. 


Section i. The annual meeting shall be held 
at the same time and place as the American 
Foundrymen's Association, arrangements for 
same to be made by the executive board, and 
the members notified at least three (3) months 
in advance of said meeting. Twenty-five (25) 
members shall constitute a quorum. 

Sec, 2. Additional meetings may be called 
by the "S^ecretary at the written request of 
twenty-five (25) members, at the time and 
place j^ated by them. 

Sec 3. Meetings of the executive board 
may be called 1^ the president or by any three 
(3) members of said board, and five (5) shall 
constitute a quorum. 


Section i. This constitution and by-laws 
may be amended at any annual meeting by a 
two-thirds vote, by letter ballot. 

Sec 2. Notice of proposed amendments 
must be in writing and sent to the secretary at 
least ninety (90) days prior to the meeting. 
Such amendm.ents will be printed and mailed 
to each member with letter ballot to be acted 
upon at the next meeting. 



Election of Officers. 

Section i. The president, vice president and 
a secretary-treasurer shall be elected by bal- 
lot at the annual meeting, a majority of those 
voting being necessary to elect and will hold 
oflice for one year or until their successor shall 
have been elected or appointed. 

Sec 2. No member in arrears for dues shall 
be eligible for election. 

Sec. 3. The officers elected shall assume 
their duties immediately upon receiving notice, 
by letter, of their election. In the case of a 
vacancy occurring in any office during the year, 
the executive board shall fill the vacancy within 
one- month from the time it occurs, to com- 
plete the unexpired term. 

Duties of Officers. 

Section i. The president shall have general 
supervision over the affairs of the society, pre- 
side at all meetings and perform such other 
duties as usually devolve upon a presiding 

Sec. 2. The vice president shall perform the 
duties of the president during his absence or in 
case of a vacancy in said office. 

Sec. 3. The secretary shall be, under the di- 
rection of the president, the executive officer of 
the society. He shall conduct the correspond- 
ence of the society and endeavor to obtain such 
information for the members thereof as will 
further their interests. He shall keep a com- 
plete record of all members and the class of 
work in which they are engaged. He shall see 
that moneys due the society are carefully col- 
lected and transferred to the custody of the 
treasurer. He shall carefully scrutinize all ex- 
penditure and use his best endeavor to secure 
economy in the administration of the society. 
He shall notify any member who is in arrears 
to the society and furnish the president with a 
list of those who are three (3) months in 
arrears. He shall endeavor to give each vice 
president a complete list of members in his dis- 
trict, both active and honorary, and furnish at 
the annual meeting a written report of the 
year's proceedings. 

For his services he shall receive such com- 
pensation as may be decided upon by the ex- 
ecutive board. The amount of said compensa- 
tion not to exceed 10 per cent of the annual 
receipts of the Association. 

Sec. 4. The treasurer shall have charge of 
all moneys and pay all bills, which have been 
approved for payment by the secretary. He 

Digitized by 



^uly, 1905 

Digitized by' 

July, 1905 



shall keep regular accounts of all receipts and 
expenditures, which shall be open to the in- 
spection of the executive board at all times. 

Bond shall be furnished, the amount and 
arrangement for placing said bond shall be left 
to the discretion of the executive board. 

Sec. 5. The executive board shall manage 
the affairs of the society to the best of their 

Admission to the Society. 
Section i. All applications for membership 
shall be made on a blank furnished by the 
society and addressed to the secretary, or the 
same may be effected through the respective 
local associations. It shall be accompanied by 
the amount of the annual dues. 


Section i. The annual dues of Active mem- 
bers shall be two (2) dollars, payable in ad- 

Sec. 2. Honorary members shall not be sub- 
ject to the payment of dues. 

Sec. 3. No member will be entitled to the 
services of the society beyond the period for 
which his dues are paid. 

Sec. 4. Every member shall, upon the pay- 
ment of his annual dues, receive a certificate of 
membership, which will constitute an official re 
ceipt and be a primary guarantee of member- 
ship in the Associated Foundry Foremen. It 
shall state the date of expiration, at which time 
a new membership card shall be issued to the 
holder upon payment of his annual dues. 

Sec. S. The executive board may, for suf- 
ficient cause, excuse from payment of annual 
dues any member who from ill-health, advanced 
age, or other good reason assigned, is unable to 
pay his dues. 

Sec. 6. Every person admitted to the society 
shall be considered as belonging thereto and 
liable for the payment of all dues until he shall 
have resigned, been expelled, or have been re- 
lieved by the executive board. 


Section i. The object of the charters is to 
have all local associations affiiliate with and 
have each and every member of said locals 
members as individuals of the national body in 
order to increase the interest and concentrate 
the workings of the various locals to the sole 
object of the national association. 

Sec. 2. The body of the charter is as fol- 

This is to certify that the Foundry Fore- 
man's Association of is a section of 

the Associated Foundry Foremen of North 
America and being members by right of this 
charter are entitled to all the benefits and priv- 
ileges accrued therefrom, the same being con- 
trolled by the constitution of the national body 
together with all local by-laws set aside for 
their guidance. 

In testimony whereof are hereunto affixed 
the seal and the names of the president and 
secretiry of the Associated Foundry Foremen 
of North America. 

This, day of igo. . 

^'o President 

(Seal.) Secretary 

Sec. 3. On application of five or more mem- 
bers to form a local association, a charter will 
be granted, said charter empowering said local 
to transact such business, in their respective lo- 
calities, as will be of benefit to the progress of 
the society, and to examine and receive mem- 
bers. The names of said members to be for- 


warded with the regular fee, two (2) dollars, 

to the national secretary within ten (10) days. 

Sec. 4. The charters will remain in force 

as long as the local affiliates, and its 

members remain in good standing with the na- 
tional association. 


Section i. The executive board shall have 
power to hear and determine upon the conduct 
of its members for any infraction of its rules 
and regulations and for professional miscon- 
duct calculated to affect the good name of the 
society or interfere with order and harmony. 

Their findings shall be laid before the society 
at the next meeting for final action. 

Order of Business. 
Section I. The order of business to be ob- 
served at the annual meetings shall be as fol- 
lows : 
I. Reading of minutes of the last meeting. 

Digitized by 



July, 1905 

2. Announcement by the president of 

special committees as follows: 
a. Committee of five (5) to nominate 
officers for the following year, 
b. Committee of three (3) to audit the 
accounts of the secretary-treasurer. 

3. Reports of officers and standing com- 


4. Unfinished business. 

5. New business. 

6. Report of special committees: — No. 2 

a and b. 

7. Election of officers. 

Section i. These by-laws may be amended 
under the rules stated in article 5 section i of 
the constitution. 


The tenth annual meeting of the American 
Foundryifien's Association convened at the 
Grand Central Palace on Tuesday morning, 
June 6. The association not being the guest 
of either the city or the local foundrymen, the 
usual opening formalities were dispensed with. 
President Chris J. Wolff called the meeting 
to order promptly at ten o'clock 

President's Address. 

"The most instructive and pleasurable of our 
public assemblies are those which engage all 
of our members in the association's common 
good. This being our tenth annual conven- 
tion, we justly look back with pride on the 
vast strides that have 
been made in an educa- 
tional way by our organ- 
ization since its incep- 
tion in Philadelphia in 
1896. Among the ad- 
vantages of this asso- 
ciation to its members, 
""^^and by no means the 
least, is the formation of 
agreeable acquaintance. 

True, we have not 
obtained the highest de- 
sire of some, but no 
candid estimate of us 
by the outside world has 
fallen below excellent. 
Our aim has always 

been to help educate 
CHRIS J. WOI.FF. ., , , . 

•* the world as far as we 

can in our chosen field. The good work of 

this organization has not all been accomplished 

without criticism, for associations, like men, 
should not expect praise without envy until 
they are dead. The present time is one char- 
acterized by organization for mutual support in 
whatever direction this may tend. Only that 
organization which gives more than it receives 
will survive and really be useful to the State. 
In the foundry industry only those organiza- 
tions which are founded on the wide open 
door principle, for interchange of thought and 
experience, will serve the country best. Our 
own association invites three factors in the 
trade — the owner, the superintendent or fore- 
man, and the molder, patternmaker or other 
workman — into full membership, giving them 
all equal rights and the opportunity to get ac- 
quainted, to exchange views and experiences 
in the carrying out of every part of the foun- 
dry program. For that reason we invited the 
foundry foreman's organization to become part 
of us, and welcomed them as such, after we 
had satisfied ourselves that they were an edu- 
cational institution only and had no ulterior 
motive antagonistic to this fundamental idea 
of ours. The results have been most gratify- 
ing It would be advisable for our association 
to let the foundry owners know by circular let- 
ter or otherwise of the foremen's association 
and have them encourage their foremen to join 
it. Every foundry owner who has taken the 
trouble to get where he can learn something 
relative to advanced ideas in foundry practice 
has added to the value of his plant as a pro- 
ducer. Every foreman who has opened his 
mind to what other people have found to be 
good becomes a better employe and loses the 
predilections tying him to the narrow views 
of the foundry floor. Every molder who 
wishes to learn the details of all parts of the 
foundry business puts himself in line for 
speedy promotion. We therefore invite every 
one connected with the foundry to join our or- 
ganization and help to build it up on these 
lines. Especially we invite the foundry owner 
to get out of his shell and join on the common 
ground with his employes, where he can learn 
again what he has often forgotten since he 
himself graduated from the floor. He will find 
himself repaid by an increase of loyalty on the 
part of his employes through the feeling of 
mutual sympathy and interest engendered by 
the principles of our association. 

"In my anxiety to respond promptly and 
fully to the confidence which you placed in m.e 
I urged such measures as the objects of the 
association provided for or conditions justi- 
fied, and have ever stood ready to execute the 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 



will of the majority. It will be observed that, 
though the president is held responsible for 
every policy and act of the association, yet his 
authority is absolutely dependent on the sup- 
port of the officers and committees. Differ- 
ences of opinion or even disagreements on 
methods should not always be regarded as op- 
posed to the association's interests, and in this 
spirit I most heartily appreciate the co-opera- 
tion and assistance afforded me. My sincere 
thanks are hereby due and tendered to each of 
the officers and members for the earnest devo- 
tion with which you have supported my ef- 

Secretary's Report. 

A very active year of Association work is 
now behind us. The foundry industry is truly 
waking up, and he who doubts it, may simply 
glance at the programme of the present meet- 
ing to satisfy himself that this is so. Never- 
theless, this does not mean that we have re- 
ceived the support from the industry that is 
due our work and ideals. The disturbances of 
the foundry world have been frequent and 
severe. The changes in organization of the 
individual plants have been many. New blood 
is coming in everywhere, and with it a closer 
understanding of expense and income, good 
and bad methods of 
work, and a restless- 
ness on the part of 
the buying public, 
which requires the 
closest study on the 
part of the gray iron 
founder, to overcome. 
Our steel casting 
and malleable plants 
are full of orders to- 
day, but the same 
cannot be said of the 
iron foundries. Hence 
attention is given in 
a greater measure 
than ever to improv- 
ing the quality of the 
foundry output, and 
THB SHCRKTARY RSADS hence science is play- 
His REPORT. jng a greater part in 

our work than we might suppose. 

Many of us will recall the discussion on the 
purchase of pig iron we had while in Buf- 
falo. It was just the year of the turn- 
ing from fracture buying to chemical analysis. 
Today what founder does not scrutinize the 
analysis cards of his shipments to satisfy him- 

self that all is well, even if he holds to the old 
way of doing business. 

The trade school question is coming up 
stronger and more persistent all the time, and 
well can we wish it success and that it may 
come quickly. The Government itself is wak- 
ing up to one of its functions, and the Bureau 
of Standards promises to become a most im- 
portant aid in helping to eliminate the uncer- 
tainties besetting details of manufacture, where 
all are concerned equally. Even today the 
question of standards, such as we have been 
preparing for the chemist and foundryman, is 
being studied by this splendid undertaking of 
the Government ; and we wish it all success. 

In view of the meagre support given our 
efforts to get out fuller transactions, the Jour- 
nal of the Association had to be abandoned, 
and occasional issues of papers and discussions 
substituted therefor. No one regrets this more 
than your secretary, though the burden the 
Journal entailed on all that contributed so ably 
to its literary and technical success, was a 
heavy one. 

Through the generous arrangement with the 
Foundryj whereby our papers are printed at 
cost, and can thus be distributed cheaply to the 
membership, we have succeeded in removing 
the debt of the Association, and the financial 
statement is now as follows: 
Income from dues, sales, interest, and 

standardizing bureau $2,208 85 

Expenditures : — 

Debt of last year $ 995 04 

Printing 52 20 

Postage 217 00 

Transactions I35 I5 

Expense 5 00 

Secretary's office 400 00 

Standardizing bureau 337 52 

Total $2,141 91 

leaving a balance of $66.94 to our credit 

An analysis of the expense will show a few 
things of interest to us. First of all the cost 
of the transactions has been very low. This 
unfortunately also means that our members get 
much less than formerly, and hence the annual 
dues of the Association should be materially 
decreased. The experiment of giving a better 
Journal having failed through lack of support, 
and the fact that trade journals are giving 
much better material now than heretofore, pre- 
cludes any attempt, or should do so, to go back 
to the old method again. There are today 
more journals devoting space to foundry mat- 
ters than formerly, and they have the advan- 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 

tage of advertising matter to offset the printing 
costs, which is something we as an association 
should not go into. I would therefore strongly 
urge a reduction of the annual dues to even as 
low as $3.00, thus giving our present members 
a better equivalent, and also tending to in- 
crease our membership. 

From the item of postage, it will be seen 
that with very little expense for the transac- 
tions, the correspondence has increased 
enormously. Your secretary's office easily re- 
flects the waking-up process above referred to. 
If ail the foundrymen who have requested 
advice, or wanted information could have been 
inducecj to become members, we would have a 
better showing in that respect than is the 


case. It seems, however, that the idea of 
supporting an association which works hard 
for just such betterment of the industry, is 
considered secondary to the immediate gain 
derived by asking, and taking the chances of 
getting the information or advice for nothing. 
Such, however, is life, and only the ideals we 
subscribe to, of bettering the industry at the 
expense of our time and energy, whoever may 
profit thereby, hold us above discouragement 
and giving up the work in despair. 

The bright side of the problem lies in the 
universal recognition of the work of the As- 

sociation. England and Germany have or- 
ganized similar associations, freely following 
our lines of endeavor. 

Our membership today is 294, or 16 more 
than last year, which in spite of the drain on 
the resources of foundrymen demanded by 
other movements, speaks well for our loyalty 
to the cause. Even India is represented in 
our membership list. The Association, how- 
ever, should be much greater numerically, for 
there are nearly 5,000 foundries to draw 
from, and surely most of them can stand a 
little more knowledge generously distributed 
about the place. 

You will receive separate reports from the 
Foremen's and the Metallurgical Sections. 
These movements are now rapidly approach- 
ing a stage when they can act independently 
of us and we are proud to have assisted in in- 
teresting these branches of the industry in 
studying their field closely and finding better- 
ment and success therein. 

I would therefore recommend the continu- 
ance of the work as heretofore, by commit- 
tees, the printing of the transactions under the 
favorable arrangement with the Foundry, the 
reduction of the dues, and a continued effort 
on the part of our members to assist the sec- 
retary in increasing the interest and support 
of the industry in our chosen work. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Richard Moldenke, Secretary. 

Pattern Insurance. 

It will be remembered that the committee on 
pattern insurance reported a blank form for 
taking care of patterns last year and outlined 
a general scheme for pattern insurance. The 
report of the committee this year was read by 
Dr. Moldenke, in the absence of the chairman, 
Frederick Conlin, of Bethelehem, Pa. In the 
course of his remarks he said the insurance 
interests of the country have an agreement 
by which is case of fire they never pay more 
than ten per cent of the value for the loss of 
patterns, which is often an injustice to the 
found ryman, because fre- 
quently the patterns are worth 
more than the foundry itself. 
He recommended that all 
members of the association < 
press the insurance interests^ 
harder to get this injustice cor- 
rected, and suggested that a 
system be substituted whereby 
losses would be paid on a de- 
preciation of 5 per cent per 
annum for metal patterns, and pulley Jones 
10 per cent for wooden patterns, the date of 
the last use of the pattern to be that from 
which the depreciation is dated. An illustra- 
tion in point was made of the system in 
vogue on railroads for insuring rolling stock. 

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July, igos 



in which the value of the car is depreciated 
each 3'ear it is in service. 

The report of the committee on coke tests 
was also made by the secretary. H. E. Field, 
of Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co., Pittsburg, 
drew up the plan of operation and Dr. Mol- 
denkc carried on the tests. A series of cokes 
which were made at the exposition were used 
to melt iron under standard and identical con- 
ditions in the cupola of the model foundry at 
the World's Fair. The results of the 19 tests 
made will be published by the Government 
later. The secretary added that the lesson to 
be learned was that if every foundryman 
watched closely the 
method of charging and 
adapting the cupola to 
the particular quality of 
/\ coke used they might 
'JY \get much better results 
/? Ithan they do, and it 
/LJ would be no longer 
^^^ necessary to swear by 
Connellsville coke as the 
only thing to use. For 
instance, a very light 

I,. G. BLUNT. , ' . , * • J 

coke which was tried 
burnt out so quickly in the bed that the iron 
being brought in contact with the blast burned 
away over 60 percent. On the other hand, a 
very heavy coke took so long to burn that 
very unsatisfactory results were obtained. 

The committee on sand beds for molds re- 
ported progress and was continued. 

Report of Committee on Foundry Trade 

The chairman of the committee on trade 
schools was absent, but the report was pre- 
sented by W. H. MacFadden, of Pittsburg. 
The report dealt wholly with the Carnegie 
Technical School, and was as follows: 

The Carnegie Technical Schools expect to 
have ready for operation this fall a portion of 
its buildings. Among the first buildings to be 
erected will be that one which contains the 
foundry. This foundry will be equipped with 
the best modern appliances, and supervised 
by an instructor of experience in both the 
practical and theoretical side of foundry prac- 
tice, aided by such assistants as he may need. 

Two courses will be established; a day 
course for the students in Applied Science, 
who wish to ultimately specialize in one of the 
engineering branches, or in foundry practice. 
Their instruction will be thorough, on the 
theory and practice of molding, construction 

of the cupola and furnaces, the technology of 
the fuels, the metallurgical chemistry under- 
lying the mixes, construction of the flasks, the 
making of cores, and such familiarity with 
foundry equipment in general as will enable 
them to see the underlying principles on 
which they operate. 

In addition to the above technical instruc- 
tion, general instruction will be given in 
physics, chemistry, mechanical drawing, Eng- 
\\<h, mathematics, costs and business organiza- 
tion. A limited number only can be admitted 
this year for this course of instruction. 

The applicants for admission will be tested 
by entrance examinations. 

The evening course 
in this foundry cov- 
ers, in the sL^me Uvim- 
ber of lesson hours 
and therefore a great- 
er number of years, 
practically the same 
ground that is cov- 
ered in the technical 
branches, but merely 
deals with the general 
branches in an ele- 
mentary form. This 
night course for in- 
struction in molding 
and foundry practice 
is projected primarily for the benefit of those 
already engaged in that occupation. Prefer- 
ence will be given to those who are employed 
in foundries in the daytime. 

The course will be not less than three years 
in length for night students, and it is hoped 
that the employing founders will insist upon 
their apprentices and helpers attending with 

Admission for special instruction in this 
night course is also conferred upon any jour- 
neyman molder already employed in a foun- 
dry, or out of employment who desires the 
theoretical instruction and understanding of 
the fundamental principles which are neces- 
sary for him to advance himself, as a more 
skillful molder or 
to raise himself to 
the position of fore- 
man of molders. This 
night course of in- 
struction will be thor- 
ough and consist 
largely of laboratory 
constructions, direct- >^ 
ly attached to the 
foundry, or in the 
foundry itself. 



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July, 1905 

In no instance will emphasis be laid upon 
the student applicant to pass a difficult en- 
trance examination as it is the opinion of the 
school authorities that the employers have al- 
ready examined and qualified to the fitness of 
the applicant, since said student is already in 
the employ of said manufacturer. 

A series of general lectures on sand, on iron, 
graphite, silica and on basic open-hearth steel, 
brass, copper, and other castings will form a 
part of the instruction, and these lectures all 
who are interested can attend. 

Blowers, Piping and Cupolas at the Plant 
of the Michigan Stove Co. 

After all the business had been transacted 
on Tuesday morning, Mr. W. J. Keep, of De- 
troit, Mich., read his paper on "Blowers, Pip- 
ing and Cupolas at the Plant of the Michigan 
Stove Co." This pa- 
per provoked consid- 
erable discussion. 

L. G. Blunt, of the 
Westinghouse Electric 
& Mfg. Co., Pittsburg, 
asked if Mr. Keep 
had noticed the oxida- 
tion of silicon and 
carbon in the cupola 
at the melting ratio 
he mentioned, and 
whether he had kept 
any record of the 
losses. Also if he 
found by varying the 
amount of fuel and 
blast whether a cheap- 
er grade of pig iron 
could be used. Mr. 
Keep replied that 
they had made some 
very accurate tests on 
a week's work on the 
melting losses only. 
He called attention to the fact that in 
a stove foundry he found it very dif- 
ficult to keep any record of the losses, 
mentioning that they swept the foundry every 
night, picked up all the scrap, riddled the 
sand, and extracted the chippings, etc. Every 
day's record was kept by itself, so that they 
knew absolutely all the time what they were 
doing. In this way, he found that there was 
about 4?/^ percent loss from all sources. The 
loss of silicon was only about % oi i percent, 
and the carbon loss very slight. 
W. A. Jones, of Chicago, wanted to know 


what cupolas Mr. Keep used, and was told 
that they were of the old cylinde r ty pe. The 
same gentleman also 
asked if any data had 
been kept as to a com- 
parison between the out- 
let of the tuyeres and the 
capacity of the blast 
pipe. He was informed 
that the area of the tu- / 
yeres is about two and^. 
three times as large ast 
that of the blast pipe. 

David Spence, of the 
Greenlee Foundry Co., 
Chicago, asked the size 
of the tuyeres as they en- 
ter the cupola. Mr. Keep 
answered that in their 
No. 3 cupola the tuyeres 
are almost continuous. 
Nos. I and 2 cupolas, he 
added, have tuyeres 4^4 
in. by 7 in., each cupola being equipped with 

Notes on Pipe Foundries and Suggestions 
on Metal Mixers for Foundry Purposes. 

Mr. J. B. Nau, of New York City, next read 
his paper entitled "Notes on Pipe Foundries 
and Suggestions on Metal Mixers for Foundry 

J. B. NAU. 


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July, 1905 



Purposes." While this paper contained a large 
amount of matter which was very interesting 
and which caused some discussion in the lob- 
bies afterward, there was no official discus- 
sion upon it. 

Retort Coke Melting Ratios. "^^ ' 
C. M. Schwerin, of the Milwaukee Coke & Gas 
Co.. Milwaukee, Wis., followed with his paper 
on "Retort Coke Melting Ratios." This paper 
proved very interest- 
ing to the members 
and was followed by 
considerable discus- 
sion. L. G. Blunt, of 
Pittsburg, asked if by 
increasing the quan- 
tity of coke on the 
charge from one to 
ten to one to seven, in 
both cases putting in 
a good bed, whether 
a cheaper grade of 
pig iron could be 
used. Mr. Schwer- 
in's answer was that 
after a certain amount 
of coke had been put 
in there was no gain, 
but for very light 
work by pouring the 
iron hot, it had less 
tendency to take a 
sand chill. "It is true," he continued, "that a 
softer grade of iron can be used when run- 
ning a high bed and keeping the melting points 
up than if the melting points were allowed to 


go too near the tuyeres by running a low bed 
or not putting sufficient coke on the charges, 
as the blast will oxidize the iron, making it 


Mr. Ellsworth M. 
Taylor of Boston next 
read his paper on 
"Production Costs." 
Mr. Taylor's remarks 
were heartily applaud- 
ed and Mr. David 
Spence, of Chicago, 
told of the method of 
keeping track of costs 
in vogue in the plant 
of which he is super- 
intendent. It was 
thought expedient, 
however, to reserve 
further discussion of 
this subject for 
Thursday, when more 
members would be 


Making a Molder. ' 

Henry M. Lane, of Cleveland, next read the 
paper entitled "Making a Molder," which was 
on the program for Wednesday afternoon but 
which was read and discussed Tuesday morn- 
ing, so as to be sure and finish the discussion 
on other papers later in the week. 

In the discussion that followed, August T. 
William, Philadelphia, told the convention that 
the firm with which he is employed undertook 
some time back to put into operation a plan 
to educate the boys and men in its employ 

i\ <^a^ 



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July, 1905 

along the lines suggested by Mr. Lane, and 
that the attempt was a signal failure. Mr. 
William was of the opinion that the influence 
of labor unions upon apprentices destroyed in 
a large measure the efforts of the employer in 
his educational work. The fact also that so 
many concerns confined their shops to the 
manufacture of specialties prevented the teach- 
ing of the molder's trade 
in all its details. To 
make a competent work- 
man this speaker thought 
that manufacturers 
should adopt a plan by 
means of which a boy 
could, after learning all 
the details of the work 
in the shop of his first 
employer, be transferred 
to another shop, where 
a different product was 

L. G. Blunt told of the 
technical school main- 
tained by the Westing- 
house Electric & Mfg. 
Co., at Pittsburg, for the 
benefit of its employes, 
the instructors in which 
were the best engineers 
in the employ of the company. In this institu- 
tion, three classes are maintained. One of two 
years, one of three years and one of four 
years. The first mentioned is intended for 
college graduates, and is a sort of post gradu- 
ate course; the second is for boys and men 
who have had a common school education, 
and the four-year course for those whose edu- 
cation has been very limited. The latter stu- 
dents pass through every department of the 
electrical company's works, learning the de- 
tails of each thoroughly. Finally, they reach 
the dynamo test department, which is the 
senior class. By this time, they have received 
an excellent training in the manufacture and 
operation of electrical machinery and can be 
classed as first-class workmen. 

In answering the above, Mr. Lane states that 
Mr. William evidently misunderstood the pa- 
per, as it would be impossible for any ordinary 
manufacturing concern to put into effect just 
the course outlined in the paper without going 
to a very great expense, and without the neces- 
sary books and preliminary training the ex- 
periment would be almost sure to fail. 


American Pig Iron Warrant STStem. 

The session Tuesday afternoon was opened 
with a talk on the latest developments of the 
American Pig Iron Warrant System for foun- 
dry use, by George H. Hull, of New York. 
At the close of his talk Mr. Hull answered a 
number of questions concerning the working 
of the system. 

Foundry Foremen's Session. 

After the paper on Pig Iron Warrants Presi- 
dent Wolff turned the meeting over to the 
Associated Foundry Foremen, vacating the 
chair to C H. Thomas, president of the sec- 
tion. After a brief speech by Mjr. Thomas 
Secretary Everitt read his report for the year 


Report of the Secretary of A. F. F. 

The close of another year brings us to a 
statement of the conditions and affairs of our 
association, and the general conditions of shop 
affairs. The year ending June 6, 1904, found 
us with 177 members and five local associa- 
tions. During the past year the membership 
has increased to 278 and we have added three 
local associations to our number. 

The organization of the Foreman's Club of 
Cleveland, July 8, 1904, has attracted no little 
attention on the part of the association and its 
friends. They have been, and are, doing ex- 
cellent work in their locality and deserve rec- 

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July, 1905 



ogrnition as being among the most progressive 
of the local associations. 

No less can be said of the Associated Foun- 
dry Foremen of Philadelphia and vicinity, 
which association was organized Oct. 17, 1904. 
The various subjects that have been taken up 
at the regular monthly meetings have been 
wisely selected and have resulted in very profit- 
able discussions. 

The fact that the formation of these associa- 
tions was prompted by the foundry operators 
is in itself very significant and affords en- 
couragement to the extent that we, as a body, 
should show our appreciation by putting forth 
every effort to improve the general conditions 
of the foundry. 

The organization of the Foundry Foremen 
of Hamilton, Canada, March 11, 1905, was 
an event of unusual interest. This is practic- 
ally a new field for the work of our association 
and consequently resulted in the more strenu- 
ous efforts of our worthy vice president, Mr. 
Reid, to effect an organization. There are, at 
present, comparatively few members, but the 
progress thus far made is of marked value and 
significant of permanency and continued 

Giarters were granted, as a result of the 
committee appointed at the Indianapolis con- 
vention to the eight local associations and all, 
but one, replied and accepted. The Indian- 
apolis association decided not to consider the 
National Association for the present. 

A most natural procedure has been taken 
up by the foremen's club of Cleveland, namely, 
the enrollment of the "foremen patternmak- 
ers" as active members of their association. 

This question was placed in the hands of a 
committee for investigation and in reply to a 
communication from Mr. 
Henry M. Lane, editor of 
The Foundry, and a mem- 
ber of the committee, the 
president and secretary 
stated that due to the pres- 
ent constitution the best 
that could be done would 
be to enroll the foremen 
patternmakers as honorary 
or associate members and 
present the matter at the 
The proposition was referred 
to Mr. Wm. Parry, chairman of the pattern- 
makers' section of the American Foundrymen's 
Association, who replied very favorably and of- 
fered any assistance that would be instrumental 
in effecting a union. 


June convention. 

The idea has been very favorably received 
wherever presented and when we consider that 
the foundry and pattern shop are more 
closely related than any other two departments 
it seems that it would be to the advantage of 
all concerned to enroll the foremen pattern 
makers as active members of the Associated 
Foundry Foremen. 

The work of the Foremen's association is 
unquestionably the discussion and develop- 
ment of the productive side of the foundry. 
It is necessary, then, that we, as members of 
this association, introduce some method where- 
by we may arrive at some definite result for 
the a^lvancement of general foundry practice. 

Up to the present time the various local as- 
sociations have selected different subjects of 
importance and discussed them in a general 
way, but we have arrived at no definite con- 


elusions through which all our members may 
be equally benefited. When we consider that 
50 percent of our members are so located as to 
be unable to attend the local meetings, and 
find comparatively few of these valuable dis- 
cussions published, we recognize at a glance 
the importance of providing some means to 
furnish definite data from which our members 
may obtain satisfactory results. 

In consideration of this fact, arrangements 
were made in February with the Penton Pub- 

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July, 1905 




lishing Co. which has enabled us to include in 
the annual dues a year's subscription for The 
Foundry, 6,700 notices were sent out to this 
effect in April to all foundries in the United 
States and Canada. The appreciation of this 
offer seems rather discouraging inasmuch as 
only 66 have made replies, 25 of these being 
new members. 

The many subjects that are daily brought to 
our notice and need much valuable considera- 
tion to produce satisfactory results can be 
placed in the hands of special committees for 
proper investigation. 

The following subjects may be selected for 
the work of such committees: 

Cupola Management, Foundry Chemistry, 
The Core Department, The Cleaning Depart- 
ment, Molding Machine Practice, subdivided 
according to the class of work; Stove Plate 
and Heaters, Sanitary Work, General Jobbing, 
Foundry Equipment, Provisions for the Com- 
fort of the Men, Pattern System, Foundry 
Records, etc. 

To obtain the most profitable results on the 
above subjects we might suggest that a com- 
mittee of three or five be appointed, or we 
might distribute the different subjects amongst 
the local associations 
with instructions to make 
a thorough study of the 
subjects assigned, in all 
their details, make such 
. experiments that may 
'be of value, enter upon 
such correspondence as 
will aid in rendering an 
instructive report at the 
next annual meeting and 
incidentally consult with 
the managers and own- 
ers as to the advisability 
of adopting such meth- 
ods as may be selected 
PRESSES HIS OPINION, by the committees. 

We might also plan, for our next conven- 
tion, a period of longer duration, i.e.: 


The Morning Session. — Report of commit- 
tees selected to investigate the subjects pre- 
sented. Said reports to be made on standard 
forms and on vote of the convention, be 
printed and distributed to all members of the 

The Afternoon Session. — The reading of pa- 

The Evening Session. — Business of the as- 
sociation and election of officers. 

We have another valuable suggestion, name- 
ly, the circulation of papers. The plan being 
outlined as follows: 

Have all papers from the various local as- 
sociations sent to the secretary, copied and 
mailed to the remaining number of locals for 
their discussion. The paper with the discus- 
sion again returned to the secretary to be 
compiled and sent to all members of the as- 
sociation. The discussion is, without doubt, 
the most important part of a paper as it often 
brings to light valuable points that have been 
omitted by the writer. This point in itself 
brings to our notice, at once, the value of such 
a plan and would give every member an 
equal opportunity to profit through the work 
of the association. 

Whatever the plan be that is adopted, we 
have first to consider the cost necessary to 
complete the work. This brings us to a state- 
ment of the finances of the association, and 
with the permission of the treasurer I have in- 
cluded his report. 

Cash on hand June 9, 1904 $51 99 

Total receipts to June 5, 1905. . 426 73 

Total disbursements $368 21 

Cash on hand June 5, 1905 no 51 

$478 72 $478 72 

Number of members, dues unpaid 102 

Amount outstanding dues $294 0^ 

Report of Membership — 

Honorary members, June 9, 1904 10 

Active members, June 9, 1904 1^7 


Digitized by 


July, 1905 



Honorary members June 5, 1905. 

Active members, June 5, 1905 

Resigned 4 

Dropped 7 


Total 278 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. C. Everett, Secy. 
New York, June 5, 1905. 

Papers Read. 

After the Secretary's report, Mr. Benjamin 
D Fuller, of Allegheny, read a paper entitled 
"Needed in the Business." As no discussion 
followed, David Spence, of Chicago was called 
upon to read his paper entitled "Things We 
Need in the Foundry." The gist of this paper 
was that instead of cutting 
one another's prices we should 
aim to make the very best 
quality of castings possible, 
and get a good price for them. 
Mr. Spence characterised cut- 
ting prices as one of the great- 
est evils the foundry business 
has to contend with; as it 
E. B. GiLMOUR. involves poor work, and slo- 
venly methods in general. 

A paper on "The Use of Plaster of Paris in 
the Foundry," by Edward B. Gilmour, of Pe- 
oria, 111., was next taken up, and as there was 
no discussion this was followed by two papers 
by Archibald M. Loudon, of Elmira, New 
York, entitled "A Simple and Economical 
Method of Molding Propeller Wheels," and 
"A Successful Foundry Combination." In the 
discussion of the first paper, one man asked 


Mr. Loudon if he knew of any cause in which a 
plaster of Paris match had been used for a 
pattern for a big propeller wheel. Mr. Loudon 
replied that plaster of Paris would be too ex- 
pensive for this purpose. 

The paper on "Fan and Blower Tests," by 
H. E. Field, of the Maclntosh-Hemphill Com- 
pany, of Pittsburg, was nex;t read, but discus- 
sion on this paper was postponed for the ses- 
sion next morning. The Secretary then told 
W. W. Sly, of the Sly Manufacturing Com- 
pany, of Cleveland, that he couldjiave just ten 
minutes to present 
his paper on "Shot 
Iron," as the mem- 
bers were getting 
hungry and it would 
not do to keep them 
too long. Mr. Sly 
had not prepared his 
paper in writing be- 
fore the meeting, but 
had had some analy- 
ses made and had 
tried some experi- 
ments to test the 
value of shot iron. 
He stated in brief 



that the shot iron was just as good as any of 
the scrap which came from the sprues, pro- 
vided it was properly treated. 

If the shot iron is allowed to lie in the dump 
while the coke remaining in the dump burns 
out the shot will absorb an excess of sulphur 
and become so oxidized that it is worthless, 
but if the dump is thoroughly quenched the 
shot will not absorb sulphur, and will be as 
good as any other scrap from the cast. 

Some of the analyses which Mr. Sly read 
were as follows: He took a grate bar and 
had both ends analyzed. The burnt end ana- 
lyzed as follows: Silicon, 2.23; sulphur, 0.23; 
phosphorus, 0.838 ; manganese, 0.41 ; combined 
carbon, 0.36; graphitic carbon, 1.88. This gives 
a total carbon of 2.24. The unburned or stub 
end of the bar analyzed as follows: Silicon, 
2.16; sulphur, o.iii; phosphorus, 0.819; man- 
ganese, 0.44; combined carbon, 0.07; graphitic 
carbon, 3.19. 

This shows that the burned end of the bar 
bad had almost no change in silicon, contained 
more than double 
the amount of sul- 
phur, that the phos- 
phorus and manga- 
nese were only 
changed slightly, and 
that the total carbon 
had been reduced over 
one percent. This 
loading of the iron 
with sulphur, and re- 
duction of the carbon d. j. Thomas. 

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July, 1905 

would be enough to damage the iron greatly. 
Mr. Sly also presented the following analyses 
of shot iron, and sprues from the same cast. 
The shot iron contained silicon, 1.90 ; sulphur, 
0.077; phosphorus, 0.684; total carbon, 3.58; 
while the sprue contained silicon, 1.88; sul- 
phur, 0.074; phosphorus, 0.57; and total car- 
bon, 3.200 percent. 

From this it will be noticed that the com- 
position is almost identical and that the shot 


is just as good scrap as the sprue. Mr. Blunt, 
in discussing the paper, stated that it was 
the magnetic oxide contained in burnt grate 
bars which rendered it useless, and that it was 
also the magnetic oxide in burnt shot iron 
that rendered it useless. He stated that they 
used all of their shot iron without difficulty. 
Mr. Sly promised to work this paper into more 
complete shape and present it later. 

Wednesday Morning. 

The main lecture room of the chemical labor- 
atory of Columbia University was well filled 
when President Wolff called the meeting to 
order. Owing to the absence of the various 
members of the faculty at the summer schools. 
Dr. Moldenke welcomed the assembly in be- 
half of the institution, of which he is an 
alumnus. His remarks were as follows: 
Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen. 

I have been honored with the pleasant task 
of welcoming you to Columbia University. I 

have been asked to do so on behalf of this 
great institution because the dean and profes- 
sors are all away with the summer classes in 
mine and mountain, shop and smelter, since 
the young men who are later on to manage our 
establishments are required to get into touch 
with actual conditions in business life as early 
and often as possible. They thus become of 
greater immediate value to you when they 
have left their Alma Mater. 

I take peculiar personal pride in having been 
designated to receive you, as I myself am one 
of Columbia's sons, and as the Secretary of 
your great and important association, enjoy the 
distinction of being a resident lecturer to the 
classes here on Foundry Practice. 

The twenty years that have passed since I 
was graduated from this institution of learn- 
ing, have seen wonderful changes in America's 
university life. You behold the stately pile 
of magnificent structures, some of them still 


rising, all about you here. They are but the 
outward evidences of the work that is being 
done. Within these walls, in daily touch with 
famous men of warm-hearted interest for each 
and every student, there is developed a culture 
which the university life gives the faithful 
searcher after truth. The personal element in 
the daily contact with men of splendid charac- 
ter, such as is always met with within our 
great universities and technical schools, be- 
comes the chief element in forming the minds 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 



of our young men, and places them on the 
road of life, leading to solid and righteous 

Here in the laboratories, workshops and 
museums will be found everything that science 
and art can provide, to teach the principles un- 
derlying the utilization of Nature's forces for 


the good of man. All that a university can 
teach us, is, after all, only how to learn. How 
to observe correctly, make the proper deduc- 
tions therefrom, and apply our knowledge to 
the best advantage. It is this training of the 
mind along the paths of logic, and correct 
thinking, that give the university bred man, 
if he is otherwise capable in business, the great 
advantage he enjoys, in being capable of filling 
important places earlier in life than has been 
the case heretofore. What does not ten years 
of life mean to us in these strenuous days. 

It is the aim of all our universities and 
technical schools to train the youth of the 
nation to utilize our wonderful resources in the 
most economical way. Hence only the best 
methods for turning out high class material 
are taught. The student is made self-reliant, 
and learns to make the best use of what he 
finds, whatever the conditions may be that 
surround him. Thus do we aid in stemming 
the shameful waste of the nation's economic 
resources, and not only are we making good 
metallurgists and engineers, but high spirited 

We will be taken through the mechanical 

and metallurgical laboratories later in the day, 
and see the many and varied appliances which 
facilitate the study of methods and results in 
our chosen field. 

Columbia welcomes you as an educational 
association, and with us, wishes that we were 
not almost the only body of men seeking to 
elevate an industry which forms but one small 
part of the vast system on which rests the 
prosperity, and comfort of the world. Colum- 
bia invites you to send your sons to round off 
their characters and acquirements before en- 
tering the competition of man to man in the 
race for wealth and station. She wishes to 
see your good influence extended still further, 
and continue to benefit the great foundry indus- 
try even more than it has already done. 

Columbia welcomes you one and all, hopes 
that when the day is over that it may be passed 
to the credit side of your experiences, and 
wishes you to keep her in warm remembrance, 
and use her resources wherever she may help 
you in the problems of your daily work. 


Discussion on Fan and Blower Tests. 

F. W. Stickle, of Waterbury, Conn., open- 
ing the discussion of the paper on "Fan and 
Blower Tests," read on the previous day by 
H. E. Field, Pittsburg, inquired whether the 
time of tapping the slag had been the same in 
both tests, and whether the volume of air had 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 

been sufficiently uniform to insure the same 

Mr. Field replied that the work had been 
performed by trained men and that everything 
possible had been done to render the test abso- 
lutely correct. The volume of air had not been 

Mr. Stickle remarked that the catalogue fig- 
ures of manufactures did not always agree 
with the actual volume of air furnished by 
their machines, and that in some cases the 
claims were purposely made lower than meas- 
urements seemed to warrant. The power 
necessary to melt a given quantity of iron de- 
pended very largely upon the time required. 
He had found that while a certain volume of 
air is necessary, it is possible to double the 
output by increasing the volume furnished. 
The increased resistance due to rising temper- 
ature might also increase the power required 
very materially. In his opinion unsatisfactory 
results were very often due to failure to sup- 
ply a sufficient volume of air. The best policy 
was always to melt the iron as rapidly as pos- 

David Spence, of Chicago, asked about the 
number of ounces of pressure employed in 
the tests, and spoke of the influence of the 
physical properties of the coke upon the melt- 
ing process. He had found that with a rela- 
tively light coke the melt proceeds more rap- 
idly, apparently because the carbon is con- 
sumed more readily than is the case with a 
denser fuel. Referring to a custom of begm- 
ning the operation with 10 ounces blast pres- 
sure and increasing to 16 ounces, he person- 
ally believed that quite as rapid work could be 
done by keeping the pressure uniformly at 12 

Foundry and Pattern Shop Standards. 

William H. Parry, Brooklyn, N. Y., read his 
paper at this meeting on "Foundry and Pat- 
tern Shop Stand- 
ards," in which he 
urged the adoption of 
measures to secure 
greater uniformity in 
the matter of dimen- 
sions, draft, spin- 
dles, etc. 

H. M. Lane, of 
Cleveland, said that 
he had for some time 
been trying to find 
out whether anything 
w. H. PARRY. had been done 

toward the standardization of flasks. He had 
written a number of letters and had received 
many interesting replies. It had been sug- 
gested that the Association take the matter up. 
Some rational standards for snap flasks, pins 

and pin holes are especially desirable. He 
thought that what had been done in the case 
of standardizing the size of machine catalogues 
might also be done in foundry practice. 

E. B. Gilmour, Peoria, 111., suggested that 
the matter presented fewer difficulties than ap- 
peared at first sight. 

Dr. Moldenke proposed that a committee be 
appointed devoted entirely to the interests of 
the patternmakers, a committee to report from 
time to time on standardization of pattemshop- 
foundry practice. The motion was adopted. A 
second motion for similar action for the stand- 
ardization of flasks aroused considerable dis- 

Benj. Fuller, Allegheny, Pa., said it would be 
difficult to tie down the foundryman to stand- 
ard flasks. Flasks must be of such form as 
to accommodate the pattern. W. H. Parry dis- 
claimed any intention to dictate as to size and 
shapes, but he saw no reason why something 
could not be done to eliminate odd sizes, some- 
times involving differences of small fractions 
of an inch. August T. William endorsed Mr. 
Parry's remarks. He said it was often neces- 
sary to change the flasks for the molding ma- 
chine every time a new pattern was used. Chas. 
J. Caley, Bridgeport, Conn., suggested that the 
motion be limited to flasks of certain sizes 
only. F. W. Stickle, Waterbury, Conn., be- 
lieved in standardization in every way possible. 
He said that foundrymen had trouble enough 
without a lot of odd flasks. Eugene W. Smith, 
Chicago, thought that a standard in even inches 
could be set to which machine men could agree 
in time. One of the worst features of modem 
practice was, in his opinion, too much crowd- 
ing of flasks. 

The motion to provide a committee to look 
into the standardization of flasks prevailed. 

H. M. Lane, Cleveland, gave a brief synopsis 
of his paper on the '*Care and Storage of Pat- 

Paper on Thermit. 

W. M. Carr of the Goldschmidt Thermit Co.. 
New York, entertained the assembly with a 
practical demonstration of the use of thermit. 
He described the different kinds of this prod- 
uct, the variety 
used for ordinary 
welding being a mix- 
ture of metallic 
aluminum and iron 
oxide. When ig- 
nited, the oxidation 
of the aluminum pro- 
duces an intense heat, 
in ordinary quantities 
approximating 5000 
degrees F. or 3000 de- w. m. carr. 

grees C, the iron oxide being reduced to 
the metallic form. In order to show the 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 



intensity of the heat produced, a quantity of 
the material was ignited and the products of 
the reaction allowed to flow upon an iron plate, 
one inch thick, burning a hole through it in- 
stantly. A second experiment was a butt-weli 
of two sections of two-inch pipe. In the dis- 
cussion which followed, Mr. Carr explained a 
number of interesting details connected with 
the manipulation of thermit. The reaction as 
ordinarily carried out produces about 50 per- 
cent of a mild form of steel containing about 
.1 percent of carbon derived from the graphite 
of the crucible. Nickel thermit is employed 
for the introduction of a definite quantity of 
nickel into cast iron or steel. About Yz per- 
cent of nickel in cast iron kettles increased the 
resistance to acids and alkalis, to a marked de- 
gree. The demonstrator explained that while 
it was possible to use thermit in welding cast 
iron, it was in this case necessary to employ 
a larger proportion of the material than with 

A paper by G. N. Prentiss, Milwaukee, Wis., 
on thermit practice closed the morning session. 

Noon Intermission. 

At 12:30 the meeting adjourned until after 
dinner, and the members and guests repaired 
to the University Commons, where they were 
served with a sub- 
stantial luncheon. 
One of the enterpris- 
ing supply men had 
distributed little 
feathers upon which 
was printed **The J. 
D. Smith Foundry 
Supply Co. We don't 
stick our customers," 
and upon the end of 
which a burdock burr 
was attached. He 
had succeeded in 
making pretty much 
every one look like 
Indians, by the num- 
ber of colored feath- 
ers that were attached to them. This feature 
and various other little tricks played by the 
supply men served to keep everybody in a good 
humor. The Obermayer Company distributed 
a little button with a piece of steel in the back 
so as to form a clicker or cricket, and these 
were in evidence everywhere by their clicking. 
After luncheon the party assembled on the 
library steps where a photograph was taken. 
They then inspected the laboratories, admired 


the campus and buildings, and visited all parts 
of the university. 

.V- Afternoon Session. 

The afternoon session was called to order 
by the President at half past two. Several of 
the papers presented in the afternoon were il- 
lustrated by stereopticon. The first one was on 
"The Variation of the Properties of Alloys," 
by Percy Longmuir, of Sheffield, England. This 
was contributed by The Metal Industry, and 
read by Dr. Scholl. The lantern slides showed 
the apparatus used, photographs of the speci- 
mens, the microstructure of the different al- 
loys, and a chart showing the results. There 
was no discussion of 
the paper though it 
had been extremely 
interesting to all pres- 

The next paper 
was a description of 
"The Use of Thermit 
in a Railroad Shop," 
by James F. Webb, 
of Elkhart, Ind. This 
was also illustrated 
by a number of lan- 
tern views. There 
was quite a little dis- 
cussion of the paper, 
mainly in the shape of questions which Mr. 
Webb answered. In the discussion the fact 
was brought out that in his more recent work, 
Mr. Webb has used molds made of fire-brick, 
the bricks being chipped or cut to such a shape 
that they were fitted about the piece to be re- 
paired and then clamped in position; the joints 
being closed with fire clay. By using a 
porous brick, such a mold is practically self- 

Microscopic views of a large number of well 
known varieties of 
core sands were a 
feature of a paper on 
"Core Sands," by J. 
S. Robeson, Camden, 
N. J. The author 
made clear that th? 
occasional failure of 
cores prepared with 
any given binder was 
frequently due to the 
character of the core 
sand employed. He 
gave a number of 

successful formulae i.iTTi,B grains of 
and related several sand. 

ONE OF smith's 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 




experiences in which a slight modification of 
the mixture converted vexatious failures into 
conspicuous successes. 

A discussion which caused more or less 
amusement concerned the possibility of casting 
cylinder jackets with cores without vents. One 
member remarked that it was all he could do 
to make cylinders of that kind w'ith vents, to 
say nothing of ventless cores. The gentleman 

to whom the original claim that the thing could 
be done (P. M. Baumgardner, president The 
Holland Linseed Oil Co., Chicago), has been 
ascribed, failed to appear, and the discussion 
died for lack of opposition. 

The next afternoon, however, when visiting 
the plant of the International Steam Pump Co., 
it was discovered that they were making jacket 
cores without vents, exactly as Mr. Baumgard- 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 



ner had described to some of the members 
previous to Wednesday afternoon's session. 

Thursday Morning. 

With the exception of a discussion of about 
half an hour's duration on the paper read by 
Ellsworth M. Taylor of Boston, on "Produc- 
tion Costs," the meeting Thursday morning 
was devoted entirely to the election of officers 
for the coming year, and to the transaction of 
new and unfinished business. Mr. Taylor was 
given the opportunity by the president to an- 
swer any questions on the subject of his paper 
which any of the members might be interested 
in asking. Following the lead of August T. 
William of Philadelphia, the discussion took 
the line of whether it was advisable to keep a 
detailed system of the costs connected with 
the manufacture of small castings. The opin- 
ion prevailed amoni? the foundrymen who par- 
ticipated in the discussion^ and was coinci(Jed 
in by Mr. Taylor, that in a great majority of 
cases it is neither practicable nor advisable to 
attempt to do this ; that where very small cast- 
ings are concerned it is better to get a fair 
average cost and charge accordingly. A peri- 
odical check on the cost of manufacturing such 
castings every one or two years would be suffi- 
cient to keep the price in line. Mr. Taylor 
thought it would be a saving to the proprietor 
if such labor was put on the piece basis. 

After the discussion ended, the convention 
voted its thanks to Mr. Taylor, on motion of 
Mr. William, for the very able manner in 
which he had answered the questions asked. 

Metallurgical Report. 

The report of the metallurgical section was 
next read by H. E. Diller, secretary, which is 
as follows: 

During the past year your committee has 
formulated a method for determinating the 
silicon in cast iron, and is now at work on the 
question of the total carbon. The following is 
the method which your committee recommends 
to be the standard of the association, for the 
determination of silicon in pig iron and cast 

"Weigh one gramme of sample, add 30 c. c. 
nitric acid, (1.13 sp. gr.) ; then 5 c. c. sulphuric 
acid (cone). Evaporate on hot plate until 
all fumes are driven off. Take up in wait:r and 
boil until all ferrous sulphate is dissolved. 

Filter on an ashless fil- 
ter, with or without 
suction pump, using a 
cone. Wash once with 
hot water, once with 
hydrochloric acid, and 
three or four times 
with hot water. Ignite, 
weigh, and evaporate 
with a few drops of sul- 
phuric acid and 4 or 5 ( 
c. c. of hydrofluric acid. 
Ignite slowly and 
weigh. Multiply the dif- 
ference in weight by 

In recommending the 
above method, it was 
recognized that it is al- 
most an impossibility to 
get chemists to use a 
standard method in 
their daily work. Hence the above method, 
as recommended, is intended primarily as a 
check method in case of dispute between dif- 
ferent laboratories, or as between buyer and 

Hence a method, accurate in every point 
was sought, shortness being sacrificed to some 
extent to insure accuracy or the chance of 
error by a careless operator. Little in the 
above is left to the judgment of the chemist. 

It will be further recognized that in the pur- 
chase and sale of pig iron or castings under 
specification, that standard methods are essen- 
tial in order to allow the parties of both parts 
to make their determinations with the assur- 
ance that, on the score of method, they are 
on the same footing. 

Miscellaneous Business. 

Under the subject of new and unfinished 
business. Dr. Moldenke brought up the ques- 
tion of reducing the dues of the Association. 
He suggested this step not only as an induce- 
ment to increase the membership, but because 
he felt that since the discontinuance of the 
Journal the members were not getting full 
value for the $10 they were paying. To bring 
the matter to some sort of conclusion, he made 
a motion that the dues be reduced to $3 per 
year. This proposal was not favorably re- 
ceived and after some discussion the original 
motion was amended to make the annual dues 
$5, with the proviso that this amount be 
charged to members of the different sections 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 

as well as to members of the Association. This 
was carried. 

Following this action, the Association voted 
its thanks to Columbia University, to, the con- 
tributors of the papers read, to the foundry 
supply men and to the entertainment com- 

The nominating committee, composed of 
W. A. Jones, of the W. A. Jones Foundry & 
Machine Co., Chicago, 111. ; J. P. Golden, Gol- 
den Foundry and Machine Co., Columbus, Ga. ; 
George H. Lincoln, Lincoln Foundry Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass.; C. H. Thomas, president of the 
Foundry Foremen's Section, and A. V. Slo- 
cum. National Car Wheel Co., Pittsburg, which 
was appointed at the Tuesday morning ses- 
sion, was called upon for its report. 
In proposing Mr. West's name for president, 
^ the chairman of the 

committee, W. A. Jones, 
spoke in high praise pf 
Mr. West's services to 
the association and of 
his work as an investi- 
gator and contributor 
of original articles on 
foundry practice. He 
said: "As chairman of 
the nominating commit- 
tee, I am pleased to 
state that the Associa- 
tion has thought it wise 
to select at each of its 
conventions a gentleman 
whose home is the city 
in which the convention will next convene. 
In this way, the president will preside in his 
own city. This presents many advantages and 
as far as can be seen few disadvantages. And 
working with this end in view, it affords me 
great pleasure to place in nomination for presi- 
dent of this Association a gentleman whom you 
all know, a gentleman who is well known 
throughout this country where foundry inter- 
ests are known or even discussed ; whose books 
and papers have a national reputation, and a 
gentleman who perhaps more than any other 
person excepting alone, Dr. Moldenke, has 
done more and worked harder for the inter- 
ests of this Association." 

The secretary was instructed to cast the vote 
of the convention for the election of Mr. West 
as president and for the election of the other 
candidates presented for the offices named. 
This was done and W. A. Jones and C. H. 
Thomas were appointed to escort Mr. West to 
the chair. 


The customary expressions of appreciation 
and thanks for the honor were made by the 
incoming and outgoing officers, and following 
the precedent established at the first meeting, 
C. H. Wolff, the re- 
tiring president, was 
made an honorary 
member of the Asso- 

The vice presi- 
dents elected for the 
ensuing year are as 
follows : New Eng- three from the hub. 
land States, Harry A. Carpenter, A. Carpenter 
& Sons, Providence, R. I. New York & New 
Jersey, H. Van Atta, Supt. J. L. Mott Iron 
Works, New York. Penn., Delaware, Mary- 
land and District Columbia, A. V. Slocum, 
National Car Wheel Co., Pittsburg. Michigan, 
Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, A. K. Beckwith, 
estate of P. B. Beckwith, Dowagiac, Mich. In- 
diana, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, 
Afizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada and Cali- 
fornia, David Spence, Greenlee Foundry Co., 
Chicago. Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, North 
Dakota, South Dakota, Idaho, Nebraska, Wy- 
oming, Washington and Oregon, Adam Bair, 
superintendent of foundry, C. M. & St. P. Ry., 
Milwaukee, Wis. Virginia, West Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Flor- 
ida, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louis- 
iana, Oklahoma and Texas, J. P. Golden, 
Golden Foundry & Machine Co., Columbus, 
Ga. Canada, T. J. Best, Warden, King & Co., 

Foundry Foremen's 

Chairman, David 
Reed, Canadian West- 
inghouse Co., Hamil- 
ton, Can. 

Secretary, F. C. 
Everitt, J. L. Mott—/ 
Iron Works, New 
Metallurgical Section. 

Chairman, R. S. 
MacPherran, J. I. 
Case, Threshing Ma- 
chine Co., Racine, h. j. mccasun. 

Secretary, H. E. Diller, Western Electric 
Co., Chicago, 111. 
Patternmakers' Section. 

Chairman, H. J. McCaslin, Wellman-Seaver- 
Morgan Co., Cleveland. 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 



Secretary, \Vm. H. Parry, National Meter 
Co., Brqoklyn, N. Y. 
Auditing Committee. 

J. S; Seaman, S. H. Stupakoff and Wm. 
Year), all 6f Pittsburg. 

Invitations to hold the 1906 convention in 
Cleveland were received from the mayor, 
chamber of commerce, foundry foremen's soci- 
ety and several large manufacturing interests 
of that city, and were read by H. M. Lane, of 

An invitation was also received from the 
Philadelphia Foundrymen's Association ask- 
ing that the convention for 1907 should con- 
vene in that city. 


Mr. L. L. Anthes, of the Toronto Foundry 
Co.. of Toronto, Canada, also stated that the 
Canadians would be glad to have the As- 
sociation meet with them in 1908, and that he 
hoped to present a formal invitation later for 
the 1908 convention to be held in Toronto. 

The meeting adjourned, and in the afternoon 
the members visited the works of the Interna- 
tional Steam Pump Co., Harrison, N. J. 

Excursion to Harrison, N. J. 

About a hundred of the members and guests 
of the association set out from hotel head- 
quarters Thursday afternoon 
to visit the great plant of 
the International Steam 
Pump Co., at Harrison, N. 
J., under the guidance of 
Dr. Moldenke. Clear skies 
and brilliant sunshine made 
up for the disagreeable 

weather of the earlier days 
J. s. Mccormick. . ^, 

of the convention. 

At the works the delegation was received 

and conducted about the establishment by 
representatives of the firm, and .the busy 
scenes in and about the foundries, sorne fafni- 
liar and others suggestive of improvements 
in home plants, were, to many, a welcome 
change from the hustle and bustle of New 
York streets. 

An interesting feature in connection with the 
visit was a demonstration by the Goldschmidt 
Thermit Co. of the manner in which nickel 
thermit could be used for introducing nickel 
into iron or steel castings. They also demon- 
strated the use of ordinary thermit for heating 
the risers to keep them open. 

As mentioned, those who had been carry- 
ing on the ventless core discussion found such 
cores in use at the plant. By the use of the 
proper sand, and. a suitable binder they had 
succeeded in solving the difficulty. 

The Convention Core Room. 

In order to make things seem homelike at 
the convention, some of the supply men pro- 
vided a very good working core room in the 
basement adjoining the grill room. The Thos. 
W. Pangbom Co. had the largest exhibit and 
centainly went to a great deal of trouble to 
make a remarkable display. They had a 
steam pipe brought from the boiler room and 
had one of the Hanna post screen shakers in 
operation riddling sand. In addition there was 
displayed a com- 
plete line of the sev- 
eral types of shakers 
made by the Hanna 
Engineering Works, 
of Chicago. Adjoin- 
ing the post shaking 
screen exhibit they 
had an exhibit of the^ 
Hammer core ma- 
chine. The machine 
was so connected that Arthur w. walker. 
it could be driven either by motor or hand, and 
was in operation making the various sizes of 
cores. At the back of the space there was an 
exhibit of corundum wheels of various sizes 
and shapes, together with samples of corun- 
dum ore, showing the product as mined and 
manufactured by the National Corundum 
Wheel Co., of Buffalo, for whom the Pang- 
bom Co. is exclusive Eastern sales agent. In 
fact, they hold an exclusive Eastern sales 
agency for each of the lines which they had on 
exhibition. Among points of especial inter- 
est in connection with the general supplies on 
exhibition by this company, there was a Wil- 
liamson universal double swivel machinist's 
vise, which attracted considerable attention. 

Digitized by 



July, 1905 


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The Diamond Clamp and Flask Co.'s 

This exhibit occupied a table in the center of 
the room, and consisted of one of their single 
pull universal belt shifters, and a core machine 
which has recently been designed and is now be- 
ing perfected by this company. For agricul- 
tural machinery there are a large number of 
small cores required having a conical print on 
one end. To make these a machine has been 
devised in which the 
sand is fed to the ma- 
chine by a spiral 
screw turned at right 
angles by a deflecting 
plate and forced out 
through an opening 
which can be turned 
down horizontally or 
placed in a vertical 
position. When the 
core is forced up ver- 
tical, its own weight 
tends to keep it in 
place. After the de- 

sired length has been forced out, a set of dies 
are brought together by a suitable lever so as 
to compress the lower end of the core, thus 
forming the print. 

This company also had a very neat souvenir 
in the form of a little folder, closed by one 
of their patent pattern dowels. 
Exhibit of the Falls Rivet & Machine Co. 

This company had on exhibit one of their 
6-inch machines, which had been fitted up with 
a large fly wheel, so that it is possible to make 
6-inch cores 24 inches long in 12 seconds by 

Mccormick pumping 
vuw:an into 



Digitized by 


July, 190S 




hand. They also had on exhibit a large num- 
ber of odd sized and shaped cores which had 
been made with special dies, for different 
customers requiring special forms of cores. 
Some of these were very interesting indeed, 
and showed that a large amount of careful 
thought had been expended in designing the 
equipment for producing them. 

Convention Notes. 

While at this convention there was not the 
amount of sight-seeing, entertainment, etc., that 
has marked some of the previous gatherings, 
a number of the members stated that they 
had never seen so much interest taken in the 
papers read, and so much general discussion. 
Evening sessions had purposely been avoided 
in order that the members might have time to 
take in the various New York attractions. 
The supply men were conspicu- 
ous in heading parties to the 
various places of amusement. 
The sand men, the Smith 
crowd, and some others could 
undoubtedly give a pretty good 
account of everything that was 
doing at Coney Island. 

J. S. McCormick and some 
of his Pittsburg friends guided 
a large party to the Hippodrome one night, 
and in fact, every night saw a good number 



Just to keep the Sly Mills in memory and to 
please his old friends, Mr. W. W. Sly appeared 
in the hotel lobby one day with a box under 
his arm and distributed aluminum cigar hold- 
ers, each filled with three good smokes. 

At the first day's session Mrs. Clark Fisher 
and her daughter were present. Mrs. Fisher 
owns and operates the Eagle Anvil Works, 
Trenton, N. J. She took a lively interest in 
the discussions, and in conversation with some 
of the members afterwards told a number of 
reminiscences which occurred at her own plant. 

The members who were present at the Mil- 
waukee Convention will remember Miss Ella 
M. Jones, whom many of them thought was 
probably the only woman in the United States 
running a foundry. It would 
be interesting to know how 
many foundries in the United 
States are owned or operated 
by women. 

Mr. John Hill, of the Hill 
& Griffith Co., Cincinnati, pre- 
sented all of the members at 
the Columbia University meeting with a very 
ornamental watch fob from which was sus- 
pended a metal imitation of the barrel of the 
facings for which his company is famous. 

Henry E. Pridmore and his faithful right 
hand man, D. E. Egan, made a half-mile sprint 
from the railroad station at Harrison to the 
plant of the International Steam Pump Co., 
so as to hold all the members up at the door 
that they might present each with a handsome 
gold pencil with their compliments. Unfor- 
tunately, Mr. Pridmore was so secretive in 
his movements that the cartoonist did not 
succeed in catching him. Probably Mr. Prid- 
more was too busy entertaining his friends. 

Mr. S. D. Tompkins, of the Smooth-on Mfg. 
Co., was present at all of the sessions, and 
met many old friends, and made some new 

Mr. Charles J. Caley, of the Russell & Irwin 
Co., of New Brighton, Conn., distributed a 
very useful souvenir in the shape of a case- 
hardened screw driver which was gold plated. 
The head of the screw driver had stamped on 
it in a very neat design, the trade mark of the 
Russell & Irwin Co. 

Those in Attendance. 

Adamson, Robert, Farrell Fdy. & Machine Co., An- 
sonia. Conn. 

Anderson, N., Matthew Addy & Co., New York. 

Anthcs, L. L., Toronto Fdy. Co., Ltd., Toronto, 

Ayers, £. M., Zanesville, O. 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 



Digitized by 


July, 1905 




Bair, A. W., C. M. & St. Paul Fdy., Milwaukee, 

Bartlett, S. I.., Elizabeth, N. J. 

Baumgardner, P. M., president Holland Linseed Oil 
Co., Chicago. 

Bean, A. P., The T. H. 
Symington Co., Corning, 

N. y. 

Bean, W. R., The T. II. 
Symington Co., Corning, 
N. Y. 

Beckett, Jas. A., Hoo- 
sick Falls, N. Y. 

Bcckwith, A. K., Beck- 
/ with Esute, Dowagiac, 

Beckwith, Mrs. A. K., 
Dowagiac, Mich. 

Bell, Daniel, Dominion 
Coal Co., Glace Bay, N. S. 
Bernhard. B., Garwood 
Foundry, Garwood, N. J. 
Beverly, T. L., Cohoes 
Iron Fdy. Mach. Co., Co- 
hoes, N. Y. 

Blau, L. G., Golden 
Foundry & Machine Co., 
Columbus, Ga. 
Blunt, L. G., Westinghouse Foundries, Pittsburg. 
Blythe, Robert, Walker & Pratt Mfg. Co., Boston. 
Bougher, J. K., J. W. Paxson Co., Philadelphia. 
Bowe, Jas. J., Eddy Valve Co., Waterford, N. Y. 
Bradford, Jas., Lord & Burnham Co., Irvington-on* 

Brant, W. J., Chicago Flour Co.. Pittsburg. 
Brewer, W. M., Colonial Fdy. & Machinery Co., So. 
Norwalk, Conn. 

Brown, Aug. W., Abendroth Bros., Port Chester, 
N. Y. 

Brown, L. K., L. K. Brown Molding Sand Co., 
Zanesville, O. 

Brown, L. S., Springfield Facing Co., Springfield, 

Bullard, H. W., Poughkeepsie Fdy. & Mach. Co., 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

Burgen, J. J., Lane Mfg. Co., Montpelier, Vt. 
Burns, John C, Pond Pool Co., Plainliel.1, K. J 
Burr, John W., The Burr & Houston Co., lirooklyn. 
Burr, Mrs. John W., Brooklyn. 

Caley, Chas. J,, Kussell & Erwin Mfg. Co., New 
Britain, Conn. 

Caley, II. L., Hart & Crouse Co., Utici, X. Y. 
Carr, W. M., Goldschmidt Thermit Co., New York. 
Carr, Mrs. W. M., New York. 

Chapman, Eugene M., Wm. M. Crane Fdy. Co., 
Peekskill, N. Y. 

Cherrie, Jas., Friction Pulley & Mach. Wks., Sandy 
Hill, N. J. 

Clark, A. L., American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co., 
Mahwah, N. J. 

Colvin, C. H., Colvin Foundry Co., Providence. 
Cooledge, Edw. R., Thos. W. Pangborn Co., New 

Crawford, Robt., S. L. Moore & Sons Co., Elizabeth, 

Crivcl, Geo. F., F. B. Stevens, Detroit. 

Acme Fdy. Co., 
The Arlington Co., 

Cunningham, W. P., American Bridge Co., Philadel- 

Cusljing, Geo. H., H. B. Smith 
Co., Westfield, Mass. 

Dancer, J. C, General Electric 
Co., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Danziger, J. L., chemist. New 

Davie, Jas., 

Dette, W. S., 
New York. 

DeWolfe, W. H., P. & F. Corbin, 
New Britain, Conn. 

Diller, H. E.. Western Electric 
Co., Chicago. 

Dorman, Robert, Garwood Ma- 
chine Co., Garwood, N. J. c2^ ^^ 

Eagan, D. F., Pridmore Molding j^ ^ KAGKN 
Machine Co., Boston. 

English, W. C, The Iron Age, Boston. 

Everitt, F. C, J. L. Mott Iron Works, New York. 

Fasy, Jos. I., W. W. Lindsay & Co., Philadelphia. 

Fenwinkle, W. A., Electric Controller & Supply Co., 

Field, H. E., Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co., PittsbuTg. 

Findley, A. I., The Iron Age, New York. 

Fisher, Harriet, Eagle Anvil Works, Trenton, N. J. 

Fisher, S. H., Harrisburg Foundry & Mach. Wks., 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Fitzpatrick, Wm. M., The S. Obermayer Co., Pitts- 

Folant, W. S., Colonial Fdy. & Mach. Co., So. 
Norwalk, Conn. 

Foster, W. C, M. J. Drummond & Co., New York. 

Fraser, John, Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co., Pitts- 

Frohman, E. D., The S. Obermayer Co., Pittsburg. 

Frohman, H. F., The S. Obermayer Co., Cincinnati. 

Fuller, Benj. D., Westinghouse Elec. Co., Pittsburg. 

Gartside, W. N., Diamond Clamp & Flask Co., Rich- 
mond, Ind. 

Gilbert, H. P., Piqua Flour Co., Piqua, O. 

Gilbert, H. W., N. Y. C. & H. Ry. Foundry, Frank- 
fort, N. Y. 

Gilbert, L. D., Frick Co., Waynesboro, Pa. 

Gilraour, E. B., Globe Foundry Co., Peoria, 111. 

Gilmour, J., Foundry Equipment, New York. 

Golden, J. P., Golden Foundry & Machine C^., 
Columbus, Ga. 

Golden, Mrs. J. P., 
Columbus, Ga. 

Golden, Miss Mamie, 
Columbus, Ga. 

Golden, Miss Sara, 
Columbus, Ga. 

Googins, C. E., Smooth- 
On Mfg. Co., Jersey City. 

Gorman, J. W., Ridge- 
way Machine & Tool Co., 
Ridgeway, Pa. 

Gow, John, General 
Electric Co., Schenectady, 
N. Y. 

Graham, W. M., N. Y. 
Green Fuel Economizer 
Co., Mattcawan, N. Y. 

Griffiths, Geo. H., The 
Iron Trade Reinew, Chi- 

Grunau, W. F., Eric 
City Iron Works, Erie, 


Digitized by 




July, igo5 

Gunn, John K., Utica Pipe Fdy. Co., Utica, N. Y. 

Hamilton, Wm., Newport News S. B. & D. D. Co., 
Newport News, Va. 

Hazeltine, Reginald, Magee Furnace Co., Boston. 

Hessler, Geo. J., Syracuse Fdy. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Hill, J.. The Hill & Griffith Co., Cincinnati. 

Hirschheimer, 1,. C, La Crosse Plow Co., La 
Crosse, Wis. 

Hockley, Rupert R., Abendroth Bros., Port Chester, 
N. Y. 

Hockley, Mrs., Port Chester, N. Y. 

Hodges, C. E., Utica Heater Co., Utica, N. Y. 

Hooper, G. K., Con. Engineer, New York. 

Hubbard, Geo. A., Chicago Flour Co., Chicago. 

Hudson, J. M., president Piqua Flour Co., Piqua, O. 

Hutton, C. E.» Watt Mining Car Wheel Co., Barnes- 
ville, O. 

Hutton, W. W., Advance Thresher Co., Battle 
Creek, Mich. 

Jacobs, F. D., The Osborn Mfg. Co., Cleveland. 

Johnston, S. T., The S. Obermayer Co., Chicago. 

Jones, D., Barnett Foundry Co., Newark, N. J. 

Jones, J. E.. M. H. Treadwcll Co., New York. 

Jones, W. A., W. A. Jones Fdy. & Mach. Co., 

Juliem, J. Henry, J. W. Paxson Co., Philadelphia. 

Kanavel, N. E., Interstate Sand Co., Cleveland. 

Kaye, Ellsworth, J. S. McCorraick Co., Pittsburg. 

Keegan, J., United Eng. Foundry Co., Pittsburg. 

Keegan, Mrs. J., Pittsburg. 

Keep, W. J., Supt. Michigan Stove Co., Detroit 

Kelly, T. P.. T. P. Kelly & Co., New York. 

Kemp, Simon, Molding Sand Dealer, Catasauqua, 

King, F. W., Corrugated Grinding Wheel Co., Phil- 

Knapp, L., Stiles Foundry & Supply Co., Parkers- 
burg, W. Va. 

Knapp, Mrs. L., Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Knoeppel, John C, Oswego, N. Y. 

Knoeppel, Mrs. John C, Oswego, N. Y. 

Knoeppel, Frank W., Oswego, N. Y. 

Lafever, M., Advance Thresher Co., Battle Creek, 

Lambert, Edw. J., Syracuse Chilled Plow Co., Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. 

Lambert, Mrs. Edw. J., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Lane, H. M., editor The Foundry, Cleveland. 

Langdon, Palmer H., The Metal Industry, New 

Lent, Thos. K., Wm. M. Crane Co., Peekskill, N. Y. 

Lincoln, Geo. H., Geo. H. Lincoln & Co., Boston. 

Lincoln, T. M., Hartford Foundry Corp, Hartford, 

Lindsay, E- C, W. W. Lindsay & Co., Philadelphia. 

Logan, J. A., Jones & Laughlin Steel Co., Pittsburg. 

Lord, Henry F., Lord & Burnham Co., Ir^ington- 

Loudon, Arch. M., Elmira Heater Co., Elmira, N. Y. 

Loudon, Mrs. Arch. M., Elmira, N. Y. 

Lyon, E. J., Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., Providence. 

McCardell, Andrew, Pond Machine & Tool Co., 
Plainfield, N. J. 

McCartney, J. T., Watt Mining Car Wheel Co., 
Barnesville, O. 

McCaslin, H. J., Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., 

McClintock, H. E., National Founders* Association, 

McCormick, J. S., J. S. McCormick Co., Pittsburg. 

McFadden, W. H., Mackintosh, Hemphill & Co., 

McKenna, Chas. J., New York. 

McLaren, John, Phillips & McLaren, Pittsburg. 

McLean, E., Penn. R. 
R., Altoona, Pa. 

McLean, Martha, Al- 
toona, Pa. 

McLeod, Robt, New- 
ark, N. J. 

McNeal, G., Garden 
City Sand Co., Chicago. 

McPhee, H., Eaton, 
Cole & Burnham Co., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

McPhee, L., Eaton, E. A. MUMFORD. 

Cole & Burnham Co., Bridgeport, Conn. 

McPhee, N. H., Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co., Bridge- 
port, Conn. 

McPhee, Mrs. Bess, Bridgeport, Conn. 

McQuillin, W. S:, Colonial Fdy. & Machinery Co., 
So. Norwalk, Conn. 

MacDougalt, D., National Meter Co., New York. 

Maher, Edw., Maher & Flockhart, Newark, N. J. 

Malone, T. E., J. S. McCormick Co., Pittsburg. 

Marceau, L. E., Abendroth Bros., Port Chester, 
N. Y. 

Marceau, Mrs. E., Port Chester, N. Y. 

Martin, Geo. H.. Rand Drill Co.. Ossining, N. Y. 

Matthews, C. D., Camden Iron Works, Camden, 

Meeker, David M., Meeker Foundry Co., Newark, 
N. J. 

Meighan, John A., John A. Meighan, Pittsburg. 

Meighan, Mrs. John A., Pittsburg. 

Miller, A. J., Whitehead Brass Co., Providence. 

Millett, Em Millett Core Oven Co., Springfield, 

Mills, C. E., C. E. Mills Oil Co., Syracuse. N. Y. 

Mills, J. F., Abendroth Bros., Port Chester, N. Y. 

Mills, Mrs. J. F., Port Chester. N. Y. 

Moldenke, Dr. R., secretary American Found rymen's 
Association, Watchung, N. J. 

Moldenke, Mrs. K., Watchung, N. J. 

Morehouse, W. S., A. S. Cameron Steam Pump 
Works, New York. 

Morse, H. R., The W. W. Sly Mfg. Co., Cleveland. 

Mumford, E. A., E. A Mumford Co, Philadelphia. 

Murphy, Hallet M., Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Nanert, Herman, Ridgeway Dynamo & E. Co., 
Ridgeway, Pa. 

Newcomb, F. F., Crocker Bros., New York. 

Nicol, Jas., Iron & Brass Works, Sandy Hill. N. J. 

Norton, Jas. H., The Burr & Houston Co., Brooklyn. 

Overton, C. J., The Winkle Co., Hartford, Conn, 

Pangborn, John C, Thos. W. Pangbom Co., New 

Pangborn, Thos. W., Thos W. Pangborn Co., New 

Parry, W. H., National Meter Co., Brooklyn. 

Pennewill, E. E., Abram Cox Stove Co.. Philadel- 

Pcrrine, W. A., Abram Cox Stove Co., Philadelphia. 

Perry, Walter, Farrell Foundry & Machine Co., An- 
sonia, Conn. 

Pettinos, Chas. E., Pettinos Bros., Bethlehem, Pa. 

Pettinos, Geo. A., Pettinos Bros., Bethlehem, Pa. 

Digitized by 


July, I9QS 



Pridmofe, Henry E., Henry E. Pridmore, Chicago. 

Quinn, Hugh T., Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co., 
Bridgeport. Conn. 

Raucherberg, E. C, Wheeling Mold & Foundry Co., 
Wheeling, W. Va. 

Reardon, W. J., Westinghouse Foundry, Pittsburg. 

Reese, John, Falls Rivet & Machine Co., Cuyahoga 
Falls, O. 

Reid, David, Canadian Westinghouse Co., Hamilton, 

Rider, I. G., Frick Co., 
Waynesboro, Pa. 

Rider, Mrs. I. G., 
Waynesboro, Pa. 

Robeson, J. S., Ameri- 
can Glutrose Co., Cam- 
den, N. J. 

Roedell, W. A., Ken- 
nedy Valve Mfg. Co., 
Coxsackie, N. Y. 

Savage, Wm. F., Smith 
& Anthony Co., Boston. 

Sayles, N. W., American Brake Shoe & Fdy. Co., 
Mahwah, N. J. 

Sciiade, G. C, Braddock Machine Mfg. Co., Pitts- 

SchafFer, J. H., National Corundum Wheel Co., 

Schilling, Jos., Russell & Erwin Mfg. Co., New 
Britain, Conn. 

Scholl, Geo. P., The Metal Industry, New York. 

Schroeter, J. A., Western Foundry Co., Chicago. 

Schwerin, C. M., Milwaukee Coke & Gas Co., Mil- 



Sherman, Wm. J., Bethlehem Steel Co., Bethlehem, 

Sickels, W. H., A. A. Griffing Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

Sleeth, S. D., Westinghouse Air Brake Co., Pitts- 

Slocum, A. W., National Corundum Wheel Co., 

Sly, W. W., The W. W. Sly Mfg. Co., CleveUnd. 

Smith, Eugene W., Crane Co., Chicago. 

Smith, F., Nelson Valve Co., Philadelphia. 

Smith, J. S., J. D. Smith Foundry Supply Co., 

Smith, M. Sheldon, Globe Foundry Co., Port Ches- 
ter, N. Y. 

Smith, P. C, Ingersoll-Sergcant Co., Easton, Pa. 

Spence, David, Greenlee Foundry Co., Chicago. 

Stafford, Wm. H., Gibby Foundry Co., E. Boston, 

Stearns, Geo. H., Walker & Pratt Mfg. Co., Boston. 

Steele, W. O., Bateman Mfg. Co.. Grenloch, N. J. 

Stehman, John V. R., Birdsboro Fdy. & Mach. Co., 
Birdsboro, Pa. 

Stehman, Mrs. J. V. R., Birdsboro, Pa. 

Stickle, F. W., Manufacturers' Foundry Co., Water- 
bury, Conn. 

Stickle, Mrs. F. W., Waterbury, Conn. 

Stone, H. H., Penn. R. R., Altoona, Pa. 

Stutz. E., Goldschmidt Thermit Co., New York. 

Tabor, Harris, Tabor Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. 

Taggart, Edw. M., J. W. Paxson Co., Philadelphia. 

Tatlock, W. L., Rand Drill Co., New York. 

Taylor, Ellsworth M., Library Bureau, Boston. 

Taylor, J. A., Port Chester, 
N. Y. 

Thomann, Chas., Crosby Steam 
Gauge Co., Boston. 

Thomas, Chas. H., Associated 
Fdy. Foremen, New York. 

Thomas, D. J., Sterit-Thomas 
Foundry Co., Pittsburg. 

Thompkins, S. D., Smooth-On 
Mfg. Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

Thompkins, Vreeland, Smooth- 
On Mfg. Co., Jersey City, N. J. 

Thompson, A. M., Link Belt 
Machinery Co., Chicago. 

Thompson, Mrs. A. M.. Chi- 

Thompson, Frank, T. P. Kellv 
& Co., New York. 

Touceda, Enrique, Albany, 
N. Y. 

Trimble, F. W., Whiting Foun- 
dry Equipment Co., New York. 

Turnbull, R. E., Henry E. 
Pridmore, Chicago. 

Tumey, Jas., H. B. Smith Co., 
Westfield, Mass. 

Beaton!"' ^' ^" ^''^^'' ^''°'" ^'' ^- RODDELL 

Vanatta, H., J. L. Mott Iron Works, New York. 

Vanderford, Asa, Crescent Iron Works, Springfield, 

Wadsworth, Geo. H., Falls Rivet & Machine Co., 
Cuyahoga Falls, O. 

Waldorf, Henry J., Eaton, Cole & Burnham Co., 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Waldron, M. D., Utica Heater Co., Utica, N. Y. 

Waldron, Mrs. M. D., Utica, N. Y. 

Waldron, Miss L., Utica, N. Y. 

Walker, Arthur W.. Walker & Pratt Mfg. Co., 

Walker, Geo. B., Whitehead Bros. Co., New York. 

Walker, Mrs. J. W., New York. 

Warren, D. C, The Foundry, New York. 

Watt, Stewart, Watt Mining Car Wheel Co., Barnes- 
ville, O. 

Webb, Jas. F., Lake Shore R. R. Co., Elkhart, Ind. 

Webb, Mrs. J. F., Elkhart, Ind. 

Weeks, A. B., Cambria Steel Co., Johnstown, Pa. 

Weeks, S. C, Lorain Steel Co., Johnstown, Pa. 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 

West, Thos. D., Thos. D. West Fdy. Co., Sharps- 
villc. Pa. 

Wilkc, F. A., General Electric Co., Schenectady, 
N. Y. 

William, A. T., Enterprise Mfg. Co., Philadelphia. 

William, Mrs. A. T., Philadelphia. 

Williams, Sidney M., A. & B. Brown Co., Eliza- 
beth, N. Y. 

Winlook, J. P., Barbour- Stockwell Co., Cambridge, 

Wolff. Chris. J., L. Wolff Mfg. Co., Chicago. 

Young, Jas., Penna. R. R. Co., Altoona, Pa. 

Convention Notes. 

The J. S. McCormick Co., of Pittsburg, pub- 
lished a very neat souvenir program of the 
convention, containing half tones made from 
the photographs taken at each one of the meet- 
ings, from the Philadelphia meeting in 1896 to 
the Indianapolis meeting of 1904. The half 
tones are remarkably good, so that the people 
can be recognized. 

The Green Fuel Economizer Co., of Mat- 
teawan, N. Y., presented the members with a 


very neat card case, containing a memorandum 
book in one of the pockets. 

The Thos. W. Pangborn Co. presented each 
one of the members with a very neat match 
safe, with the compliments of the National 
Corundum Wheel Co., of Buffalo, N. Y., for 
whom the Thos. W. Pangborn Co. are Eastern 
sales agents. 

The J. W. Paxson Co., of Philadelphia, are 

not as slow as their souvenir might indicate. 
The souvenir referred to is an exceedingly 
neat little cast iron turtle, having attached to 
his back a sheet of celluloid upon which it is 
stated: "It is now fifty years since we first 
learned to crawl. The J. W. Paxson Co." 

The Springfield Facing Co., of Springfield, 
Mass., gave away an aluminum letter opener of 
very neat design. 




Thermit is quite new to the majority of us. 
The first the writer heard of it was about a 
year ago and since that time he has made a 
study of it and below is given the experience 
he has had with it in making several repairs 
in railroad work. Mr. Autz, general foreman 
of the Lake Shore railway shop at Elkhart, 
Ind., has been making some experiments with 
thermit and the writer assisted him. 

The first test was a draw bar of wrought 
iron, the piece being 2}/^ x 4^ in. It was cut 
in two and welded. We used an ordinary iron 
flask with openings cut in the sides to let the 
bar stick out. The size of the flask was 14 x 
18 inches, both cope and drag being 8 in. deep. 
For the sand mixture we used 50 percent fire 
clay and 50 percent common builder's sand wet 
with water. The mold was well vented so 
as to allow it to dry easily. It was dried in a 
furnace used to melt brass. By placing the 
mold on top with the bottom side down at 
first and leaving it over night. The next day 
the furnace was fired up once more, the mold 
turned face down and brought to a red heat. 
The bar was cleaned for four or five inches 
each side of the break so as to remove the rust. 
It was then heated to a cherry red and placed 
in the mold, which was almost red hot. After 
closing the mold, all small cracks were well 
filled with soft fire clay so as to prevent run 
outs. A collar was cast around the break 
about H in. thick and 1^4 in. wide, the object 
of the collar being to give the metal an op- 
portunity to run around the bar so as to 
melt the surface of it, thus forming a perfect 
weld. If it were not for the collar, the ends 
of the bar would not be sufficiently heated. 
The mold was gated from the bottom, so that 
the metal would strike the bottom comer of 
the bar first, run through under it and gradu- 

*Read at A. F. A. Conventi n. 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 




ally rise on all sides at the same time. The 
gate was at an angle of about 15 degrees. 
The riser was quite large, being 6 x 9 in. at 
the top and tapering to 2 x 4 in. at the casting 
or weld. We used a skim gate to catch the 
slag, as there is about three times as much slag 
as iron when measured by volume. The 
slag also is not as liquid as the iron. The 
skim gate connected from the pouring gate to 
the riser. We all know that if such practice 
as this were discovered in a gray iron foundry 
the molder guilty of it would be looking for a 
new job soon. The connection between the 
pouring gate and the riser which forms the 
skim gate was about 25^ in. from the top of 
the casting or weld, the opening being i^ x 

i^. The writer has found it good practice in 
this class of work to have a skim gate extend 
almost up to the top of the pouring gate and 
riser so as to avoid any tendency of the slag 
to pass down into the mold. 

In this first weld we used 16 lb. of thermit, 
the collar and the space between the weld 
together requiring about 22 cu. in. of metal. 
After breaking the piece, it was found to be 
full of blow holes so that it broke easily under 
the screw press operated by hand. In this case 
the thermit was put in a crucible in the usual 
way, the ignition powder being placed on top 
and the metal being tapped as soon as the 
reaction ceased, which the writer thinks is not 
good practice. Better results are obtained by 

Digitized by 




Jaly, 1905 

waiting from five to ten seconds, to give the 
slag a chance to come to the surface. 

On the second test, which was made on the 
same sized bar and in the same way, we 
used 20 lb. of thermit and got a great deal 
better weld, with a very good grain and frac- 
ture. There were, however, a few blow holes 
at the top and near the center of the weld, 
as shown in the half tone reproduction Fig. i, 
which is a cross section of the bar after it 
was broken at the weld. These bars had the 
collars machined off, together with the riser, 
so as to make them break at the weld. The 
second test piece was put on a hydraulic press 
and required 50 tons to break it, with supports 
20 in. apart The fracture was nearly 
straight across. In the second test the metal 
tapped itself about the time the reaction ceased, 
the reason being that the metal disc used in 
stopping the bottom of the mold is a little 
convex on one side and had been placed with 
the convex side down so that it did not have 
a perfect bearing. In the later tests we found 
it best to put the concave side down and thus 
avoid the trouble. 

In test number three we used the same sand 
and the same treatment, only we used 35 lb. 
of thermit and 3?/^ pounds of K-i"- ^^on rod, 
cut into pieces about 8 in. long so that they 
can be pushed into the thermit for their entire 
length, previous to igniting the charge. If the 
bar projects above the surface of the thermit 
a portion of the metal will not be melted. The 
amount of iron used in this case was about 10 
percent of the thermit used. By using the iron 
more metal can be obtained from a given 
weight of thermit charged. Also, as the bars 
we were experimenting with were of wrought 
iron, we felt that the use of the wrought iron 
stock would produce a metal more nearly ap- 
proaching the wrought iron. This third test 
was tapped just as the reaction was over. 
When machining off the collar we found that 
the metal was not hard, but was exceedingly 
tough. In machining off the top and one side 
we found some blow holes, but not to any 
serious extent. When tested upon supports 20 
in. apart it took 50 tons' pressure to break the 
bar and the fracture was very good, as shown 
in Fig. 2. The fracture, however, was some- 
what more uneven than the one shown in 
Fig. I. 

After our success with these tests, Mr. Autz 
decided to try a locomotive frame. The frame 
first operated upon was broken in the front 
pedestal over the driving wheels, as shown in 
Figs. 3 and 4. The break was a vertical one 

and the frame was of wrought iron, at this 
point being 3^ x 5 in. cross section. The 
machinery taken down included the wheels, 
driving boxes, shoes, wedges, connecting rods 
and running board. Five-eighth inch holes 
were drilled vertically through the break 
about V/i in. apart, the object being to give 
the metal a chance to flow up along the line 
of the crack and result in a solid weld across 
the entire surface. 

The mold was made in a sheet iron flask de- 
signed by Mr. Autz, and was a perfect fit in 

I%€ ioamdrf 

FIG. 5 

every respect. The openings about the frame 
were cut about J4 in. larger so as to allow 
some space for adjustment which could be 
filled later with fire clay. The accompanying 
sketch; Fig. 5, shows a cross section of the 
mold through the gate and riser, while Fig. 3 
shows the crucible in place ready for ignition 
and Fig. 4 the weld after the crucible was re- 
moved and the gates cut off. In order to avoid 
the use of the matches and ignition powders in 
firing the charge, Mr. Autz conceived the idea 
of firing the charge by electricity, and the 
wires connected for doing this are shown in 
Fig. 3. This method of firing proved to be 
very successful, and it is certainly more con- 
venient and safer than the lighting of the 
powder by hand. We used 60 lb. of thermit 
and 6 lb. of ^-in. wrought iron rods. The 
charge was tapped from five to seven seconds 
after the reaction ceased. Owing to the po- 
sition of the break it was necessary to build 
a runner 15 in. long to carry the metal from 
the crucible to the gate. A special crucible 

Digitized by 


JuJy, 1905 



with one flat side might be made for such jobs 
as this and would probably be found advan- 

The weld looked yery good from the out- 
side, though there were a few small holes on 
the top, some of which were i^ in. deep. The 
engine, No. 5024, went into service April 20, 
hauling heavy freight and fast passenger trains, 
and up to the present time has given Ai sat- 

MELinrO EATI08.* 


During the writer's experience as demon- 
strator for one of the by-product coke com- 
panies, it has been his good fortune to have 
charge of cupolas of many various styles, 
melting iron for all classes of work, and as 
the question of melting ratio is of interest to 
foundrymen, the results of some tests are 
here given. 

By-product coke is coming so rapidly to the 
fore and is replacing beehive coke to such a 
marked degree, that foundrymen all over the 
country, even when out of the district supplied 
by the present by-product companies, no doubt 
are interested. 

Many statements have appeared in books and 
journals of the amount of iron that coke would 
melt, but the exact melting ratios under or- 
dinary working conditions of the foundries 
have been very hard to obtain, as a melting 
ratio for proper foundry operation is not what 
the coke will do when driven to the limit, but 
is that ratio at which the coke will give hot, 
fluid iron adapted to the work being poured. 
Many foundrymen will tell of some excellent 
work which they have done at some past time, 
or will tell about a high ratio which upon close 
investigation proves to be erroneous, as in 
many cases the bed has been left out of the 
calculation, in others a certain number of 
pounds has been estimated to make up a bushel, 
and while again some simply take the cupola 
record as turned into the office without verify- 
ing the actual weights — an extra shovel or 
fork full for good luck, that many cupola tend- 
ers are prone to throw in, without recording, 
exerts quite an influence on the amount of coke 

In this brief article the aim will be to give 
some exact figures of a number of heats which 
were run under the writer's supervision. AH 
weights of both coke and iron were actual 
scale weights with no allowances of any kind. 

It must be borne in mind that in every in- 

*R6ad at A. F. A. Conyention. 

stance the cupolas used were in shops unfa- 
miliar to the demonstrator, and were never, in 
any instance, in his charge more than three 
days. In some cases better ratios could have 
been obtained by carrying on the tests fur- 
ther, gradually reducing the quantity of coke 
until the limit of safety was reached. 

It is my firm belief that coke is one of the 
most expensive things to economize on that 
there is about a foundry. It is very poor policy 
to make an apparently fine ratio without taking 
into consideration the percentage of bad cast- 
ings due to poor iron. It is always good prac- 
tice to use an excess of coke, as saving at ''the 
spiggot and losing at the bung hole'' does not 
increase profits. It pays to have hot iron for 
many reasons; firstly, it cuts off the molders 
favorite excuse for bad castings; secondly, it 
enables small gates to be used on light work, 
giving clean castings and an easily detached 
gate and a smaller proportion of remelt ; third- 
ly, iron is more easily skimmed when pouring 
and slag kept back; fourthly, if a slight acci- 
dent happens, such as the power-shutting down, 
etc., there is a margin of safety to work with. 

Another thing to be borne in mind when 
comparing ratios, in addition to the thinness 
of castings to be poured, is the chemical com- 
position of the metal. High phosphorus, high 
carbon or high silicon iron will stay fluid much 
longer than low phosphorus, low carbon and 
low silicon iron. High sulphur in coke will 
make an iron set quickly even though it comes 
hot from the cupola. Doubtless many of the 
readers of this article will recall some expe- 
rience of two years ago during the coke famine 
that will bring this fact home to them. 

The so-called "semi-steel" mixtures which 
are simply low silicon, low carbon cast irons 
high in manganese, set very quickly, as every 
man who has ever had to keep ladles in re- 
pair in a foundry pouring this metal will testify 
to. The proportion of scrap to pig iron and 
the size of both affect both melting ratio and 
speed of melting, and both are constantly 
varying. This is another reason for keeping 
on the safe side in regard to the quantity of 
coke used. 

Most of the heats here recorded are really 
too small to show the best total ratio as the 
bed enters in as too prominent a factor, but 
the figures are representative of the majority 
of the shops of this country as the big melter 
is the exception and not the rule. 

Our experience has shown that a high coke 
bed gives better net result than starting with 
the so oft recommended 18 in., above the top 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 

of the tuyeres. This seems to be a disputed 
question, however, and the writer would ap- 
preciate information in regard to the actual ex- 
perience of others. By running the bed high 
less coke by far may be used on the subse- 
quent charges; once the bed burns out and 
melting commences too near the tuyeres, 
trouble begins. Many, no doubt, have noticed 
the rush of slag at the end of a heat, even when 
no flux has been used ; when this happens it is 
invariably found that melting took place very 
near the tuyeres, causing the blast to excess- 
ively oxidize the iron. Not only is this a dis- 
advantage in regard to the amount of coke 
used, and trouble with slag, but the iron result- 
ing will be harder than if the melting was done 
at the proper place, due to the oxidization of 
silicon, carbon, etc. Those who had the good 
fortune to witness the tests on coke conducted 
at the Model Foundry in St. Louis, no doubt 
saw this point nicely illustrated. The bed in 
those tests was brought only eight inches above 
the top of the upper tuyeres ; on heats of about 
3,000 lb. the oxidization was very heavy and 
slag just poured in a liquid stream out of the 
slag hole, and the iron lost in melting was 
found to be very high indeed. For these tests 
this method of running was of course all right 
as comparative data of various cokes under 
the same conditions was what was sought, and 
the tests were very painstakingly and carefully 
conducted under supervision of Dr. Moldenke. 

In running a cupola to get the most econ- 
omical results it is found that the bed should 
be lighted up as late as possible, and that the 
blast should be put on as soon as feasible after 
the cupola is charged full of iron. In burning 
the bed it is a good plan to put only a por- 
tion of the coke on the wood before lighting, 
and as the flame shows through, the remainder 
of the coke should be charged. As soon as all 
the wood is burned out, and the blue flame ap- 
pears through the top of the bed coke, ail 
tuyeres should be closed and charging of iron 
begun. Just before putting on the blast, it is 
advisable to open one tuyere in order to prevent 
any possibility of a gas explosion, this tuyere 
to be closed, of course, after the blast has been 
on a minute or so. 

Another point to be considered is the running 
of a cupola with only one row of tuyeres in- 
stead of with two. The cupola with only the 
lower row will run more economically, as far 
as coke consumption goes, and less difficulty 
would be experienced in the burning out of the 
brick. Of course a cupola with two rows of 

tuyeres melts somewhat faster with both rows 
open than if only the lower row be used, but 
if the lower row be enlarged, the same speed of 
melting can be obtained as though two rows 
were used. In an endless number of cases 
we have found that general economy results 
through using but one row of tuyeres, and very 
nearly all the foundries which the writer has 
visited are now running that way. The coke 
used in the following tests was from the Sol- 
vay by-product ovens at Milwaukee, Wis. 


Inside cupola diameter at doors, 42 in., at tuy- 
eres, 40 in., at melting zone, 41 in. 
Tuyere arrangement — 
6 tuyeres 10 x 4 in. flaring from 6 x 4 in. 
Lower side of tuyeres 14 in. above the sand 

Pounds Pounds 
Coke Iron 

Bed charge 1,000 3,000 

Charges 2 to 11, inclusive ... 120 1,500 

" 12 " 15, " ... 100 1,500 

Charge 16 80 1,000 

Total 2,680 25,000 

Ratio of coke to iron, exclusive of bed, i to 

Ratio of coke to iron, inclusive of bed, i to 

Total time blast on, 2 hours and 5 minutes. 

Pounds or iron melted per hour, 12,000. 

Blast pressure used varied from 9 to ioj4 oz. 

Mixture used consisted of 45 percent un- 
broken pig and 55 percent medium weight 

Castings for agricultural machinery and 
threshing engines were poured. 

The iron was considerably hotter than 

TEST NO. 2. 

The same cupola was used as in test No. i. 

Pounds Pounds 

Coke Iron 

Bed Charge i,00D 3,000 

Charges 2 to 3, inclusive ... 150 2,000 

" 4 " III " ... 125 2,000 

Charge 12 100 1,500 

Total 2400 24,500 

Ratio of coke to iron, exclusive of bed, i to 


Ratio of coke to iron, inclusive of bed, i to 

Total time blast on, 2 hours. 

Pounds of iron melted per hour, 12,250. 

Blast pressure used, varied from 9 to 10^ oz. 

Digitized by 


July, 1905 



Mixture used consisted of 45 percent un- 
broken pig and 55 percent medium weight 

Castings for agricultural machinery and 
threshing engines were poured. 

The iron was hot enough throughout the en- 
tire heat, and for pouring some of the work 
it was cooled by the molders. 

TEST NO. 3. 
Inside cupola diameter at doors, 37 in. ; at tuy- 
eres, 33 in. ; at melting zone, 36 in. 
Tuyere arrangement — 
4 lower tuyeres, 12 x 3 in., flaring from 6 x 
3 in- 

4 upper tuyeres, 6 x i^ in. 

Lower side of lower tuyeres 1 1 in. above the 

sand bottom. 
Top of the upper tuyeres, 23 in. above the 

sand bottom. 

Pounds Pounds 

Coke Iron 

Bed charge 600 1,100 

Charges 2 to 8 inclusive 90 1,100 

Charge 9 50 700 

Total 1,280 9,500 

Ratio of coke to iron, exclusive of bed, i to 
Ratio of coke to iron, inclusive of bed, i to 


Total time blast on, i hour and 10 minutes. 

Pounds of iron melted per hour, 8,140. 

Blast pressure was started with 10 oz. but 
was reduced, as the molders could not carry 
away the iron fast enough. 

Mixture used consisted of 45 percent un- 
broken pig and 55 percent medium weight 

Light sewing machine castings were poured. 

The iron was very hot. 

The coke dropped in the bottom from this 
heat was picked out and found to weigh 240 
lb. If this amount be subtracted from the coke 
used in the heat, the net ratio of coke to iron, 
inclusive of bed, would be i to 9.1. 

TEST NO. 4. 
Inside cupola diameter at doors, 44 in. ; at tuy- 
eres, 41 in.; at melting zone, 42 in. 
Tuyere arrangement — 

5 tuyeres, 8j^ x 5 in. 

Pounds Pounds 

Coke Iron 

Bed charge 1,005 4,000 

Charges 2 to 5, inclusive 240 2,800 

Charge 6 240 2,300 

7 85 1,000 

Total 2,390 18,500 

Ratio of coke to iron, exclusive of bed, i to 
1 1.3. 

Ratio of coke to iron, inclusive of bed, i to 

Total time blast on, i hour and 50 minutes. 

Pounds of iron melted per hour, 10,090. 

Blast pressure used, 7 to 8 oz. 

Mixture consisted of 70 percent unbroken 
pig, with 30 percent of quite heavy scrap. 

Machinery castings were poured. 

The iron was hotter than needed and was 
cooled down throughout the heat by throwing 
scrap into the ladles. 

TEST NO. 5. 
Inside cupola diameter at doors, 34 in. ; at tuy- 
eres, 32 in. ; at melting zone, 32 in. 
Tuyere arrangement — 
6 Tuyeres 7^ x 25^^. 

Lower side of tuyeres 10 in. above sand 

Pounds Pounds 
Coke Iron 

Bed charge 610 1,800 

Charge 2 160 1,800 

3 to 6 160 1,800 

Charge 7 105 1,600 

8 35 500 

Total 1,550 12,900 

160 lb. of old coke dropped in the bottom 
from the heat the night before was used dur- 
ing above heat, the amount being distributed 
throughout the charges. This gave 1,390 lb. 
of new coke used during the heat. 

Ratio of new coke to iron, exclusive of bed, 
I to 14.2. 

Ratio of new coke to iron, inclusive of bed, 
I to 9.3. 

Ratio of total coke to iron, inclusive of bed, 
I to 8.3. 

Total time blast on, i hour and 8 minutes. 

Pounds of iron melted per hour, 8,795. 

40 percent scrap and 60 percent of 1)roken pig 
was used. 

Very little agricultural castings were poured. 

The iron was very hot. 

TEST NO. 6. 

Inside cupola diameter at doors, 30 in.; at 
tuyeres, 33 in. ; at melting zone, 31 in. 

Tuyere arrangement — 
4 Tuyeres 10 x 25^ in. flaring from 6 x 45/^ in. 

Digitized by 




July, 1905 

Lower side of tuyeres 15 in. above sand 

Pounds PooDds 
Coke Iron 

Bed charge 55© 1,100 

Charges 2 to 7, ixiclusive 90 1,100 

8 " 9* " .... 80 1,100 

Total 1,250 9,900 

*Coke on last charge could have been re- 
duced but it was first thought that more than 
1,100 lb. of iron was to be put on the last 
charge; on the heat which was run the pre- 
vious day only 105 lb. of coke were used on 
the last charge to melt 1,600 lb. of iron. 

Ratio of coke to iron, exclusive of bed, i to 

Ratio of coke to iron, inclusive of bed, i to 

Total time blast on, i hour and 30 minutes. 

Pounds of iron melted per hour, 6,600. 

Blast pressure not determined. 

Mixture consisted of 75 percent broken pig 
and 25 percent scrap. 

Castings for furnaces, requiring hot iron, 
were poured. 

Iron was hot. 

TEST NO. 7- 

Inside cupola diameter at doors, 36 in.; at 

tuyeres, 38 in.; at melting zone, 39 in. 
Tuyere arrangement — 
6 Tuyeres 16 x ^1/2 in. flaring from 8 x 4^ in. 
The lower side of tuyeres 14 in. above sand 

Pounds Pounds 

Coke Iron 

Bed charge 850 3,000 

Charge 2 165 2,000 

3 150 2,000 

" 4 to 5, inclusive 125 2,000 

'* 6 75 1,500 

Total 1,490 12,500 

Ratio of coke to iron, .exclusive of bed, i to 

Ratio of coke to iron, inclusive of bed, i to 

Total time blast on, i hour. 

Pounds of iron melted per hour, i2,soo. 

Blast pressure, ioj4 oz. 

Mixture used, 50 percent pig, 50 percent light 

Castings for railroad and jobbing work 

Iron was hot. 

No records in any way are claimed for 
these heats, the figures simply being presented 
as of interest to foundrymen in general as 
showing what is actually being done under 
regular working conditions. These tests them- 
selves show such a wide variation that that 
fact in itself is of interest in making com- 
parisons, particularly as the quality of the 
coke used was very uniform. In many cases 
that have come under the writer's notk:e, sim- 
ilar cupolas in both size and type would give 
widely different results even when the same 
coke was used. These variations were due to 
a variety of more or less understood causes, 
which it is not the purpose of this present 
paper to discuss, but when comparing the 
records here given with his own practice, each 
foundiyman must bear in mind that conditions 



In describing this plant and the performance 
of the cupolas and blower, it is with the full 
realization that ideal conditions seldom exist, 
and that each man must fashion according to 
his needs. 

An independent blowing unit for each cupola 
with short piping, is an arrangement we would 
like to have, but which only a favored few 

In our case, the piping from the blower has 
been extended to meet the growth and in- 
creased demands of our plant Until now we 
have three cupolas operated by one blower, 
under the following conditions: Starting at 
the blower end is a No. 7]/^ Roots' blower, run- 
ning at 150 r. p. m. From there the air piping 
is carried overhead by two 90-degree bends in 
a 28-in. line, 72 ft. to a point where it branches 
with a Y into two 24- in. lines, one running 
248 ft. to cupola No. 3; the other 104 ft. to 
cupola No. I. From No. i with a Y branch 
begins a 16- in. line running 210 ft. to No. 2 
cupola. All bends are long radius and wind 
boxes are supplied by two pipes on opposite* 
sides, starting from a Y on the main line. Tht 

*Read atA. F. A. Convention. 

Digitized by 


July, igos 



KoJi Cupda itfec €710 coke. . 

61550 lb9. of iron. 

Time wind on f hourt 50 min. 

Melting ratio 9.17 to 1. 

Cuke bed 1900 Ite. 

Sand bottom to tuyere IM' 

Melte 10%' tons per hour. 

NoJd Cupola 7S'outside c(«q> 
5}i inch lining. livT/yu' 

Blast preaewre 15 oz. 

esu/eet of pipe in all, 
i - 90" bends in SS'pipe. 

U'ks" " " ic " 

6 long bends in tt'pipee. 
U y forks. 

€Jhargefor each cupola, 

let charge on coke bed U900 lbs. iron. 

AU othercharge$ 9000 ** '* 

All coke charges ttolbs. 

Total iron melted 81 tons 50 Ibe. 

Melting ratio for the three cupolas 9M to 1, 

Fire ligKted. ISM. 

Wind&n. 9 P.M. 

Iron doten. — f-25 P.M. 
Eoerp ladle of iron hot* 

The Michigan Stove Cknnpany's 

No.l Cujtola 80'outside. 

5^i inch lining lOOS pressure. U^ 

7S00 lbs. coke 67SSS iron. 

Time wind on t hours U minutes. 

^^ js^ . . Melting ratio OJtl to 1. 

Coke bed 9000 lbs. 
Sand bed to tuyers 10' 
Melts nearly lU tons per hour. 

Prtssum teas 

If 0,3 Cujtola 7S outsit 
9'lining'16 oz. pressure. 
S9S6 coke^SS905 iron. 
Time S hours-10 minutes, 
Melting ratio 8.ltS to 1. 
Coke bed 1X0 lbs. 
Sand bed to tuyers IS' 
Melts 7Jt tons per hour. 
All used by bench molders who 
cannot use iron any faster. 

As wind is off each cupola^ valves are set 
to mtike IG oz. on ^ t. 

Blower and sliort line s/iaft 

average 6U horse power 

during melt. 


The Foundry 



sketch shows the general location 
of the pipe lines and cupolas. 

There are butterfly valves in line 
at cupolas Nos. i and 3, so that 
cupola No. 2 may not be short of 
wind, and which ar